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APRIL 10, 1918-— OCTOBER 16, 1918. 



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78 6865 12 




The Davis Piucbb 





Note of Committee of Publication vii 

Officers and Members of the Society .... ix-xxvi 


Proceedings of the Meeting 1 

Report of the Council . 7 

Obituaries 13 

John C. Calhoun and the Secession Movement of 1850 

Herman V. Ames 19 

Friendship as a Factor in the Settlement of Massachusetts 

Charles E. Park 51 

Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820 |V' ' V ' 

Clarence S. Brigham 63 


Proceedings of the Meeting . . 135 

Report of the Council . . . 139 

Obituaries 151 

Report of the Treasurer 155 

Report of the Librarian . . . . . . . 165 

Donors ............ 180 

Nova Albion, 1579 . . . Alexander G. McAdie 189 

The Worship of Great-Grandfather Albert B. Hart 199 

Journal of Major Robert Rogers William L. Clements 224 

The Press in British Guiana . James Rodioay 274 

Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820 

Clarence S. Briyfiam 291 


Nova Albion, 1579 

Figures 1 and 2 opp. p. 189 

Figure 3 . . . 190 

Figure 4 . . 191 

Figure 5 192 

Figure 6 194 

Figures 7 and 8 196 

Figures 9 and 10 . . . .198 


Michilliraackinac 226 

Carver's Travels 228 


The twenty-eighth volume of the present series contains the records of 
the Proceedings of April 10 and October 16, 1918. 

The reports of the Council have been presented by Worthington 
Chauncey Ford and Waldo Lincoln. 

Papers have been received from Herman Vandenburg Ames, Charles 
Edwards Park, Alexander George McAdie, Albert Bushnell Hart, William 
Lawrence Clements, and James Rodway. 

The volume contains the ninth and tenth installments of the Bibliog- 
raphy of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, covering the States of New 
York, M-W and North Carolina, prepared by Clarence Saunders Brigham. 
Obituary notices of the following deceased members appear in this 
volume: Henry Adams, Hubert Howe Bancroft, Eugene Frederick 
Bliss, Edmund Arthur Engler, William DeLoss Love, Charles Card 
Smith, Charles Stuart Vedder, Edmund Mills Barton, Austin Samuel 
Garver, Herbert Levi Osgood, and Federico Gonz&lez Sudrez. 



Elected October 1G, 1918. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN, LL.D., of Groton, Mass. 

ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS, A.M., of Cambridge, 



GRANVILLE STANLEY HAliL, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


N. Y. 

GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, Litt.D., of Cambridge, Mass. 

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, LL.D., of New Haven, Conn. 



Secretary for ^foreign Correspondence. 

JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Gorresponoence. 



TRecorDlng Secretary. 

cester, Mass. 




Elected October 16, 1918. 

Committee of publication. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 
GEORGE HENRY IIAYNES, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Litt.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


BENJAMIN THOMAS HILL, A.B, of Worcester, Mass. 
HOMER GAGE, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

iftnance Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

CHARLES GRENF1LL WASHBURN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Xfbrarg Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 
THOMAS HOVEY GAGE, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Committee on tbe tball. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Litt.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


assistant librarian. 




October, Itii, 

Samcel Abboti Green, LE.D., 

April, 1870. 

run Bowuricfl Dexter, LrreJD Haven, ( . 

April, 1880. 
Samuel S a ...-; Green A.M.. . 

.cr, IMJ. 

Ham Caboi Lodob, LL.D., ... : I 

April, 1882. 
Andrew lie! * D .'. .' . f .. 

April, 1884. 

John Bach McMa-ter, LL.D., ; r.ia, Fa, 

October, 1884. 

WiLUAif Harden, Sav CU. 

Andrew Dickson White. DLL., I* . •. Y. 

April, 1885. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., Boston, Mass. 

..i' Herbert Eds*, A.M., . Cambridge, Maw. 

October, 1885 

Edward Channing, Ph.D., r 

April, 1887. 

James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 
Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1888. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1888. 
Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., . Worcester, Mass. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A.B., . Framingham,Mass. 

October, 1889. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, R. I. 

April, 1890. 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1890. 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 

April, 1891. 
Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

October, 1891. 
Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., . . . Framingham,Mass. 

April, 1893 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . - . . New York, N. Y. 

October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . New Haven, Conn. 

Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . . New York, N. Y. 

Albert Shaw, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

April, 1895. 
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

April, 1896. 
William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 


October, 1896. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . 
Arthur Lord, A.B., 

April, 1897. 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., . 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt. 

October, 1897. 
William Roscoe Livermore, U.S.A., 

April, 1898. 

Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B., .... 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., 

April, 1899. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., 
Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., 
George Parker Winship, Litt.D. 

October, 1899. 
Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D., 

April, 1900. 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 

Paris, France. 
D., Worcester, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Dayton, Ohio. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 

New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

October, 1900. 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . 

April, 1901. 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M., 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . .• . 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . 

October, 1901. 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., . 
Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., 
Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . . 

Ware, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Canton, Mass. 
Haverford, Pa. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Winchester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

April, 1902. 

William Denison Lyman, A.M., . . WallaWalla, Wash. 

October, 1902. 

William MacDonald, LL.D.,. . . Berkeley, Cal. 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits. .... New York, N. Y. 

October, 1904. 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

William Henry Holmes, .... Washington, D. C 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Franklin Pierce Rice .... Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1907. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D. New Haven, Conn. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., . Detroit, Mich. 

Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., . Montgomery, Ala. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

James Schouler, LL.D., .... Intervale, N. II. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., . . Boston, Mass. 

April, 1908. 

W t illiam Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . San Juan, Porto Rico 

Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . . Cambridge, Mass. 


April, 1908. 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, .... Dedham, Mass. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1908. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph. 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., 
Max Farrand, Ph.D., . 
Frederick Webb Hodge, . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 

D., Worcester, Mass. 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1909. 

Samuel Morris Conant, . 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., 

Pawtucket, R. I. 
Providence, R. I, 
Boston, Mass. 

October, 1909. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., 
Edward Everett Ayer, .... 
Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B. 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., 
Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., . 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chicago, 111. 
New Haven, Conn. 
, Milton, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1910. 

Gaillard Hunt, LL.D Washington, D. C 

Archer Milton Huntington, A.M., New York, N. Y. 

Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Albert Henry Whitin, . . . Whitinsville, Mass. 


October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, .... Hartford, Conn. 

George Francis Dow, . . . . . Topsfield, Mass. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Verplanck Hoffmann, . . New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . Princeton, N. J. 

April, 1911. 

Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., Northampton,Mass. 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Madison, Wis. 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . . Baltimore, Md. 

April, 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 

Livingston Davis, A.B., .... Milton, Mass. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., . Marietta, Ohio. 

Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1912. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . . Williamsburg, Va. 

October, 1913. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . Berkeley, Cal. 

Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . . Webster, Mass. 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 

Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 

April, 1914. 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., . . Providence, R. I. 

Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B., Boston, Mass. 

George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., . New York, N. Y. 

Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C. 


October, 1914. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . 
Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., . 
Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., 
Charles Francis Jenney, LL.B., 
William Pendleton Palmer, 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., 

Washington, D. C. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Madison, Wis. 

April, 1915. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B., Boston, Mass. 

Rev. Samuel Hart, LL.D., . . . Middletown, Conn. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . . Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Edwards Huntington, . New York, N. Y. 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., . Salem, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1915. 

John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., . . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 

April, 1916. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B., Danvers, Mass. 

Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S., Milton, Mass. 

October, 1916. 

Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 

Richard Ward Greene, .... Worcester, Mass. 

Lawrence Park, Groton, Mass. 

Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B., Louisville, Ky. 

April, 1917, 

Henry Farr DePuy, New York, N. Y. 

George Anthony Gaskill, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, . . . . . . Madison, Wis. 

Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Isaac Rand Thomas, Boston, Mass. 

XVI 1 1 

April, 1918. 
James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., . 
Robert Hendre Kelby, 
Theodore Roosevelt, LL.D., 
John Woodbury, A.B., 

October, 1918. 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., 
Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., 
George Watson Cole, 
John Henry Edmonds, . . . 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, . 
Samuel Lyman Munson, . 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oyster Bay, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Albany, N. Y. 




April, 1910. 


Samuel Alexander Lafone Quevedo, M.A., La Plata. 

April, 1910. 

Manuel Vicente Ballivian, . . La Paz. 


April, 1910. 
Jose Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B., . . Rio de Janeiro. 


October, 1917. 
James Rodway, F.L.S., .... Georgetown. 


April, 1908. 

Narcisse-Eutrope Dionne, LL.D., . Quebec. 

April, 1910. 

Arthur George Doughty, Litt.D., Ottawa. 
William Laws on Grant, A.M., . . Kingston. 
William Wood, D.C.L., .... Quebec. 

October, 1910. 

George McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . Toronto. 



April, 1909. 

Jose Toribio Medina, Santiago de Chile, 


October, 1896. 
Henry Vignaud, Bagiieux, Seine. 

October, 1917. 
Jean Jules Jusserand, LL.D., . . Paris. 


April, 1875. 
Otto Keller, Ph.D., Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 

Johannes Conrad, LL.D., . . . Halle. 

April, 1910. 
Eduard Seler, Ph.D., Berlin. 


April, 1882. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, D.C.L. . Sussex. 

October, 1892. 

Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D., . Oxford. 
Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . . . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 
Hubert Hall, . . . ... . London. 

October, 1901. 
Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens, 

October, 1910. 
Alfred Percival Maudslay, D.Sc, London 

October, 1913. 

Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 

October, 1915. 
Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, LL.D,, 



October, 1895. 
Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 


October, 1917. 
Alberto Membreno, Tegucigalpa. 


October, 1890. 

Nicolas Leon, Ph.D., Mexico City. 

April, 1907. 

Genaro Garcia, Mexico City. 


October, 1906. 
Roald Amundsen, Christiania. 


October, 1912. 
Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 


October, 1906. 

Bernardino Machado, Lisbon. 


April, 1912. 
Frank Cundall, Kingston, Jamaica. 




Italic ' signifies life members. 



George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 
Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D., New Haven, Conn. 

Edward Everett Ayer, . 
Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D. 
'Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., 
John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D. . 
'Albert Carlos Bates, . 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., 

William Beer, 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D. 
Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., . 
'William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Pii.D 
Franz Boas, Ph.D., .... 
Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B. 

Chicago, 111. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Northampton, Mass. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Portland, Me. 
New Orleans, La. 
Washington, D. C. 
New Haven, Conn. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Berkeley, Cal. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., 
'Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 
'Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 
Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 


George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., Detroit, Mich. 
'Edward Channing, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 
'Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., Providence, R. I. 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 
George Watson Cole, . . . New York, N. Y. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Morris Conant, . . Pawtucket, R. 1. 

'Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D., Boston, Mass. 
'Henry Winchester Cunningham, A. B., Milton, Mass. 
'Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 
'Livingston Davis, A.B., .... Milton, Mass. 

Henry Farr DePuy, New York, N. Y. 

'Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
'Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

George Francis Dow, .... Topsfield, Mass. 
Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., Colorado Springs, Colo. 
William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . . . New York, N. Y. 
/Henry Herbert Edes, A.M., . . Cambridge, Mass. 
'John Henry Edmonds, .... Boston, Mass. 
William Crowninshield Endicott, A. B. Danvers, Mass. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 
'John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B., Boston, Mass. 
Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . . Washington, D. C. 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . Madison, Wis. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B. Worcester, Mass. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 
'William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, R. I. 

Homer Gage, M.D., .... 
'Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., 
George Anthony Gaskill, A.B., 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., 
'Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., 
'Samuel Swett Green, A.M., 
Richard Ward Greene, . 

Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Ware, Mass. 
Groton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 


Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 

Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B. 
Granville, Stanley Hall, LL.D. 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., 
Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., . 
William Harden, .... 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 
'George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . 
Frederick Webb Hodge, 
'Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, . 

. Dayton, Ohio. 

Worcester, Mass. 
San Juan, Porto Rico. 

Concord, N. II . 

Savannah, Ga. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

William Henry Holmes, 
James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., . 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., . 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . 
Gaillard Hunt, LL.D., .... 
Archer Milton Huntington, A.M., 
Henry Edwards Huntington . 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . 
'Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M. . 
Charles Francis Jenney, LLB., . 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., 
John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., 
Robert Hendre Kelby . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., . 
'Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S., 
'Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., . 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., 
John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., 
j Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D 

John Thomas Lee, Madison, Wis. 

'Waldo Lincoln, A.B., . . . . Worcester, Mass 
William Roscoe Livermore, U.S.A. Boston, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Marietta, Ohio. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
Salem, Mass. 
Canton, Mass. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Milton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 


'Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., . . Nahant, Mass. 
'Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . Webster, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, A.B., Plymouth, Mass. 

'Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., Paris, France. 
'Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
William Denison Lyman, A.M., . Walla Walla, Wash. 
Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 
Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., . Winchester, Mass. 
William MacDonald, LL.D., . . Berkeley, Cal. 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, . . Savannah, Ga. 
Andrew Cunningham Mclaughlin, A.M.,' Chicago, 111. 
John Bach McM aster, LL.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 
Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A. B., Framingham, Mass. 
'Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 
'Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D. . Concord, Mass. 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., Salem, Mass. 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., Providence, R. I. 
Samuel Lyman Munson, . . . Albany, N. Y. 
'Charles Lemuel Niciiols,M.D.,Litt.D., Worcester, Mass. 
'Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B., Boston, Mass. 
Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., . Montgomery, Ala. 
William Pendleton Palmer, . . Cleveland, Ohio. 
Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Lawrence Park, Groton, Mass. 

Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 
George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Herbert Putnam, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., . . Madison, W T is. 
'James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
'Franklin Pierce Rice, .... Worcester, Mass. 
Theodore Roosevelt, LL.D., . . Oyster Bay, N. Y. 
'Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., . Worcester, Mass. 
Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C. 
Marshall Howard Saville, . New York, N. Y. 

James Schouler, LL.D., . . . . Intervale, N. H. 


Albert Shaw, LL.D., . . . . New York, N. Y. 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., Princeton, N. J. 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

'Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B. 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 

Fr ami ngharn , M ass . 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D. 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., 
Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., ... 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., 
'Isaac Rand Thomas, .... 
Edward Herbert Thompson, . 
Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D . 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B, 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 
Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L., . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Albert Henry Whitin . . . . Whitinsville Mass. 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 
'George Parker Winship, Litt.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . Boston, Mass. 
'John Woodbury, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 
Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Boston, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
Havcrford, Pa. 
Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Ph.B, Louisville, Ivy. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Williamsburg, Va. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Worcester, Mass. 

1918.] Proceedings. 






The semi-annual meeting of the Society was held 
on Wednesday, April 10, 1918, in the House of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, No. 28 
Newbury Street, Boston, Massachusetts. The meet- 
ing was called to order at half past ten o'clock, 
President Lincoln in the chair. 

There were present: 

Andrew McFarland Davis, Reuben Col ton, Henry 
Herbert Edes, Augustus George Bullock, William 
Eaton Foster, George Henry Haynes, Arthur Lord, 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, Edward 
Sylvester Morse, George Parker Winship, Austin 
Samuel Garver, Albert Matthews, Clarence Winthrop 
Bowen, Daniel Berkeley Updike, Clarence Saunders 
Brigham, Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Franklin Pierce 
Rice, Frederick Jackson Turner, Henry Ernest Woods, 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, Charles Grenfill Washburn, 
Wilfred Harold Munro, Justin Harvey Smith, Herman 
Vandenberg Ames, Henry Winchester Cunningham, 
Albert Bushnell Hart, Barrett Wendell, Herbert 
Edwin Lombard, Howard Millar Chapin, Samuel 
Eliot Morison, Grenville Howland Norcross, Otis 
Grant Hammond, John Whittemore Farwell, Henry 
Bradford Washburn, Charles Edwards Park. 

The call for the meeting being read, the records of 
the last meeting were read and approved. The 
Report of the Council, prepared by Worthington C. 
Ford, was then read and approved. 

2 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Mr. Morse in referring to the matter of newspaper 
preservation mentioned in the Council Report sug- 
gested that if special copies of the newspapers were 
printed on thin paper, like that used in the En- 
cyclopaedia Brittanica, their preservation would be 
more certain. Mr. Lincoln stated that the Brooklyn 
Eagle had tried the experiment of printing a special 
edition on high grade paper but that it hud proved too 
expensive. He said that the Society had solved the 
problem, so far as its own collection was concerned, 
by filing the papers, when received, in a dark room, 
where they are laid flat on shelves and bound as soon 
as practicable. If the paper is kept from air and 
light, there is no reason why it should not be pre- 
served indefinitely. 

The 'election of new members being next in order, 
Messrs. Winship and Colton were appointed to collect 
and count the ballots. They reported the election 
of the following: 

James Kendall Hosmer, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Robert Hendre Kelby, New York, N. Y. 
Theodore Roosevelt, Oyster Bay, N. Y. 
John Woodbury, Boston, Mass. . 

The Council recommended the following change 
in the By-Laws: — That the first sentence of the 
fourth paragraph of Article 7, which reads, "Every 
new member residing in the United States shall pay 
an admission fee of five dollars, and all members 
residing in New England shall pay an annual fee of 
five dollars" be amended to read, "All members 
residing in New England shall pay an annual fee of 
five dollars." This amendment to the By-Laws was 
voted upon and passed. 

There being no further business the Society listened 
to the paper by Dr. Herman Vandenberg Ames, of 

1918.] Proceedings. 3 

Philadelphia, on "John C. Calhoun and the Secession 
Movement of 1850. " In the discussion that followed, 
Mr. Charles G. Washburn said that no epoch in our 
history, nor the attitude of our public men upon 
constitutional questions, could be fully understood 
without knowing what were regarded at the time as 
the economic necessities of the country and of the 
different sections within it; continuing, he said that 
the real cause of the Revolution was to be found quite 
as much in the discontent of the colonies with legis- 
lative attempts of the Mother Country to smother 
any effort to establish manufactures here as in 
irritating measures of taxation — and that the adoption 
of the Federal Constitution was made possible by the 
influence of the manufacturers, mechanics, and trades 
people. The War of 1812 was unpopular in New 
England because our chief interest then was in com- 
merce. The interests of New England at first made 
Mr. Webster a free trader and the interests of the 
South at first made Mr. Calhoun a protectionist. 
When the cotton gin was invented and the South 
no longer needed any duty on cotton, Calhoun became 
a free trader. When New England began to develop 
her manufacturing interests, Webster became a pro- 
tectionist, and voted for the " Tariff of Abominations" 
in 1828, and a little later South Carolina put forth 
the famous Exposition and Protest containing Mr. 
Calhoun's Doctrine of Nullification. The South, 
because of what was regarded as an economic neces- 
sity, re-asserted the doctrine of nullification, fore- 
shadowed in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 
and finally supported it by arms in 18G1. It would be 
no exaggeration to say that the invention of the cotton 
gin caused the Civil War. 

Mr. Justin II. Smith related an anecdote in con- 
nection with the Civil War, showing that the southern 
soldiers, in case the South was victorious, were ready 
to put down discord by force of arms. 

4 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Rev. Charles E. Park read an interesting paper on 
"The Part that Friendship played in the Settlement 
of Massachusetts. " 

Mr. George Parker Winship spoke informally upon 
"John Eliot and the New England Company," saying 
that he had been called upon by the President only 
a few days befoie to fill a vacancy in the program. 
In part he spoke as follows: — 

John Eliot was the cause, or one might almost say, 
the excuse, for the organization of what is now the 
oldest and the richest Protestant missionary society. 
His abortive efforts to convert the Massachusetts 
Indians to the ways of sixteenth century English 
Puritanism furnished the essential incentive, and the 
church-going merchants of the city of London, 
and the women of their families, contributed a large 
endowment. This was carefully invested, and the 
income is still being expended for the purposes 
specified in the original charter of 1649. 

Eliot's personal devotion to his work, and his 
clear and definite appreciation of how this work 
ought to be conducted, amply justify the high place 
which has been accorded him among New England 
worthies. The spirit of unqualified self-sacrifice with 
which he gave himself up to the welfare of the Ameri- 
can natives was not quite strong enough, however, 
to carry him over the period of fruitless drudgery 
which, as almost always, followed close on the in- 
spiring period of organization and installation. The 
temptations of the theoretical, after he became 
assured of what was virtually a pension, overcame 
his more youthful absorption in the practical means 
of converting the aborigines to the routine of civilized 

During the prosperous decade that followed the 
"Great Emigration" to Boston, there was talk, and 
some raising of money, for the neighboring heathen. 

1918.] Proceedings. 5 

But when, after 1040, the yearly influx of new settlers 
very nearly ceased, and those who decided to remain 
in New England found that they would have to 
depend upon their own and the country's resources, 
local interest in the heathen, as possible Christians, 
began to die out. It was revived largely by the 
efforts of Eliot. Whether Eliot's letters to his friends 
in England led them to send him money, or he was 
stimulated by the gifts sent by charitable persons 
who were anxious to do good, is not clear. What is 
certain is that gifts were received, and that the 
amount was large enough to arouse jealousy. This 
was manifested in reports which were circulated in 
Puritan circles in London, to the effect that the money 
sent to New England for the conversion of the natives 
was not producing any results. 

The rumors worried Edward Winslow, who was 
staying in London as the official representative of 
the Massachusetts colony. The need of ready money 
in New England was very great, and Winslow was 
anxious that there should not be any lessening of 
the amount sent over, for whatever purpose. Winslow 
was as able a representative as America has ever had 
near the Court of St. James, and one proof of this 
is the skill with which he transformed a threatened 
loss into a very considerable addition to the visible 
cash in the hands of Boston merchants. He per- 
suaded Parliament, during the distracting months 
that preceded the execution of King Charles I, 
to grant a charter for a " Society for Propagating 
the Gospel among the Indians," and to supplement 
this by an order directing that subscriptions should 
be raised for the support of the Society in every 
parish in England. Within the next five years the 
Corporation, as the Society in London was familiarly 
called, had secured money enough to purchase 
several city lots and two large estates in the country, 
besides sending several hundred pounds to New 
England, before its investments began to yield any 

6 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

return. These holdings, and the men who controlled 
them, were of sufficient importance to withstand the 
attempts to cancel the charter, at the Restoration. 
The Society likewise weathered the crisis of 1688 and 
1776, as well as intermittent periods when its honorary 
officials lost interest in its purposes. The original 
charter contained the phrase "New England and 
parts adjacent," and since 1776 the inhabitants of 
the region which the original donors desired to benefit 
have not received any of the income, but the Society 
has nevertheless continued to carry out the ostensible 
purposes for which it was created. 

It was voted that these papers be referred to the 
Committee of Publication. 

It was announced that at the close of the meeting 
the members of the Society would be entertained at 
luncheon by Mr. Grenville H. Norcross at the St. 
Botolph Club. 

There being no further business, the meeting was 


Recording Secretary. 

1918.] Report of the Council. 


In the past six months the Society has lost six of 
its members: Edmund Arthur Engler, of St. Louis, 
who died January 16,1918; Hubert Howe Bahcroft, 
of San Francisco, who died March 2, 1918; Charles 
Card Smith, of Boston, who died March 20, 1918; 
Henry Adams, of Washington, D. C, who died March 
27, 1918; Eugene Frederick Bliss, of Cincinnati, who 
died April 4, 1918; and William DeLoss Love, of 
Hartford, who died April 8, 1918. 

The librarian reports that the accessions in the six 
months have been fewer than usual, due to a number 
of causes, but chiefly to the want of means. About 
one hundred volumes of miscellaneous newspapers 
have come in, but no files of unusual length or note, 
except about three hundred newspapers published in 
New York City before and during the War of In- 
dependence. About four hundred volumes of differ- 
ent papers published in Vermont between 1840 and 
1900 have recently been received, but have not yet 
been examined, assorted and listed in such a way as 
to show how far they strengthen the newspapers of 
that State already in the Society. 

A collection of some three hundred German periodi- 
cals dating between 1795 and 1818 have been ex- 
changed with Harvard College Library for South 
American material. This German material had never 
been called for in more than fifty years, and properly 
belonged with a more general German collection in a 
more central location. Both institutions have gained 
by the exchange. 

In books a notable gift has been received from the 
library of the late Frederick Lewis Gay, consisting 

8 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

of between three and four hundred titles, and prin- 
cipally of early American imprints. These volumes 
have not yet been accessioned, but they contain some 
extremely valuable and interesting items. The well- 
assured judgment of Mr. Gay in collecting, his care 
in obtaining fine examples, and his intelligent appre- 
ciation of what was rare and historical, give ample 
promise of the quality of these books. To us they 
perpetuate the memory of a fellow member and 
active worker in early American history. 

These thoughts suggested by the names and services 
of our late members are doubly enforced by actual 
conditions, public and societary. Each year shows 
the increasing cost of maintaining such collections as 
are possessed by this Society, and the increasing 
cost of extending them. Economy is enforced from 
the outside as well as from within, and the treasurer's 
reports prove how well economy is recognized by the 
management of the Society. It is incorrect to deplore 
a decadence in individual collections, for there are a 
larger number of collectors than at any previous time, 
even if the average of single collections tends to 
become of less size. The advent of a collection to 
the auction room gives it an identity and reputation 
which it hardly enjoyed in private ownership. Recall 
some of the great sales of the past — the Rice, Murphy, 
Menzies, Barlow, Brinley, and Hoe sales — important 
as they were they could not be compared to the sales 
of the Spenser or Huth books or the Phillips manu- 
scripts. No one, interested in books, can go far 
without being impressed by the extent and nature 
of the quiet collecting in his experience, and by the 
possibilities of the future. If the smaller institutions 
are ruled out from competing for the wealth of good 
things offered, the private collector of means and 
intelligence accumulates and preserves, and in time 
passes on his holdings for dispersion, or as a memorial 
of his life interest by a deposit in a public institution. 
Mr. Gay is a case in point. This Society receives 

1918.] Report of the Council. 9 

from him as a gift what it could not buy, with the 
added feature of association with a member. Patience 
will bring its reward, and the Society can afford to 
wait upon a recognition of its usefulness on the 
part of the collector, whether a member or not. Its 
object must be to make itself worthy of selection as 
a depository and so invite confidence and generous 
treatment from those who have it in their power to 

A consequence is a restriction in its collecting 
functions which will not unnecessarily compete with 
its own interests. Fortunately these functions have 
been so clearly defined in the past that little incon- 
venience from their recognition can arise in the future. 
To collect everything is today an evidence of weakness, 
and every effort should be bent on collecting in such 
lines as shall make the Society known for its special- 
ties and as shall complement the specialties of other 
institutions. The American Antiquarian Society is 
already well known for its American imprints of the 
eighteenth century and for its newspaper collection. 
It has enjoyed such a start in these directions that 
no other institution — unless it is the Library of 
Congress — can compete with it in extent and variety. 
On the policy of increasing the line of imprints — the 
curious, the rare, and the useful — there can be no 
difference in opinion. Such material is still within 
the means of the Society and it invites gifts even of 
single pieces. 

As to newspapers there can also be no doubt on the 
point of policy, but to carry it into effect involves 
difficult and costly problems of management. The 
papers of the colonial period were of excellent, quality 
homely in color, but strong and lasting, some that 
have seen little usage being as bright and crisp as on 
the day of issue. Even if they have suffered, modern 
methods of treatment will renew their lives with no 
damage to texture. The newspapers of the first 
half of the nineteenth century are also of good quality, 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

and when bound are as permanent as printed matter 
can well be. But those issued after 1870 have steadi- 
ly degenerated in quality of paper and have long 
presented insuperable difficulties in the way of pre- 
servation. These difficulties need not be here re- 
peated. Every librarian has met them, and in our 
Society, with its immense newspaper collections, 
it constitutes a true problem involving a continuance 
of its shining preeminence among collecting institu- 
tions. Today the situation is more acute than it 
ever was, and the solution of the problem is as distant. 
For the newspaper has not only monopolized the 
news — its proper field — but it has drawn to itself the 
best of literature. Both magazines and publishers 
of books complain that the newspapers are more 
attractive to writers and pay more than they can 
afford, while their cheapness appeals to the readers. 
To the future historian the point is not without 
interest, and we are providing for his needs. Name 
some of the earlier newspapers which enjoy a wide 
reputation for what they contain — the United States 
Gazette, the Aurora, the New York Evening Post and 
the National Intelligencer — they are pigmies when 
set against the great journals of the day, and their 
four or six pages appear meagre when we glance at 
an issue of thirty-two pages on a week day or sixty 
pages on a Sunday. The power of the press has 
increased in even greater ratio, for it can make or 
unmake ministries, and embarrass government by 
exercising its criticism as a "knocker, " one who 
criticises recklessly or for some other purpose than to 
inform the public and to expose real dishonesty 
in government. Instead of circulating by the tens 
of thousands the leading journals count their sales 
by the quarter of a million and their readers by the 
million; and the old weekly which even in political 
excitement rarely attained a circulation of a hundred 
thousand, has been superseded by a weekly circulating 
each week many more than a million copies with 

1918.] Report of the Council 11 

readers of uncountable extent. Important as the 
newspaper was in 1850, as a source of information, 
more or less accurate, it is of far greater moment in 
1918 and tends to become of greater moment each 
year. And files can be preserved only by institutions 
— for no individual collects newspapers. 

Yet this great treasury of information rests upon a 
foundation almost as light as air, for it is recorded 
on a paper which rapidly disintegrates whether used 
or not, whether bound or in sheets, whether sealed 
or exposed. A few hours in the sunlight irreparably 
injures the texture; exposed to sun and air, a neglect 
of a month reduces it to a condition in which it cannot 
be handled. And such it must be the chief task of 
this Society to collect and, if possible, preserve. 
Our American newspapers were offenders in this 
direction before the war,, and war conditions have 
led to a further deterioration in quality. The same 
may be said of foreign journals, where the reduction 
in size has not compensated for the increasing diffi- 
culties in obtaining paper. The mere statement of 
the situation measures its acuteness and the obstacles 
to betterment. To the ordinary reader so much of 
the daily sheets seems unnecessary, the pages of 
advertisements, the discussions by the inexpert and 
the local items of small note gathered from the 
world as news. If only the vital parts of the journal 
could be concentrated upon two or three pages, and 
not strung over pages, broken and buried by the 
advertisements or other necessities of the " make- 
up. " Such pages mounted on manila paper would 
outlive the ordinary usage of a century; but who 
would undertake to select the matter to be thus 
preserved? Who could have the time, the patience 
and the intelligence? To reinforce the newspaper 
with crepeline would be too costly and unsatisfactory. 
Perhaps the photostat offers a remedy, for the essen- 
tial parts could be reproduced by it and on a paper 
which still uses a percentage of rag high enough to 

12 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

make it lasting. It is useless to ask the newspaper 
publishers to improve the quality of print paper; 
that quality is fixed by conditions beyond their control. 
The problem is one for this Society and its fellow 
societies, and we cannot pretend to be able even to 
suggest as yet a positive solution. 


For the Council. 

1918.1 Obituaries. 13 



Henry Adams was born in Boston, February 16, 
1838, and died in Washington, March 27, 1918. In 
1858 he was graduated from Harvard with the 
degree of A.B. From 1801 to 1808 he was private 
secretary to his father, Charles Francis Adams, who 
was minister from the United States to Great Britain. 
He was assistant professor of history at Harvard from 
1870 to 1877, and editor of the North American 
Review from 1870 to 1876. In 1877 he removed to 
Washington, which has since been his residence, and 
devoted himself to historical studies and writings. 
Among his publications are " Documents Relating 
to New England Federalism, 1880-15"; ".life and 
Writings of Albert Gallatin,' 7 and his nine volume 
"History of the United States, 1801-1817." The 
honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by the Western Reserve University in 1892. He 
was honorary member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, and fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. He was elected a member of this- 
Society in 1884, to which he has given many of his 
historical writings. He married, June 27, 1862, 
Miriam Hooper, who died December 6, 1885. 

s. u. 


Hubert Howe Bancroft was born at Granville, 
Ohio, May 5, 1832, and died at Walnut Creek, near 
San Francisco, March 3, 1918. In 1848 he entered 

14 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

the book-store of his brother-in-law in Buffalo, N. Y., 
and in 185G he established a publishing house in San 
Francisco. lie soon began collecting historical ma- 
terial relating to the Pacific coast, with the purpose 
of writing a history of the coast region of both North 
and South America. He acquired a great body of 
books, newspapers, maps, and documents and ob- 
tained hundreds of narratives dictated by pioneers. 
An elaborate system of card indexing made the col- 
lection accessible to himself and the scores of scholars 
and specialists who collaborated with him in producing 
his history. Finally, after many discouragements, 
in 1874 he brought out his first volume, and between 
that year and 1887 he published thirty-nine volumes 
relating to Alaska, British Columbia, the Pacific 
States, Mexico, Central America, and the South 
American coast. Plis " Literary Industries," issued 
in 1890, gives a most interesting account of his labors 
in producing this monumental work. In 1905 his 
entire library, numbering 60,000 volumes, became the 
property of the University of California. On October 
17, 1870, he married Matilda Grilling of New Haven, 
Conn., who died in 1910. The honorary degree of 
A.M. was conferred upon him by Yale University in 
1875. He was elected a member of this Society in 
1875, and presented to it most of his printed works. 
At the time of his death he was second on the list in 
seniority of membership. s. u. 


Eugene Frederick Bliss was born at Granville, 
N. Y., July 31, 1836, and died at Cincinnati, April 4, 
1918. He was graduated from Harvard in 1858 with 
the degree of A.B., receiving the degree of A.M. in 
1866. From 1863 to 1879 he taught a select school 
for boys at Cincinnati. Much of his life was spent 
in writing and historical research, He was especially 
interested in the work of the Historical and Phil- 

1918.] Obituaries. 15 

osophical Society of Ohio, was its President from 
1889 to 1897, and edited for it the "Diary of David 
Zeisberger, a Moravian Missionary among the Indians 
of Ohio," in two volumes. lie was elected a member 
of this Society in 1892 and contributed to its Pro- 
ceedings two papers, "Dr. Saugrain's Relation of 
his Voyage down the Ohio River, 1788," April, 1897, 
and "Dr. Saugrain's Note-books," October, 1908; 
also an obituary sketch of Robert Clarke, the old 
bookseller, in October, 1899. To the Centennial 
Fund he donated $1000. Mr. Bliss was unmarried. 

s. u. 


Edmund Arthur Engler was born in St. Louis, 
December 23, 1856, and died in that city, January 
16, 1918. He was graduated from Washington 
University, St. Louis, in 1876 and served his Alma 
Mater as instructor and professor and Dean of its 
School of Engineering from 1881 to 1901. In the 
latter year he was called to the Presidency of the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, holding that office 
until 1911, when he returned to Washington Uni- 
versity as its Secretary and Treasurer, where he 
remained until his death. He was an extensive con- 
tributor to magazines on scientific subjects, and was 
a member of several committees conducting investi- 
gations along those lines. He was a fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and was a 
member of the National Geographical Society and 
the American Mathematical Society. He was Presi- 
dent of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, 1898- 
1901, and 1912-1915. From 1884 to 1900 he was 
Secretary of The Round Table of St. Louis. He was 
elected to this Society in 1901, and was a member 
of its Council from 1903 until he retired on returning 
to St. Louis in 1911. In April 1904 he prepared for 
the Society's Proceedings a paper on the "Commer- 

16 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

cial Primacy in the United States. " Washington 
University conferred the following degress upon him: 
— A.B.,1876; Ph.B., 1877; A.M., 1879; Ph.D., 1892; 
LL.D., 1901. On June 17, 188G, he married Catherine 
A. Ashbrook, who survives him. s. u. 


William DeLoss Love died in Hartford, Conn., 
April 8, 1918. He was born in New Haven, Conn., 
November 29, 1851. He was graduated from Hamil- 
ton College in 1873 with the degree of A.B., which 
was followed by that of A.M. in 1877, and Ph.D. in 
1894. In 1878 he was graduated from Andover 
Theological Seminary. From 1878 to 1883 he held 
pastorates in Lancaster, Mass., and Keene, N. H., 
and in 1885 went to Hartford, where he was pastor 
of the Farmington Avenue Congregational Church 
until 1910. He was much interested in municipal 
affairs and from 1899 until his death was President 
of the Connecticut Humane Society. Doctor Love 
was always interested in history and wrote the u Colo- 
nial History of Hartford" in 1914, as stated in the 
preface, "To serve a patriotic purpose by helping 
her citizens to maintain a fellowship with the fore- 
fathers and by awakening in her children oi foreign 
descent a loyal regard for her traditions." Among 
his other works were "Fast and Thanksgiving Days 
of New England," 1895, " Samson Occom and the 
Christian Indians in New England," 1900, and 
several monographs on New England history. He 
married first Ada M. Warren, July 6, 1878, who died 
in 1881. His second marriage was to Mary L. 
Hale, October 30, 1884, who, with four children, sur- 
vives him. He was a member of the Connecticut 
Historical Society and its corresponding secretary. 
He was elected in 1894 to this Society, for which he 
prepared an obituary notice of Charles J. Hoadly in 
October, 1900; and a paper on the " Navigation of 

1918.] Obituaries. 17 

the Connecticut River," in April, 1903. He presented 
copies of his various historical writings to the Society,, 
and made man}'- gifts of scarce and early pamphlets 
to the Library. s. u. 


Charles Card Smith was horn in Boston, March 
27, 1827, and died in that city, March 20, 1918. 
He was educated in private and public schools at 
Gloucester. He was secretary of the Boston Gas 
Light Company from 1853 to 1889, and treasurer 
of the American Unitarian Association from 1862 to 
1871. Most of his long life was spent in historical 
writing and research. He wrote many biographical 
and historical articles for the North American Review, 
and from 1874 to 1884 was an editorial writer for the 
Boston Advertiser, devoting himself largely to his- 
torical subjects, especially in the centennial year. 
From 1877 to 1907 he was treasurer of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and for eighteen years 
was editor of its publications. He maintained that 
painstaking accuracy which is in accordance with the 
high standard of the Society's publications. He 
was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and was elected a member of this Society 
in 1870. At the time of his death he was second in 
seniority of membership. He presented the following 
to the Proceedings of the Society: "Mistakes in 
Celebrating Bi-Centennial Anniversaries owing to 
change from Old Style and New/' in October, 1876; 
"Review of Peters' General History of Connecticut," 
in October, 1877; " Financial Embarrassments of 
the New England Ministers in the Last Century," 
October, 1890; " Obituary of Robert C. Winthrop," 
April, 1895; "Obituary of William C. Endicott," 
October, 1900. He presented to the Society many 
volumes and at his death bequeathed a portion of 
his library. The honorary degree of A.M. was con- 

18 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

ferred upon him in 1877 by Harvard University. 
On August 22, 1853, he married Georgiana Whitte- 
more of Gloucester, who survived him only five days. 
Their only child died in 1882. s. u. 

1918.1 John C. Calhoun and Secession.' 19 



It has been truly said that " state rights apart 
from sectionalism have never been a serious hinderance 
to the progress of national unity"; on the other hand 
"sectionalism is by its very nature incipient dis- 
union/' as its ultimate goal is political independence 
for a group of states. 1 Prior to the Civil War there 
were numerous instances of the assertion of state 
rights. Almost every state in the Union at some time 
declared its own sovereignty but on other occasions 
denounced as treasonable similar declarations by 
other states. Only, however, when the doctrine of 
state rights has been laid hold of as an effective 
shibboleth by some particular section of the country, 
to give an appearance of legality to its opposition to 
measures of the federal government, has the doctrine 
threatened the integrity of the Union. 

The great and outstanding sectional movement 
prior to the Civil War, which rallied under the banner 
of state rights, was due to the divergence of interests 
and views between the North and the South, caused 
by the growth of the institution of slavery. Indeed 
the increasing antagonism between the slave and free 
labor systems and States had revealed itself from time 
to time even in the first quarter of the Nation's 
history. Its sectionalizing tendency was realized 
by the time of the Missouri Compromise in 1820, and 
pointed out by several, but especially by Jefferson, 
when he wrote this oft-quoted passage, "This mo- 

1 Anson D. Morse in Political Science Quarterly, I, 158. 

20 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

mentous question, like a fire bell in the night, a- 
wakened and filled me With terror. I considered it 
at once the knell of the Union. ... A geographical 
line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and 
political, once conceived and held up to the angry 
passions of men will never be obliterated, and every 
new irritation will make it deeper and deeper." 2 

Although the tariff was the ostensible reason for 
the nullification movement in South Carolina, Calhoun 
admitted in a private letter in 1830 that it was but 
"the occasion, rather than the real cause of the 
present unhappy state of things. The truth can no 
longer be disguised that the peculiar domestic in- 
stitutions of the Southern States and the consequent 
direction which that and her soil and climate have 
given to her industry, has placed them in regard to 
taxation and appropriations in opposite relations to 
the majority of the Union; against the danger of 
which, if there be no protective power in the reserved 
rights of the States, they must in the end be forced 
to rebel or submit to having their permanent interests 
sacrificed. " 3 

President Jackson also recognized slavery as the 
real issue. Following the settlement of the nullifica- 
tion controversy he wrote to a friend that "the 
tariff was only the pretext, and disunion and a 
southern confederacy the real object. The next 
pretext will be the negro or slavery question. " 4 

A striking and interesting example of the effect 
of environment and the sectionalizing movement 
on the thought and policy of a statesman is revealed 
in the public career of John C. Calhoun, whose name 
is more closely identified with state rights doctrines 
than that of any other public man prior to the Civil 

* Writings, X, 157. 

■Calhoun to Maxey, Sept. 11, 1830. Quoted in Basaett, Jackson, II, 547. 
♦Letter of May 1, 1833 to Rev. Andrew J. Crawford, given in Congressional Globe 
36 Cong., 2 Seas., I, 32. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession 21 

In his early life he was conspicuous for his strong 
nationalism and his advocacy of a liberal construction 
of the constitution. John Quincy Adams' contemporary 
estimate of Calhoun as recorded in his Diary at this 
period is especially noteworthy. He writes, "He, is 
above all sectional and factional prejudices more than 
any other statesman of this Union with whom I ever 
acted." 5 The causes which led to his change of 
views have been variously ascribed and doubtless 
always will be subject to discussion. It has been 
claimed by some of his contemporaries, as well as 
by some writers of more recent times, that lie was 
led to give up his former views to identify himself 
with the nullificationists who had become the dom- 
inant political party in South Carolina in the late 
twenties, out of consideration for his future political 
career and by his burning ambition to become Presi- 
dent. While it must be admitted that Calhoun 
would not have been human if considerations for his 
political future had not had their weight, and that 
there is abundant evidence that, like his contempo- 
raries Clay and Webster, he had a laudable ambition 
for the Presidency, nevertheless we are loathe to 
accept the view that such crass and selfish motives 
could have been the dominating ones in the mind of 
so great and commanding a character. Rather are 
we inclined to the opinion already suggested that, 
as a true son of the South, he was affected by his 
environment. He became convinced that the econo- 
mic life of the South was destined to grow increasingly 
divergent from that of the North, and that the interests 
identified with and resulting from the institution of 
slavery would lead to its permanently being in the 
minority in the general government of the country. 
He, therefore, was led seriously to consider the 
means by which the peculiar interests of his section 
could be safe-guarded, while at the same time the 
Union, which he loved could be preserved. Hence 

^Memoirs, V, 361. 

22 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

he laid hold with eagerness upon the doctrine of 
nullification as the device by which the rights and 
interests of the minority were to be preserved in the 
Union. The theory was an attempt to devise a 
theoretical reconciliation between the most complete 
state sovereignty and the existence of a general 
government. Shortly after drafting the South Caro- 
lina Exposition of 1828, he writes to a private corre- 
spondent, " To preserve our Union on the fair basis of 
equality, on which alone it can stand, and to transmit 
the blessings of liberty to the remotest posterity is 
the first great object of all my exertions. 7 ' 6 

If this is a correct explanation of Calhoun's reason- 
ing, we can understand why the doctrine of nullifica- 
tion appealed to him; first, because it reconciled 
his devotion to the Union as well as to his state and 
section; and secondly, it enabled him honestly to 
declare, as he did declare, that it was the great 
conserving feature of our system of government. 7 
The right of secession, which, since the establishment 
of the government under the Constitution, had been 
held from time to time in the North as well as in 
the South as a theoretical possibility, was reserved 
by Calhoun's Exposition as a last resort. 

The acceptance of the view just advanced of 
Calhoun's motives will go far in explaining his 
subsequent course. Although he championed south- 
ern interests, he restrained the radicals of his state 
and section for nearly two decades longer, until at 
last he became convinced that the interests of the 
two sections were so irreconcilable that the Union 
ought not to be preserved except at the price of 
specific constitutional concessions. 8 Apparently, the 
year 1847 marks the date when Calhoun, alarmed by 
the aggressiveness of the northern advocates of the 

'Calhoun's Correspondence, American Historical Association Report, 1899, 11,269- 

'Calhoun, Works, VI, 50, 123. 

8 13everley Tucker's letter, March 25, 1850. William and Mary Quarterly, XVIII, 45. 
See post. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 23 

Wilmot Proviso, deemed it high time to arouse the 
South "to calculate the value of the Union.* 1 In a 
private letter, dated March 19, 1847, he writes, 
"The time has come when it (the slavery question) 
must be brought to a final decision." 9 

The part that Calhoun played in the sectional 
agitation during the next three years, the last of his 
life, and especially his part in launching and promoting 
the project for a Southern Convention, as also the 
history of the movement for such a Convention of the 
Southern States, which was to demand protection 
for the rights of that section in the Union, or to 
concert measures for secession from the Union, is 
the theme of the remainder of this paper. The idea 
of a Southern Convention, however, was not new. 10 
It had been proposed as early as 1844, both at the 
time of the Texas agitation and in connection with 
the tariff agitation of that year. The project at 
that time found considerable support in South 
Carolina both in the press and with the public, as 
fiery and radical speeches, resolutions, and toasts 
threatening disunion testify. The Hon. R. Barnwell 
Rhett, Calhoun's colleague in the United States 
Senate, especially championed the measure. The 
movement, however, met with general opposition in 
the other Southern States and Calhoun and his 
friends opposed it, favoring a more astute policy and 
awaiting the results of the Presidential election. 
The resulting election of Polk led to the abandonment 
of the project, even by its former advocates. 

The demand of the North that slavery should be 
excluded from all the new territory that it was 
expected would be acquired as a result of the Mexican 
War revived the sectional issue. Calhoun now takes 

•Correspondence, 720. See also letter to a member of the Alabama Legislature, 
Benton, Thirty Years View, II, 698. 

"Louisiana, February 20, 1837, had proposed one "to determine the best possible means 
to obtain peaceably if they can, forcibly if they must, that respect for their institutions 
to which they are entitled by the enactments of the Federal compact," etc. Acta of 
Louisiana, 1837, 18, 19. 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

the lead. Following the adoption of the Wilmot 
Proviso by the House of Representatives for the 
second time, on February 15, 1847, he ' delivered a 
speech in the Senate in which lie denounced the 
Proviso and summoned the South to repudiate 
compromise and stand upon her rights. At the same 
time he presented a set of resolutions containing a 
new doctrine that Congress can impose no restriction 
upon slavery in the territories. 11 They became known 
as "the Platform of the South." Although these 
resolutions were not pressed to a vote, the principles 
underlying them were generally adopted by the 
southern Democrats, and soon found expression in 
the resolutions of several of the Southern State 
legislatures, notably by Virginia, which was the first 
to adopt them. 12 Apparently, Calhoun was fully 
convinced that it was high time that something should 
be done to unite the South in order to preserve her 
interests in the Union. In a private letter of this 
period he wrote that instead of shunning, we ought 
to court the issue with the North on the slavery 
question. I would even go one step further, and add 
that it is our duty due to ourselves, to the Union and 
our political institutions to force the issue on the 
North. " 13 

Partially abandoning his previous policy of re- 
straining the radicals in South Carolina, he threw 
himself into the movement to arouse the people. . On 
his return from Washington early in March, he was 
greeted with great enthusiasm by the Mayor and 
Council of Charleston and a mass meeting of the 
citizens. This meeting, after listening to Calhoun's 
plea for the union of the South on the slavery issue 
regardless of party ties, adopted a strong report and 
resolutions similar to those that he had presented 
in Congress. 14 

"Calhoun, Works, IV, 339-310. 
12-March 8, 1847, Acts of Virginia, 18-16-47, 236. 
"Benton, Thirty Years View, II, 698. 

"Calhoun'a Speech, March 9, 1847, Works, IV, 382-396; Niles' Register, LXII, 
73-75; Calhoun, Correspondence, 718, 720; McMaater, VII, 486-189, 494-495. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 25 

Some both in and out of the State suspected that 
Calhoun was playing politics. 15 President Polk in 
particular held this view. Following the former's 
efforts to secure the signatures of prominent south- 
erners to an address to the people of the United 
States on the subject of slavery and the making of 
this question a test in the next Presidential election, 
Polk records his condemnation in his Diary under 
date of April 6, 1847. "Mr. Calhoun has become 
perfectly desperate in his aspiration to the Presidency, 
and has seized upon this sectional question as the 
only means of sustaining himself in his present fallen 
condition, and that such an agitation of the slavery 
question was not only unpatriotic and mischievous, 
but wicked. I now entertain a worse opinion of 
Mr. Calhoun than I have ever done before. He is 
wholly selfish, and I am satisfied has no patriotism. 
A few years ago he was the author of nullification and 
threatened to dissolve the Union on account of the 
tariff. During my administration the reduction of 
duties which he desired has been obtained, and he 
can no longer complain. No sooner is this done than 
he selects slavery upon which to agitate the country, 
and blindly mounts the topic as a hobby." 18 

Calhoun's suggestion was not sufficiently encour- 
aged, so the proposed address was not issued at this 
time. The presidential campaign of 1848 led to a 
postponement of the issue. • Calhoun endeavored to 
maintain a neutral position during the contest. His 
correspondence for the year 1848, however, shows 
that he was carefully considering the utility of a 
Southern Convention. In a speech delivered in 

16 See note, next page. 

™Diary, II, 458-9. James II. Hammond writes to W. G. Simms, March 21, 1847, 
that he has just read Calhoun's Charleston speech. His object is to gain Southern 
votes for himself for President. Every one in y. Carolina will see this. It will be said 
that he agitates the slavery question for selfish purposes — " South Carolina under present 
auspices can do nothing if she puts herself foremost but divide the South and insure 
disastrous defeat." Hammond Manuscript, Vol. 13, library of CongreM. For this 
and other references to the Hammond collection, 1 am indebted to Mr. Philip M llnin.i , 
a member of the Graduate School, University of Pennsylvania. 

2G American A ntiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Charleston, August 20, he intimated more clearly 
than in any previous public utterance that the 
question of southern union and secession might soon 
be a vital one. 17 The press and public meetings 
throughout the State favored resistance and some 
urged that South Carolina should take the lead in 
calling a Southern Convention. As will appear later, 
Calhoun, while sympathizing with the movement, 
believed for reasons of expediency it should be initiated 
in one of the other states, and so he exercised to some 
extent a restraining influence. On the assembling 
of the legislature in November of 1848, Governor 
Johnson in his message, while stating that the present 
time, owing to the election of Taylor, a Southern man 
as President was not propitious for action, declared 
that "unity of time and concert of action are indis- 
pensable to success, and a Southern Convention is 
the most direct and practical means of obtaining 
it." 18 The legislature on December 15, after a visit 
of Calhoun to Columbia, on his way to Washington, 19 
unanimously adopted resolutions which were apparent- 
ly in harmony with his wishes. These declared 
"that the time for discussion had passed, and that 
this General Assembly is prepared to co-operate with 
her sister states in resisting the application of the 
principles of the Wilmot Proviso to such territory 
at any and all hazard." 20 

On the re-opening of Congress after the election of 
1848, Calhoun renewed his effort to secure the issuing 
of a Southern Address, this time with more success, 
as the situation in Washington favored his project 

"Speech in Charleston, New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, August 2d, 1848. Toombs 
writes Crittenden, September 27, 1847, "Calhoun stands off too, in order to make a 
Southern party all his own on slavery in the new Territories. Poor old dotard, to suppose 
he could get a party now on any terms! Hereafter treachery itself will not trust him." 
Correspondence of Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, American Historical Association 
Report, 1911, II, 129. 

"November 27, 1848, Journal of Senate of S. Carolina, 1848, 20; Niles' Register, 
LXXIV, 308; Calhoun, Correspondence, 1184. 

13 South Carolina Senate Journal, 1848, 01. 

^Report and Resolutions of South Carolina, 1848, 147. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 27 

inasmuch as the slavery question had re-appeared in 
Congress in several different measures. The scc- 
tionalizing effect of the renewed agitation- soon 
revealed itself. As a result of this, and of Calhoun's 
labors, a gathering of sixty-nine Southern members 
of Congress, drawn from both parties, assembled 
on the evening of December 23, 1848, to determine 
upon a common policy for the South. Calhoun and 
the radical Democrats directed the movement. It 
was commonly believed in Washington, wrote Horace 
Mann, "that Mr. Calhoun was resolved on a dis- 
solution of the Union." 81 The attempt was made to 
unite the representatives of both parties, but it failed 
of success. President Polk threw the weight of his 
influence against it. It soon appeared that the Whigs 
had only entered the conference in order to try to 
control or defeat the movement. 22 "An Address of 
the Southern Delegates in Congress to their Con- 
stituents' ' was drafted by Calhoun, in which he 
arraigned the North for their infraction of the 
Constitution in regard to fugitive slaves and their 
general course relative to slavery. It denied that 
Congress had any jurisdiction over slavery in the 
territories, and it called upon the South to unite, to 
subordinate party ties, and to prepare to protect 
itself. "If you become united, " it read, "and prove 
yourself in earnest, the North will be brought to 
pause, and to a calculation of consequences; and 
that may lead to a change of measures and to the 
adoption of a course of policy that may quietly and 
peaceably terminate this long conflict between the 
two sections. If it should not, nothing would remain 
for you but to stand up immovably in defence of 
rights involving your all, your property, prosperity, 
equality, liberty, and safety." 23 

il Life and Works of Horace Mann, 273. 

22 See Letters of Toombs to John J. Crittenden, American Historical Association Re- 
port, 1911,11, 139, 141. 

"Calhoun, Works, VI, 290-313; Niles, LXXV, 84-88. 

28 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

But the Whigs were not prepared to abandon their 
party affiliations. As Toombs wrote Crittenden, 
"We had a regular flare up in the last meeting, and 
at the call of Calhoun I told them briefly what we 
were at. I told him (Calhoun) that the union of the 
South was neither possible nor desirable until we were 
ready to dissolve the Union. That we certainly did 
not intend to advise the people now to look any where 
else than to their own government for the prevention 
of apprehended evils." 24 Alexander H. Stephens 
tried to prevent action by the caucus, but failed in 
this. An attempt to substitute an address drawn by 
Senator Berrien, directed to the " People of the whole 
Country" and appealing to the patriotism and 
fairness of the North, failed by a small margin 25 
and the Calhoun Address slightly modified was 
adopted and issued on January 22, 1849, but only 
two Whigs were numbered among its forty-eight 
signers. Only about one third of the southern repre- 
sentatives signed. 

Owing to the attitude of the Whigs, the effect of 
the address was greatly weakened. In fact Toombs 
declared "We have completely foiled Calhoun in 
his miserable attempt to form a Southern Party." 26 
Calhoun, however, in a letter to his daughter two 
days after the Address was issued, expressed, satis- 
faction. He writes, "My address was adopted by a 
decided majority. ... It is a decided triumph 
under the circumstances. The administration threw 
all its weight against us, and added it to the most 

rabid of the Whigs The South is more 

aroused than I ever saw it on the subject." 27 Polk's 
Diary bears out Calhoun's statement of the admin- 
istration's hostility to their movement. The Presi- 
dent records an interview with Calhoun on January 

"Coleman, Life of John J. Crittenden, I, 335-336. 
KNiles, LXXV, 101-104. 
28 Coleman, Crittenden, I, 335. 
^Correspondence, 702. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 29 

16, 1840, and notes, "'He (Calhoun) proposed no 
plan of adjusting the difficulty (territorial), but 
insisted that the aggression of the North upon the 
South should be resisted and that the time had come 
for action. I became perfectly satisfied that he did 
not desire that Congress should settle the question 
at the present session and that he desired to influence 
the North upon the subject, whether from personal 
or patriotic views it is not difficult to determine. 
1 was firm and decided in my conversation with him, 
intending to let him understand distinctly that I 
gave no countenance to any movement which tended 
to violence or the disunion of the states. ;;28 

Just before the final meeting of the caucus, Polk 
was so disturbed that he conferred with his Cabinet 
on the matter and informed them that he "thought 
it was wholly unjustifiable for southern members of 
Congress, when a fair prospect was presented of 
settling the whole question, to withhold their co- 
operation, and instead of aiding in effecting such an 
adjustment, to be meeting in a sectional caucus and 
publishing an address to influence the country." 
"I added/' he records, "that I feared there were a 
few southern men who had become so excited that 
they were indifferent to the preservation of the 
Union." "I stated that I put my face alike against 
southern agitators and northern fanatics and should 
do everything in my power to allay excitement by 
adjusting the question of slavery and preserving the 
Union." 29 It was agreed that each member of the 
Cabinet should be active in seeing members of 
Congress, and urge them to support the bill to admit 
California at once as a state. Polk promised to use 
his influence with members, and records in his Diary: 
— "This is an unusual step for the Executive to take, 
but the emergency demands it. It may be the only 
means of allaying a fearful sectional excitement and 

"Dtary, IV, 288. 
™Diary, IV, 299. 

30 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

of preserving the Union, and therefore I think upon 
high public consideration it is justified." 30 

Through the administration's influence, some of the 
Democrats joined the southern Whigs in refusing 
to support the address, yet the South Carolina legis- 
lature, as previously stated, had declared that it 
was prepared to co-operate with other Southern 
States in resisting the extension of the Wilmot Proviso 
to the new territory. In the course of the next few 
weeks, the Democratic legislatures in Virginia, Florida, 
and Missouri adopted resolutions of similar tenor, 
and even the Whig legislature of North Carolina 
joined in denouncing the proposed restrictive legisla- 
tion and suggested the extension of the Missouri 
Compromise line to the new territory. 31 Virginia 
took more radical action by providing for a special 
session of the legislature, should Congress pass the 
obnoxious laws. In several of the other states, 
although there was no legislative action, there was a 
renewal of popular agitation. While the sentiment 
in both Georgia and Alabama was divided on the 
Southern Address, the Wilmot Proviso was emphati- 
cally condemned by both political parties. In Georgia, 
Governor Town, who had declared himself in favor 
of resisting the Wilmot Proviso to the limit, was re- 
elected, and the Democrats gained control of the 
legislature for the first time in several years. In 
Alabama the Democrats also made substantial gains. 
Moreover, Mississippi, as we shall presently see, 
took up with zeal the proposal for the Southern 

Calhoun had not ventured in the " Address of the 
Southern Delegates" to explicitly propose a Southern 
Convention, but we know he had entertained the 
possibility of one for some time. More than a year 
previously he had stated in a confidential letter that 

*°Diary, IV, 300. 

"Senate Misc., 30 Congress, 2 session, I, Nob. 48; 51, II, Nob. 54, 58; Senate Misc., 
31 Congress, 1 session, I, No. 24. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 31 

such a Convention was "indispensable." 32 Within 
a few weeks after the southern caucus, his personal 
correspondence to political friends in several states 
shows that he was actively, although quietly, urging 
the idea of a southern Convention and outlining the 
plan of action. Thus we find him writing to John H. 
Means, shortly afterward chosen Governor of South 
Carolina. "I am of the impression that the time 
is near at hand when the South will have to choose 
between disunion and submission. I think so, because 
I see little prospect of arresting the aggression of the 
North. If any thing can do it, it would be for the 
South to present with an unbroken front to the North 
the alternative of dissolving the partnership or of 
ceasing on their part to violate our rights. . . . But 
it will be impossible to present such a front, except 
by means of a Convention of Southern States. That, 
and that only could speak for the whole, and present 
authoritatively to the North the alternative, which to 
choose. If such a presentation should fail to save 
the Union, by arresting the aggression of the North 
and causing our rights and the stipulation of the 
Constitution in our favor to be respected, it would 
afford proof conclusive that it could not be saved, 
and that nothing was left us, but to save ourselves. 
Having done all we could to save the Union, we would 
then stand justified before God and man to dissolve 
a partnership which had proved inconsistent with 
our safety, and, of course, destructive of the object 
which mainly induced us to enter into it. Viewed 
in this light, a Convention of the South is an indis- 
pensable means to discharge a great duty we owe to 
our partners in the Union: that is, to warn them in 
the most solemn manner that if they do not desist 
from aggressions and cease to disregard our rights 
and stipulations of the Constitution, the duty we 
owe to ourselves and our posterity would compel us 

"Benton, Thirty Years View, II, 098-700. Letter of Wilaon Lunikin to Calhoun, 
November 18, 1847. Correspondence, 1135-1139. 

32 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

to dissolve forever the partnership with them. But 
should its warning voice fail to save the Union, it 
would in that case prove the most efficient of all 
means for saving ourselves." 33 

Scarcely more than a month after this letter was 
written, in accordance with a plan privately suggested 
by Calhoun, and publicly favored by district and 
parish meetings in various parts of South Carolina, 
a Convention of delegates assembled at Columbia, 
May 14-15, 1849. After approving the Southern 
Address and the action of the state government, it 
called for a special session of the legislature to take 
action in case any of the proposed obnoxious legis- 
lation should be passed by Congress. This Convention 
also appointed five prominent men as a Central Com- 
mittee of Vigilance and Safety to correspond with 
the other states to promote concert of action, and to 
perfect the organization of the state — thus fully 
accepting Calhoun's program. 34 

It was desired, however, that some state other 
than South Carolina should take the lead. Miss- 
issippi was the first to respond under the stimulus 
of Mr. Calhoun's letters. 35 In May, 1849, an in- 
formal meeting of prominent citizens was held at 
Jackson to protest against southern exclusion from 
the territories. This gathering issued a call for the 
voters of the several counties to choose delegates to 
a State Convention to be held at Jackson in October 
"to consider the threatening relations between the 
North and the South." A copy of their resolutions 
was sent to Mr. Calhoun with the request that he 
advise the promoters of the movement the proper 
course for the Convention to take. Calhoun replied 
in a letter addressed to Col. C. S. Tarpley, dated 
July 9, 1849, outlining the course that it was desirable 

"Calhoun to John H. Means, Correspondence., 705, 70G. 

"National Era, May 24, 1849. National Intelligencer, May 24 and 2G, 1849. 
J5 D. T. Ilerndon in Alabama Hist. Society Transactions, V, 204-208; Cleo Hearon in 
Publications of Miss. Hist. Society, XIV, eh. II and III. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 33 

to take. His letter was in part as follows: 30 "In 
my opinion there is but one thing that holds out the 
promise of saving both ourselves and the Union: 
and that is a Southern Convention; and that, if 
much longer dela}'ed, cannot. It ought to have been 
held this fall, and ought not to be delayed beyond 
another year; all our movements ought to look to 
that result. For that purpose every southern state 
ought to be organized, with a central committee and 
one in each county. Ours is already. It is indis- 
pensable to produce concert and prompt action. 
In the meantime, firm and resolute resolutions ought 
to be adopted by yours and such meetings as may 
take place before the assembling of the legislature 
in the fall. The}', when the}' meet, ought to take up 
the subject in the most solemn and impressive manner. 
"The great object of a Southern Convention should 
be, to put forth in a solemn manner the causes of our 
grievances in an address to other states, and to 
admonish them, in a solemn manner, of the conse- 
quences which must follow, if they should not be 
redressed, and to take measures preparatory to it, 
in case they should not be. The call should be 
addressed to all those who are desirous to save the 
Union and our institutions, and who, in the alter- 
native, should it be forced on us, of submission or 
dissolving the partnerslap, would prefer the latter. 
No state could better take the lead in this great 
conservative movement than yours. " Calhoun wrote 
a similar letter to Senator Henry S. Foote, August 
2, 1849, 37 to which Foote replied a few days before 
the Mississippi Convention met, stating, "I am 
gratified to have it within my power to inform you 
that several leading gentlemen of both the two great 
political parties in Mississippi have promised me at 

*s 1 ' The Southron," Jackson, Miss., published Mr. Calhoun's letter May 24, 1850. 
Copied in National Daily Intelligencer, June 4, 1850, also Cong. Globe, 32 Cong. 1 sess . 
Appendix 52. 

"National Era, June 12, 1851. 

34 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

our approaching convention to act upon your sug- 
gestion relative to the recommendation of a Southern 
Convention." 38 

His suggestions were explicitly followed. The 
State formally took the lead, a central committee 
was organized and local committees were appointed 
in the counties, "firm and determined resolutions" 
were adopted by the October Convention. These 
condemned the policy of Congress, and appointed a 
committee of seven which issued "An Address to the 
Southern States," inviting them to send delegates 
to a Convention to beheld at Nashville, June 3, 1850, 
"with the view and the hope of arresting the course 
of aggression, and, if not practicable then to concen- 
trate the South in will and understanding, and action," 
"and as the possible ultimate resort the call by the 
legislatures of the assailed States of still more solemn 
Conventions, — to deliberate, speak, and act with 
all the sovereign power of the people. Should, in 
the result, such Conventions be called and held, 
they may look to a like regularly constituted con- 
vention of all the assailed States, to provide in the 
last resort for their separate welfare, by the formation 
of a compact and a union that will afford protection 
to their liberties and their rights." 39 

Calhoun's connection with the movement was not 
generally known but was suspected. 40 Following 

38 Letter of September 25, 1S4 ( J, Calhoun, Correspondence, 1204. See also letter 
from A. Hutchinson to Calhoun of October 5, 1849, Ibid, 1200. 

,9 For address and resolutions, Conyressional Glubc, 31, Cony. 1, Scss., I, 578, 570, 0-12. 

"Senator Foote in a speech February 8, 1850, denied that the Mississippi movement 
was instigated by South Carolina. Conyressional Globe. 31 Cong- 1 scss. Appendix 
100. In December, 1851, however, he acknowledged "that it was through me, in the 
first instance that Mr. Calhoun succeeded in instigating the incipient movement in 
Mississippi, which led to the calling of the Nashville Convention." Hid, 32 Co>iy. 
1 scss. Appendix, 52. A few days later he stated that he had not known of Mr. Calhoun's 
letter to Mr. Tarpley and to others until recently, and added "the letters that I have 
seen, according generally with this one (Tarpley) satisfied my mind that the modus 
operandi of the Convention was more or less marked out by his great intellect. " Cony. 
Globe, 32 Cony. 1 scss. 134-135. 

Daniel Wallace was sent by Governor Seabrook of South Carolina as a special agent 
to attend the Mississippi Convention. In a confidential letter he reports that he noted 
there the influence of "our own old statesman. " (Calhoun). See Report of 1). Wallace, 
Special Agent from South Carolina to Mississippi, in collection of letters of W. B. Sea- 
brook in the Library of Congress. For Wallace's denial that he was an agent of South 
Carolina, see references cited by A. C. Cole. The South and the Right of Secession, in 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, I, 377, note 2. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 35 

his speech in Congress, March 4, 1850, just before 
his death, it was asserted. Thus the Fayetteville, 
(N. C.) Observer declared: "The proposition to hold 
such a convention was first authoritatively made in 
Mississippi. But we presume nobody is so green as 
to imagine that it originated there. No, we have 
no shadow of doubt that the action of Mississippi 
was prompted from South Carolina, and now in 
Mr. Calhoun's speech we have a revelation of the 
purpose for which the Convention is to assemble. 
It is to demand impracticable and impossible con- 
cessions, with no hope of their being granted, and 
with a purpose and declaration that if not granted 
the South will secede from the Union. " His letter 
to Colonel Tarpley was not made public until after 
his death, shortly before the assembling of the 
Nashville Convention. ( 2G13270 f) 

Calhoun followed the progress of events with great ** 

interest and urged his correspondents in Georgia, 
Alabama, and South Carolina to see that their states 
supported the Mississippi movement. 41 lie writes 
James H. Hammond, "As to myself, I lose no oppor- 
tunity, when I can act with propriety, to give the 

great cause an impulse I have made it a 

point to throw off no one. Let us be one is my advice 

to all parties in the South The time for 

action has come. If the South is to be saved, now 
is the time." 42 

His own State Government was the first to respond. 
Governor Seabrook's message to the legislature, 
when it assembled the last of November (1849) 
reviewed the slavery agitation. He predicted that 
"the enactment of any one of the contemplated 
measures of hostility would probably, if not certainly, 
result in severing the political ties that now unite 
us the South has at last been aroused from 

"Correspondence, 762, 769, 773, 775, 77S. Letters to Calhoun, Ibid, 1195, 1196, 
1199-1202, 1210-1212. 

4S Letter of January 4, 1850, Correspondence, 779. 

36 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

its criminal lethargy to a knowledge of the dangers 
of its position. For the first time in our political 
history, party affinities are becoming merged in the 
high obligation of co-operation for the sake of safety, 
or for participation in a common fate." lie con- 
cluded by recommending the Southern Convention 
as proposed by the people of Mississippi. This 
recommendation was endorsed by the legislature, 
meeting as a caucus, December 12, 1849, and the 
election of delegates was provided for. 43 They also 
adopted the measures recommended b}' the May 

Calhoun's fondest hope for the union of the men 
of the South of both political parties seemed about 
to be realized. Whigs vied with Democrats in 
declaring that southern rights were in universal 
danger, and that only a united and bold front would 
prevent the enactment of measures that would force 
the disruption of the Union. Southern men and the 
southern press were even serious! 3^ considering the 
value of the Union and the advantages of its dis- 

On the assembling of Congress in December of 
1849, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, a leading 
southern Whig wrote "I find the feeling among the 
southern members for a dissolution of the Union— 
if the anti-slavery measures should be pressed to 
extremity — is becoming more general than at first. 
Men are now beginning to talk of it seriously, who, 
twelve months ago, hardly permitted themselves 
to think of it." 44 Calhoun a little later wrote, 
"The southern members are more determined and 
bold than I ever saw them. Many avow themselves 
to be disunionists, and a still greater number admit 
that there is little hope for any remedy short of it." 45 

"The Tri- Weekly South Carolinian, December 8, 1840. 
"Johnson and Brown, Life of Alexander 11. Stephens, 239. 

"January 12, 1850, Calhoun, Correspondence, 7S0, also December 8, 31, 1810, Ibid, 
77G, 778. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 37 

Similar opinions were expressed in many southern 

papers. The Ridivwnd Enquirer of February 12 

declared, "The two great political parties of the 

country have ceased to exist in the Southern States, 

so far as the present slavery issue is concerned. 

United they will prepare, consult, combine, lor prompt 

and decisive action. With united voices — we are 

compelled to make a few exceptions 1 — they proclaim, 

in the language of the Virginia resolution, passed a 

day since, the preservation of the Union if we can, 

the preservation of our own rights if we cannot. 

This is the temper of the South; this is the temper 

becoming the inheritors of rights acquired for freemen 

by the hand of freemen. 'Thus far shalt thou come, 

and no farther,' or else the proud waves of Northern 

aggression shall float the wreck of the Constitution." 46 

A communication in the Columbia (S. C.) Telegraph, 
February 15, 1850, reads: "My idea is, first, to 
perfect the Union of the South, now so happily in 
progress. A year ago I thought the South was 
doomed, it seemed so dead to the true situation, 
mouthing after the lessons of miserable demagogues 
the sounding devices of party. But that day is 
past/ There are no more Whigs, no more Democrats 
— there is but one party, 'The party of the South.' 
The South is aroused, her banner is on the outer 
wall, and the cry is still 'they come, they come/ 
'Let the good work go on.' Second, to dissolve the 
Union immediately, form a Southern Confederacy, 
and the possession by force of most of all the territories 
suitable for slavery, which would include all south of 
the northern latitude of Missouri." 47 

Even The Richmond Republican, a conservative 
Whig paper, said editorially, "We are afraid these 
men will find the South is in earnest when it is too 

late It is melancholy to contemplate such 

a state of things; for whatever Northern citizens 

"Quoted in National Intelligencer, February 16, 1850. 
* 7 Quoted in National Intelligencer, February 21, 1850. 

38 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

may believe, or affect to believe, every Southern man 
knows that to persist in those measures which form 
the principal point of Northern policy upon the 
subject of slavery, will result in a dissolution of the 
Union." 48 

Robert Toombs, a Whig representative from Geor- 
gia, wrote "When I came to Washington, I found the 
whole Whig party expecting to pass the Proviso, and 
Taylor would not veto it .... I saw General 
Taylor, and talked fully with him, and while he 
stated he had given and would give no pledges either 
way about the Proviso, he gave me clearly to under- 
stand that if it was passed he would sign it. My 
course instantly became fixed. I would not hesitate 
to oppose the Proviso, even to the extent of a dis- 
solution of the Union." 19 He, therefore, believed 
that the Whigs should join with the southern Demo- 
crats in presenting a determined resistance to this 
obnoxious measure. 

Stephens's letters from December to early in 
February show a similar determination as well as 
despair of the preservation of the Union. Thus he 
writes his brother on January 21: "I see no hope 
to the South from the Union. I do not believe 
much in resolutions, anyway. I am a good deal 
like Troup in this particular. If I were now in the 
legislature, I should introduce bills reorganizing 
the militia, for the establishment of a military school 
the encouragement of the formation of volunteer 
companies, the creation of arsenals, of an armory, 
and an establishment for making gunpowder. In 
these lies our defence. I tell you the argument is 
exhausted, and if the South does not intend to be 
overrun with anti-slavery doctrines, they must, before 
no distant day, stand by their arms. My mind is 
made up; I am for the fight, if the country will back 
me. And if not, we had better have no 'Resolutions' 

"Quoted in National Intelligencer, February 2, I860. 

"Coleman, Life of John J. Crittenden, 3G5, letter dutcd April 25, 1850. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 39 

and no gasconade. They will but add to our degrada- 
tion." 50 The National Intelligencer, a Whig paper 
published in Washington, in the leading editorial 
February 2, entitled, "The Evil of the Day," confirmed 
this view of the attitude of the southern Whigs. 
"What is most alarming of all," it declared, "is the 
fact that gentlemen who have ever heretofore been 
most conservative and even thoroughly Whig, are 
to be found still more excited than those who have 
been habitually railers against the North, and under- 
valuers of the Union." 

In the meantime the movement for the Nashville 
Convention was taken up in the other southern 
legislatures as they assembled. The legislatures of 
Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Texas, and Arkansas voted respectively that their 
states would be represented, but not without 
opposition in some states, and considerable difference 
of opinion in regard to the methods to be employed 
for the choice of delegates. In general, the Whigs 
desired election by the people, the Democrats by the 
legislature. As a result there were a variety of 
methods adopted. 

In some states all the delegates were chosen by the 
legislature, in others a part were so chosen to represent 
the state at large, and the remainder by the district 
system. In a few states, where the choice was left 
to the people it resulted in only a partial representa- 
tion as was true of Virginia, Texas, and Arkansas. 
The legislature of Tennessee, Louisiana and several 
of the border states refused to indorse the Convention, 
and from only one of these, Tennessee, were any repre- 
sentatives present at Nashville. 51 Four of the state 
legislatures, namely, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
and Virginia also authorized the calling of a state 
Convention in case the Wilmot Proviso or similar 

60 Johnson and Brown, Stephens, 245. See also letter of February 13, 1850 to Jus. 
Thomas, American Hist. Assoc. Report, 1911, II, 184. 

"Cole, The Whig Party in the South, 158-102, 170-171. D. T. Herndon, The Nush- 
ville Convention of 1850, in Transactions of the Alabama Historical Society, V, 213-210. 


40 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

obnoxious measures were adopted by Congress. 
Mississippi added an appropriation of $220,000 as a 
contingency fund. 

From the moment of the introduction of Clay's 
resolutions, the southern Whig sentiment began to 
change, and it was soon evident that the majority 
of their numbers were ready to accept the admission 
of California, if the Wilmot Proviso was not applied 
to the rest of the Mexican cession. It was otherwise 
with the southern Democrats. On the 4th of March, 
Calhoun's speech, the last great effort of his life, was 
presented to the Senate. 62 The scene was a dramatic 
one. The knowledge that the veteran statesman 
and great champion of southern rights was to emerge 
from his sick room to present his views on the crisis 
of the hour was sufficient to crowd the Senate Cham- 
ber. Too ill to deliver the speech himself, it was 
read by Senator Mason of Virginia. Calhoun, pale 
and emaciated sat with eyes partially closed, 
listening to the delivery of his last appeal and solemn 
warning. "A sombre hue pervaded the whole 
speech," wrote Senator Cass. It was, indeed, clear 
that the author, conscious of his approaching end, 
was oppressed with anxious forebodings of the dis- 
ruption of the Union. He declared that the Com- 
promise proposed could not save the Union. This 
could be done only by the North giving to the South 
equal rights in the territories, by ceasing to agitate 
the slavery question and by consenting to an amend- 
ment to the Constitution which would restore to the 
South the power to protect herself. The amendment 
as explained in a posthumous essay provided for the 
election of two Presidents, one from each section, 
each to have a veto on all legislation. 63 

This extreme demand did not command the support 
of the southern Whigs, and Webster's " Seventh of 
March Speech" did much to reassure them, 64 and the 

^Congressional Globe, 31 Cony. 1 Sess., I, 451-455; Works, IV, 542-573. 
M A Discourse on the Constitution, and Government of the United States. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 41 

southern press in general applauded it; while many 
condemned Calhoun's remedy as impracticable. Thus 
the Virginia Free Press declares: "The necessity 
of the Convention, if it ever existed is now at an end. 
.... Since the delivery of Mr. Webster's speech 
the great body of the people feel a confidence that the 
agitating and exciting question of the day will be 
amicably settled and the clouds which lately lowered 
so darkly over the Union will be dispelled. 55 Even 
the radical Cliarleston Mercury says: "With such a 
spirit as Mr. Webster has shown, it no longer seems 
impossible to bring this sectional contest to a close, 
and we feel now, or the first time since Congress 
met, a hope that it may be adjusted. 56 The New 
Orleans Bee declared that "the public sentiment of 
nine-tenths of the people of the South will rebuke 
the opinion of Mr. Calhoun and stamp it as calumny 
upon the slave holding part of the community." 57 
The change in the attitude of the press in regard to 
the Nashville Convention was general, but particu- 
larly marked in the case of the Whig papers. The 
Wilmington Chronicle states that of sixty papers 
from ten slave-holding states from Maryland to 
Louisiana, not more than one quarter take decided 
ground for a Southern Convention. "The rest are 
either strongly opposed to it, doubt its utility or are 
silent on the subject." 58 The Jackson (Mississippi) 
Southron had at first supported the movement, but 
by March it had grown luke-warm and before the 
Convention assembled, decidedly opposed to it. 
The last of May it said, "not a Whig paper in the 

"Toombs in letter of March 22, 1850 to Linton Stephens wrote:— " We have a tolerable 
prospect for a proper settlement of the slavery question. I should think it a strong 
prospect if it were not that the Calhoun wing of the South seem to desire no settlement 
and may perhaps go against any adjustment which would likely pass." American 
Historical Association Report, 1911, II, 188. 

bi National Intelligencer, March 18 and 23. 


"National Intelliacncer, March 11. 
^National Intelligencer, March 19. 

42 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

state approves." 59 The Savannah Republican early 
in the year seemed to be in doubt what course to 
recommend; by the latter part of March it had grown 
fearful "that evil men may use it for their own 
purposes," especially so since Calhoun's speech. 
By the end of May it pronounces against such a 
sectional assembly pending the action of Congress. 60 

On the other hand leading Democrats and several 
of the influential party papers tried to check the 
rising tide of union sentiment and to urge the Con- 
vention forward. A meeting of southern Senators 
was held in Washington on April 16th, at which all 
except four were present. They unanimously recog- 
nized the importance of the Convention being held. 61 
The Columbus Sentinel (Georgia) declared "Let the 
Convention be held and let the undivided voice of 
the South go forth, .... from the deliberations 
of that Convention, declaring our determination to 
resist even to civil war, and we shall then and not 
till then hope for a respectful recognition of our 
equality and rights." 62 

In South Carolina many declared openly in favor of 
secession. Thus the Fairfield Herald of May 1 
states its views: "The time for the Southern Con- 
vention is nigh at hand, and with its approach con- 
flicting opinions harass the mind. The question has 
been frequently asked, with all seriousness, what will 
be the probable action of the Convention? We have 
hoped, and we still desire, that the Convention will 
assume a decided position and declare to the North 
that there is a line established beyond which, if they 
dare trespass, a revolution shall be the consequence. 
Further than this, we anxiously pray that the Con- 
vention may entertain the proposition of the formation 
of a Southern Confederacy. The Union, as it now 

"Compare Southron, September 21, October 5, 1849, March 11, 15, 22, April 5, 19, 
May 24, 31, June 7, 1850. 

^Savannah Republican, March 21, 22, May 20, 1850. 
tl Montgomery Advertiser, April 16, 1850. 
^National Intelligencer, March 11. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 43 

exists, has proved a curse and not a blessing. It 
has been made the means of catering to northern 
taste and inclinations, robbing from the southern 
planter his pittance to pander to the craving pro- 
pensities of northern leeches. In the language of 
the Wilmington Aurora (which we unhesitatingly 
endorse) we would say to our delegates, win; will 
shortly leave for the Convention, if they intend to 
furnish us with barren addresses merely, they had 
better stay at home." 63 

Such utterances as these led several of the Whig 
delegates who had been chosen to the Convention, 
especially in Georgia, to decline to attend on the 
ground that the movement had not the support of 
the people as shown b}' the small vote cast, and 
because they were opposed to anything looking 
toward disunion. 61 "They saw," said the Southron, 
"that South Carolina and portions of the loco foco 
party in other states were determined to press the 
consideration at the Nashville Convention the pro- 
priety of the treasonable project of disunion." 65 
Some of the Whigs, however, decided to attend to 
prevent extreme measures. William M. Murphy, 
one of the delegates at large from Alabama, published 
an open letter stating his reasons. "It is said that 
the object of the Convention is to dissolve the Union; 
if this be true no earthly power should prevent my 
attendance — to prevent that awful calamity." 66 

Chief Justice Sharkey and the Mississippi .Whigs, 
however, attended, and the former both before the 
Convention met, 67 and in his speech from the Presi- 
dent's chair in that body, denied that the object of 
the originators of the movement was to dissolve the 
Union but to obtain relief from the "violations of 
the Constitution which the North had made." 

^National Intelligencer, March 10, 1850. 

"National Intelligencer, June 1850. Especially letter of Ex-Representative Jas. A 
Meriweuthcr of Georgia. Augusta Chronicle quoted in National Intelligencer, May 
7, 1850. Savannah Republican, quoted in Philadelphia Public Ledger, April 2, 1850. 

"Jackson Southron, May 31. 

44 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

"The Convention had not been called to prevent, 
but to perpetuate union," 69 

As we have seen, Calhoun was largely responsible 
for the assembling of the Southern Convention, and 
it is apparent that he had hoped to guide its pro- 
ceedings. Indeed he had suggested, as late as the 
middle of February, that "at least two members 
from each of the delegations should visit Washington 
on their way to Nashville, in order to consult fully 
with the members from the South that are true to 
her." 69 Had he lived doubtless he would have 
exercised great influence in directing its work. 70 
From his correspondence of the last few months of 
his life, as well as from articles in papers inspired by 
him, we are able to form an excellent idea of what 
he hoped the Convention would accomplish. In a 
letter to the editor of his organ the South Carolinian, 
Calhoun wrote early in the winter that "the great 
object of the Convention is to make a solemn state- 
ment of the wrongs of the South and to appeal to the 
North to desist. Further, in case the latter should 
refuse to alter its course, to devise some means of 
action." 71 It is probable that he intended the 
Convention to embody in its demands the indis- 
pensable guarantees that he had presented in his 
last speech in Congress. This was the view taken 
by Senator Foote, who the day following the pre- 
sentation of Calhoun's speech protested in the Senate 
against the demand for amendments to the Constitu- 
tion as a sine qua non on the part of the South. 
Calhoun immediately replied disclaiming having said 
anything about a sine qua non but added, "I will 

^Montgomery Alabama Journal, May 22. 

"Letter of April 4 in National Intelligencer, April 27. Senator Foote in a speech 
February 14, 1850, stated a similar view. Cong. Globe. 31 Cong. 1 Sess., I, 309. 

••New York Tribune, June 24, 1850. 

••Correspondence, 782. 

"Hammond wrote him March 5, 1850, "You must be there with your full power." 
Correspondence, 1212. 

"South Carolina Triweekly, May 25, 1850. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 45 

say — and I say it boldly — for I am not afraid to say 
the truth on any question, that as things now stand, 
the Southern States can not with safety remain in 
the Union." 72 

In his last letter, dated March 10, Calhoun wrote, 
"Nothing short of the terms I propose can settle it 
finally and permanently. Indeed it is difficult to 
sec how two 'peoples so different and hostile can 
exist together in one common Union." 73 Judge 
Beverly Tucker of Virginia, an ardent secessionist, 
evidently believed that Calhoun had at last made 
up his mind that secession was inevitable. On 
March 25, 1850, he wrote his nephew, "That the 
action of South Carolina will .be determined is abso- 
lutely sure. She has been held in check by Calhoun 
for seventeen years. Seeing now no room between 
him and the grave for any ambitious career, he for 
the first time looks on the subject with a single eye, 
and his late speech docs but give utterance to what 
has been in his mind and in the mind of every man in 
that State during this time." 74 

T'Conyressiotial Globe, 31 Cong., 1 Sess., I, 4G2-4G3. In December, 1851, Foote stated 
in u speech that" I am now perfectly certain that it was the intention of himself (Calhoun) 
and a few others closely associated with him to wield, as far as they might find it in their 
power to do so, all the machinery of the Nashville Convention for the purpose of setting 
up demands in favor of the Southern States alike unjust and unreasonable in themselves 
— a compliance with which they could not have confidently expected. I entertain no 
doubt also, at this time that he contemplated the breaking up of the Confederacy as 
more than a probable event, and one to which he began to look forward witli a good deal 
of eagerness." Cong. Globe, 32 Cong., 1 stss. Appendix, 51. For lihetts denial see 
Ibid, Gl. 

The correspondence of Judge Beverly Tucker of Virginia to Ex-Governor Jas. II. 
Hammond of South Carolina, both of whom were delegates to the Nashville Convention, 
during the spring of 1850, shows that there were those who wished to use the Convention, 
to force secession. Tucker desired that demands should be made on the North that 
should be so extreme that they would not he accepted. See Tucker's letters of January 
27, February 8, 1850, in Jas. H. Hammond Manuscripts, Vol. 17, Library of Congress. 

^Correspondence, 784. 

« William and Mary Quarterly, XVIII, 44-4G. Tucker wrote Ex-Governor Hammond 
May 7, 1850, Calhoun "died nobly, and his hist act redeems all the errors of his life 
. . . . I have heard of those who rejoiced in his death as providential. I hope it may 
prove so, but not in the way intended by them. . They considered him as the moving 
cause of excitement in South Carolina. You and I know that he restrained it and re- 
strained himself. When he went home in March 1833, he was prepared to say all that 
he said in his last speech and much more, had others been prepared to hear it. I know 
it from his own lips." Hammond Manuscript, Vol. 17. 

46 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

It would seem that Calhoun was now' almost 
convinced that secession was a necessary measure, 
but apparently hoped to the last for the preservation 
of the Union on the terms he had proposed. A few 
days before his death he dictated an incomplete 
draft of certain resolutions on the territorial question 
then at issue. 75 These were directed chiefly against 
the admission of California under the proposed 
constitution. It characterized the suggested action 
as more objectionable than the Wilmot Proviso 
because "it would effect indirectly and surreptitiously 
what the proviso proposes to effect openly and 
directly." 76 The series concluded as follows: — "Re- 
solved, "That the time has arrived when the said 
Southern States owe it to themselves and the other 
States comprising the Union, to settle fully and 
forever all the questions at issue. " Calhoun may 
have intended this draft for use in the Senate or more 
probably for the Nashville Convention, but they do 
not seem to have influenced the text of the resolutions 
adopted b}^ the latter body. 77 His death, occuring 
two months prior to its meeting left the shaping of 
the course of the Convention to other and less skilful 

Owing to the developments in Congress, the move- 
ment for the Convention lost importance and support 
in the South, and the assembling of its members on 
the 3rd of June aroused little interest in the North 
as its action had been discounted. Representatives 
from nine states were present. The body being 
composed of seventy-five members from eight states, 
and one hundred from Tennessee. The Convention 
was organized with the choice of Judge Sharkey as 
President. He made a pacific speech, but it probably 

« Correspondence, 785-787. 

"A similar view in his letter of January 4, 1850, Calhoun, Correspondence, 779-780. 

"Joseph A. Scoville, wrote James H. Hammond, April 18, 1850, as follows:— " Mr. 
Calhoun commenced dictating some resolutions a few days before he died— he did not 
finish them, whether he intended them for the Senate or for Nashville, I never knew." 
Hammond Manuscript, Vol. 17. 

1918.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 47 

did not express the attitude of the majority of the 
delegates. A Committee on Resolutions consisting 
of two from each state reported a series of resolutions 
based on those presented by John A. Campbell of 
Alabama, afterward Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, which were adopted unanimously 
on a vote by states. These were rather moderate 
in character. In fact Colquitt of Ceorgia character- 
ized them as "tame." The resolutions condemned 
the Wilmot Proviso and the other proposed hostile 
measures, omitting all mention of the admission of 
California. They demanded the extension of the 
Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific. This was 
pronounced "as an extreme concession" and soon 
came to be regarded as the ultimatum of the Conven- 
tion. They declined "to discuss the methods suitable 
for resistance to measures not yet adopted, which 
might involve a dishonor to the South," and voted 
to re-convene six weeks after the adjournment of 
Congress, in case it failed to comply with its de- 
mands. 78 

An address to the people of the Southern States, 
prepared by R. Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina, 
was • also reported and aroused much discussion. 
It was far more radical than the resolutions, com- 
prising the " choicest specimens of disunion tenets," 
as one of the southern Whig papers remarked. 79 
The Southron declared that neither Calhoun, Hayne 
nor McDuffte, "even in the palmiest days of ultra 
nullification, ever conceived anything to surpass it." 80 
The address denounced expressly the Compromise 

"'^Journal of Proceedings of Uie Southern Convention, 3-8. See S. L. Siousaat, Ten- 
nessee, The Compromise of 1850 and the Nashville Convention, in the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Review, II, 330-340, 343-340, lor excellent account of the proceedings 
of the two sessions of the Convention. T. D. Herndon, The Nashville Convention of 
1850, in Alabama Historical Society, Transactions V, 216-233. Cleo. Hearon, Missis- 
sippi and The Compromise of 1850, in Publications of Mississippi Historical Society, 
XIV, ch. VI. Farrar Newberry, The Nashville Convention and Southern Sentiment 
of 1850, South Atlantic Quarterly, XI, 259-273. 

"Southron, June 28. 

*°Southron, June 28. 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

measures pending in Congress and expressed the 
belief that sooner or later disunion must come. An 
earnest attempt was made by the Whigs and a few 
conservative Democrats to strike out this section, 
and especially the statement in the address that it 
would be unconstitutional to admit California. A 
number of strong speeches were made in opposition 
to this portion of the address. Beverly Tucker, 
Professor of Law in the College of William and Mary, 
however, made a fiery speech in favor of secession. 81 
The address was carried by a unanimous vote by 
states, but on motion the votes of each member were 
recorded, and from that it appeared that the Whigs 
were opposed, while most of the Democrats supported 
it. 82 After a session of nine days, the fust session of 
the Convention adjourned on June 12th. The North 
by this time, refused to take the Convention seriously. 
A Philadelphia paper declared, "the prospect is that 
the members have each made good an excellent claim 
to ridicule for life." 83 The South, however, regarded 
it quite differently. The Whigs generally repudiated 
it, agreeing with The Republican Banner and Nash- 
ville Whig that the spirit of the Convention and the 
propositions discussed savor so strongly of disunion 
that every friend of the Republic must feel that its 
perpetuity is threatened." 84 On the other hand, the 
Democrats and Democratic press praised its work 
and influence. 

We are convinced that a careful study of the 
Southern Convention movement must lead to the 
conclusion that it was of much greater importance 
and a more serious menace to the Union than has 
been generally recognized by many historians. Mr. 

^Remarks of Beverly Tucker, Southern Convention, 16 pages, n. d. Copy in Virginia 
State Library. 

^Republican Banner and Nashville Whig, June 12, 13, 14, 15. Thia paper said July 4, 
"only some dozen or fifteen Whigs to some eighty Democrats." 

MNorth American, quoted by National Intclliocnccr, June 20. 

8<June 17. 

19 IS.] John C. Calhoun and Secession. 49 

Rhodes states that "the Nashville Convention de- 
serves mention more from the hopes and fears it 
had excited than from its active or enduring effects. 85 
While this is true, it is also true, as he points out in 
another passage "that had the Wilmot Proviso 
passed Congress, or had slavery been abolished in 
the District of Columbia, the Southern Convention 
.... would have been a very different affair, 
from the one that actually assembled at Nashville." 86 

This, it is believed, is apparent from the facts that 
have been presented. The South, it is clear, would 
have been united without distinction of party 
against any such measures. Their various legislative 
resolutions against the Wilmot Proviso, for example, 
were not mere gasconade, but represented a deep- 
seated spirit of resistance that undoubtedly would 
have led to bold and concerted measures to disrupt 
the Union and to the formation of a Southern Con- 
federacy. But this movement, for the time being, 
was checked by the passage of the Compromise 

While it is undoubtedly true that the project for a 
Southern Convention and the threat of secession was 
largely a movement of the politicians rather than one 
emanating from the people, it is equally true that 
the Compromise of 1850 was the work of politicians, 
which was soon to be rejected by the people of both 
sections. Even at the adjournment of Congress it 
was not certain that the lower South would accept 
the Compromise. The Nashville Convention, less 
representative than when it met in June, convened 
for a second session from November 11 to 19, 1850. 
All the delegates who accepted the Compromise 
measures were absent. The extremists being in 
control, after a series of disunion speeches had been 
delivered, adopted a set of radical resolutions. These 
formally affirmed the right of secession, denounced 

*'-Hxstory of the United States, I, 174. 
-Ibid, I, 135. 

50 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

the recent Compromise Acts of Congress, and recom- 
mended a general Congress or Convention of the 
slave-holding states "with a view and intention of 
arresting further aggression, and if possible of 
restoring the constitutional rights of the South and 
if not, to provide for their safety and independence. ,787 
But what was more alarming was the very definite 
movement for immediate secession in the four states 
of Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, 
which was with difficulty temporarily checked, 88 
but not before the agitation had familiarized the 
people of the South with this remedy for their griev- 
ances and strengthened their belief in secession as a 
constitutional right, thus preparing the way for its 
adoption a decade later, when the process of the 
sectionalization of the country had been completed. 

"Cluskey, Political Text Book, (2 Ed.) 51)0-598. 

^Arthur C. Colo, The South and the Right of Secession in the Etirly Fifties, Miss- 
issippi Valley Historical Reiiew, I, 370-399; Cole, The Whig Party in the South, ch. 
VI; Cleo Ileuron, Mississippi and Compromise, th. VIII-XII; U. B. Phillips, Georgia 
and State Riyhta, 101-170. Philip M. H:imer, The Session Movement in South Caro- 
lina, 1848-1852. (Univ. of Peun. Ph. D. theais, June, 1918.) 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 51 



In writing a paper on this subject, one discovers 
almost immediately that one will have to exercise 
his sympathetic insight much more than his critical 
faculty. That is for the very good reason that there 
is a conspicuous paucity of reference to the sentiments 
of friendship — or in fact to sentiments of any kind 
whatever, in the original documents and sources of 
knowledge concerning the settlement of America. 
Judging by their memorials, the settlers of America 
were a decidedly unsentimental collection of men and 
women. They were robust, and hardy, and above 
all practical. Doubtless it is true of any race or age 
that the sentimentalist is not the adventurer, not the 
pioneer. The sentimentalist stays at home, and 
indulges himself in the familiar delights of his safe 
and ordered routine of living, and lets his more 
rugged brother blaze the trail through trackless 
wildernesses, or plough the unfurrowed ocean to the 
shores of new worlds. This is noticeably true of the 
discovery and colonization of America. 

When these Western shores began to be settled by 
more or less permanent attempts, we find that there 
are two great motives actuating these efforts at 
colonization — one is the demand for wealth, the other 
is the demand for religious liberty. To these we 
might be tempted to add a third motive — the good, 
old-fashioned, romantic, high-spirited love of adven- 
ture. But while this love of adventure might have 
sung its irresistible paean in the breast of a John Smith 

52 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

or a Miles Standish, and many a reckless devil-may- 
care, swash-buckler of Jamestown and Merrymount, 
one can hardly take it into serious account, for it was 
purely in the nature of. a concomitant. In no case 
did it either actuate the initial enterprise nor inform 
the subsequent policy of the undertaking. The two 
great sober motives were the ones already stated— 
.the demand for wealth, as in the trading posts of 
Jamestown and New Amsterdam, and the demand for 
Religious Liberty, as in Maryland, Plymouth, and 
Massachusetts Bay. Both of these motives were 
practical and unsentimental. The demand for wealth 
is, of course, purely practical as a motive. The de- 
mand for religious liberty, although it reflects in- 
finitely greater credit, in our judgment, upon those 
who made the demand and suffered the extremes of 
hardship in order to gratify it, is still seen to be a 
practical motive when we remember what religion 
meant to men and women of that time — how seriously 
they took it, and how urgent an importance they 
attached to it. 

When we turn these old characters and events 
into nursery tales, and entertain our children with 
stories of the Dancing Giant of Patagonia, and of 
El Dorado, and Balboa in his cask, and the Fountain 
of Perpetual Youth, and Pochahontas, and the 
fabulous carrying capacity of the Mayflower, and 
the first Thanksgiving, and- the witches and . the 
ducking-stool — we run the risk of forgetting how 
dead in earnest these men and women were, how 
tyrannous and peremptory were their motives, how 
sober and austere were their purposes. It is next to 
impossible to find any spot where what we call 
sentiment entered into their considerations. Es- 
pecially is this true of our Massachusetts settlers. 
They were men of exceptional force and depth of 
character. Their natures were fibrous and hardy. 
They were bred in a hard school, and their self- 
reliance was of a sort to inhibit the allurements of 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 53 

any of the tenderer sentiments of life, — friendship 
anion g the rest. They were primarily devoted to 

If Mr. Lecky is right in saying that the key note 
of Anglo-Saxon morality is the sense of duty, then we 
may find in these men striking instances of the truth 
of his generalization. Their lives were built upon 
principle and guided by principle, and no other 
consideration, however natural or appealing, could 
break their copper-riveted allegiance to principle. 
They were fashioned after the pattern of the Older 
Romans, Brutus and Virginius — capable of sacrificing 
anything to their principles and their sense of duty. 
And just as John Knox stood before Mary Queen of 
Scots, wholly unmoved by the sight of feminine 
beauty in distress, or just as Melville stood before 
James his King, utterly impervious to the glamour 
of royalty, so we discover repeatedly in their humbler 
Puritan brethren of Plymouth and Massachusetts 
Bay the same imperviousness to all forms of impulse, 
emotion, or sentiment. 

Now while it would be unjust to say that such men 
are incapable of friendships, it is fair I think to say 
that, their friendships played a decidedly secondary 
part in the harmony of their spiritual organization. 
Friendship is too exacting a flower to blossom to any 
profusion in so austere and unexpansive a spiritual 
soil. They had their friendships no doubt, but they 
were not dependent upon their friendships. All their 
dependence was placed upon principle, and friendships 
were merely incidental to them. They were al- 
together too self-contained, spiritually and intellect- 
ually, to yield to the blandishments of any cordial 
passion. In fact one detects in them a deep-seated 
distrust of all the sweet promptings of the heart. 
This makes them seem almost inhuman to us, but 
on the whole it is rather fortunate for us that they 
were so seemingly inhuman, in their cold, quiet, 
inflexible allegiance to principle. 

54 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Such friendships as they had were based apparently 
upon mental and not upon emotional congeniality. 
Agreement in belief, similarity of purpose, like- 
mindedness, conformity to the supreme ideal — these 
were the bases of friendship with them, and such 
friendships are too incidental to be dynamic. It is 
difficult to find a single instance of a friendship which 
was able to survive a purely intellectual disagreement, 
or to subsist independently of this basis of like- 
mindedness. It is, I think, impossible to find a single 
instance where any real incompatibility of principle 
was set aside at the behest of pure friendship, or 
where any real intellectual disagreement was hushed 
up, or ignored, or quietly accepted just for the sake 
of maintaining a relationship of pure friendliness 
between the disagreeing parties. Friendship was 
not a factor of primary degree in their processes of 
motivation. The cement that held them together 
was not of the heart but of the mind. And no amount 
of temperamental congeniality could hold them to- 
gether where there was this radical intellectual dis- 
agreement; and on the other hand, no amount of 
temperamental uncongeniality could hold them apart 
where there was this essential agreement of mind 
and purpose. 

This fact must be understood before we can do 
them any sort of justice. It worked both as a blessing 
and a bane. More than one valuable, upright, able 
and lovable member was lost to the colony in the 
Massachusetts Bay simply through this peculiarity. 
We are told that both Anne Hutchinson and John 
Wheelright were persons of amiable, winsome dis- 
positions. They were gracious and likable. They 
had their fair share and perhaps something over, of 
the natural capacity for friendship. They had a 
large following of devoted admirers in the Boston 
church. But both had to go because of purely 
intellectual disagreements. 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 55 

The same is true, to a still more conspicuous 
degree, of Sir Harry Vane, a young, romantic, pic- 
turesque, and exceedingly lovable figure, one -who 
might have grown into an invaluable member of the 
colony — and one whom they did their utmost to 
keep among them. Yet he found it expedient to 
return to England, not because he felt himself dis- 
liked or underrated, but because he distrusted his 
ability to entrench himself in their friendship strongly 
enough to withstand the sundering power of an 
intellectual disagreement which he foresaw might 
very soon arise, and which in fact had already cast 
its shadow across his path. One is inclined to read 
between the lines, and discern in the tears that he 
shed upon stating his wish to leave Boston, not so 
much a grief at having to leave the colony, as a very 
natural chagrin at his self-confessed inability to cope 
on anything like equal terms with minds of such 
ruthless and dispassionate self-consistency. The 
tragedy of Harry Vane's position lay in the fact that 
he was too young and too ardent of temper for Massa- 
chusetts. He depended upon his ability to win 
popularity. And when he realized that no amount 
of mere popularity would make him secure against 
the attacks which intellectual disagreement would 
inevitably provoke against him, he very wisely gave 
it up and returned to England. 

These three cases are perhaps the most notorious 
instances of the impotence of pure friendship to 
withstand the separation of intellectual incompati- 
bility. On the other hand, I think we can discern 
in the case of Winthrop and Dudley an instance of 
the power of essential intellectual agreement to 
withstand the sundering influence of a purely tem- 
peramental uncongeniality, and to close the breach 
of a purely personal dislike. It seems plain enough 
that Winthrop and Dudley did not like each other. 
The basis of their dislike was temperamental. They 
were the kind of men who would naturally leave 

56 American Antiquarian Society. I Apr., 

each other severely alone. Perhaps each was a 
little bit jealous of the other. Perhaps each was a 
little bit impatient of the other's method of doing 
things. They rubbed each other the wrong way. 
And yet this natural antipathy was permanently 
disguised by the fact of their essential sympathy in 
matters of intellectual conviction and purpose. Of 
course it is only fair to add that there was a very 
tender domestic tie which wrought upon their strong 
natures. Their children were united in marriage. 
But that is a side light only. The fact remains that 
Winthrop and Dudley were reconciled, against the 
promptings of nature, by their essential harmonies 
of mind and purpose. 

All this lends weight to our proposition that the 
cement which held these men together was the cement 
of like-mindedness primarily. They were the exact 
antithesis of the modern ward politician, who argues 
with success that if he can get his constituency to 
like him personally, he can depend upon them to 
agree with his policies and support his measures. 
With them just the reverse was true; if they could 
get into an intellectual agreement, then they could 
depend upon the friendship and the popularity to 
follow. Friendship with them was a factor of 
secondary importance. They were not the kind of 
folk who could yield to the sweet tyranny and com- 
pulsion of friendship. They were men and women 
of great mental vigor, of profound conviction, of 
serious purpose, of exceptional force and independency 
of character. Their lives were guided by principle, 
and the awful God whom they worshipped revealed 
His will unto them in these principles which they had 
accepted, and under the dominion of which they 
thought and acted and judged and loved and hated. 

If then we can make up our minds that considera- 
tions of friendship with such men and women con- 
stituted at best a minor and decidedly secondary 
motive force, we may discover a number of instances 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 57 

where this secondary motive force did come into a 
certain operation and did exert a certain influence, 
in the settlement of our own Massachusetts, It is 
interesting to note that in making their migration 
to New England, the colonists came over in fairly 
distinct companies. There was Endicott's company 
in 1028, Higginson's Company in 1629, Winthrop's 
Company in 1630, Cotton's Company in 1633, 
Shepard's Company in 1635, and so forth. It may 
be that this term " company" owes its origin more 
to our modern invention than to any warrant of 
facts in the original cases, yet one cannot resist the 
temptation to use the term as though justified by 
those facts, and to see in it, not merely a Hocking 
together of birds of a feather, but a hint of some real 
bond of friendship and mutual support. It means 
something surely that in many instances these com- 
panies were amalgamated by more than a common 
Puritanism. They were composed of persons who 
had lived in the same town or shire, had perhaps 
worshipped in the same parish church, had become 
accustomed to the ministrations of the same non- 
conforming Puritan divine, and had found encourage- 
ment- and moral support for the unknown hardships 
of their migration in the comfortable prospect of 
making the journey together. Surely there is good 
ground to assume a certain play of friendship, its 
warmth and support and security, in the organization 
of these companies. And in one or two cases this 
assumption is clearly vindicated. 

Cotton brought over in 1633 a number of personal 
admirers and friends, Thomas Leverett who had 
already found occasion to defend him from persecution 
in England, and Atherton Hough. Cotton also 
bespoke for those of his English parish who were 
still to come over, a cordial and hospitable welcome; 
and among those who subsequently followed him 
over was Anne Hutchinson, who, it is well known, 
made that momentous change because of her ad- 

58 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

miration and affection for her Pastor. Cotton seems 
to have led into this new world quite a little following 
of his St. Botolph parishioners, and we cannot doubt 
that simple old-fashioned friendship for their pastor 
had its place in their motives. . 

Among the reasons that Shepard gives for his 
migration to New England, he indicated clearly the 
promptings of friendship. He says: " Divers people 
in Old England of my dear friends desired me to go 
to New England, there to live together: and some 
went before, and writ to me of providing a place 
for a company of us; one of which was John Bridge; 
and I saw divers families of my Christian friends 
who were resolved thither to go with me." It is 
easy enough to imagine that many a Puritan of Old 
England, strongly tempted to embark upon this 
hazardous venture, lacked only the added incentive 
of a prospect of friendly companionship to tip the 
scale, and fix his determination. Such a tipping 
of the scale we can clearly discern in these words 
of Shepard's. He was a Puritan and a non-con- 
formist — but he was young, and newly married, 
sensitive to hardships and not free from apprehen- 
sions for the future. All he needed was the last 
argument of friendship — the letter from John Bridge 
already there, the promise of friends in England that 
they would follow, the prospect of a little community 
of congenial spirits living happily together in their 
new home — this was all he needed to tip the scale 
and settle the determination. Without that last 
argument of friendship, Thomas Shepard might 
never have come to Massachusetts. 

And that brings to mind another aspect of the 
case which, perhaps, may be unwarrantably fanciful, 
but which I venture to suggest. Those words of 
Shepard's — "to provide a place for a company of 
us, there to live together"— seem to indicate in his 
mind at least a crude, embryonic, community ideal. 
Are we justified in the surmise that that community 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 59 

ideal, — the hope of living together as a little social 
entity, grouped in one plantation, knowing each 
other, trusting each other, liking and helping and 
encouraging one another, members of one band, 
bound together by ties of mutual esteem and affection 
—are we justified in the surmise that that community 
ideal was present in more cases than one in their 
minds and motives? When in 1G3G Thomas Hooker 
led his Cambridge congregation, virtually intact, 
down to the plantation in the Connecticut valley 
now known as Hartford, and was speedily followed 
by the Dorchester and Watertown congregations 
almost intact to a man, who moved down to Windsor 
and Wethersfield, we seem to see this community ideal 
in unmistakable operation. These were not migra- 
tions of mere hordes of individuals but of organic 
communities, keeping unbroken their previous rela- 
tionships and their organization. Again, when Ezekiel 
Rogers brought his company over to Quinipiac, was 
disappointed and dissatisfied with the way the men 
of Quinipiac had fulfilled, or failed to fulfill, their 
end of the bargain, and moved his whole company 
intact, without a single dissentient voice, to Rowley 
in the Massachusetts Bay, we see still more clearly 
the existence of this community ideal and community 
spirit, its cohesion, its organic consistency, and its 
alluring suggestion of the bond of friendship and 
interdependence. Obviously this community ideal 
failed to develop here in Massachusetts. Individ- 
ualism reasserted itself most flagrantly just as soon 
as novelty with its terrors had worn off, and growing 
familiarity with the rigors of this .new life had rendered 
the refuge of the community ideal no longer necessary. 
But that the community ideal played some temporary 
part in the settlement of Massachusetts seems pretty 
well indicated. 

v Of course the notable instance of the community 
ideal, is to be found in Plymouth. Our hearts warm 
to Plymouth. They hung together for a whole 

GO American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

generation, if not longer. Their organic life began in 
Brewster's manor house in Scrooby; it was strength- 
ened throughout their sojourn in Holland, it reached 
its sweetest and most touching development on that 
memorable night in Delfthaven which preceded the 
departure of the Speedwell, and which was spent in 
loving farewells, in tears and hopes and promises 
of speedy reunion, between those who were going 
and those who were staying; it even reached the point 
of the common purse, the sharing all things in common 
and defraying all expenses from a common treasury. 
And during those first three years in New England, 
what man shall compute the value and the resource 
of that community spirit; who can say what would 
have become of that brave little company if they 
had not stood by each other, not merely as intellectual 
compatibles, but as generous and patient friends, 
helping each other, trusting each other, encouraging 
each other, and sincerely and, devotedly loving each 

Mention has frequently been made of the difference 
between the Plymouth men and the Massachusetts 
men. This difference appears at more than one spot, 
and is of the sort to make more possible the existence 
and the full play of the sentiment of friendship in the 
Plymouth men than in the Massachusetts men. The 
Massachusetts men were men. of worldly substance 
and education. They were drawn from the higher 
stations in life. They were men accustomed to public 
responsibility, accustomed to social and political 
responsibility. Their coming to New England was 
in no sense a withdrawal from the political and in- 
stitutional life of Old England. They came to New 
England as loyal citizens of Old England, and they 
came with the purpose of building up in New England 
a purified Church and State to which their like- 
minded brethren could resort in case the liberties of 
Old England should be destroyed. They felt them- 
selves to be the torch bearers of a better social order, 

1918.] Friendship in Settlement of Massachusetts. 61 

the builders of a refuge in the New World. As such 
they felt that the eyes of England were upon them 
and that they were answerable not only unto them- 
selves, but unto their solicitous brethren in the 
Old Country, who looked upon them as the advance 
guard of a great Puritan Exodus which might very 
possibly become necessary. With this great sense 
of responsibility to others resting upon them, we can 
easily see why the Massachusetts men took them- 
selves so seriously, why they were so rigid in their 
allegiance to their Puritanical principles, and why the 
tenderer and more private sentiments of life, such as 
friendship, were relegated to a secondary place in 
their scale of values. They were the trustees of a great 
and holy commission and as such they had no right 
and no inclination to indulge personal proclivities. 
The Plymouth men, on the other hand, were folk 
of humbler means, humbler attainments, and humbler 
walk in life. Their sense of civic responsibility was 
much less vivid. They felt that nobody cared what 
they did. Their act in leaving England was virtually 
an act of separation from England. It was avowedly 
an act of separation from the Church of England. 
And why should they not separate? Humble and 
obscure folk as they were, with little or no voice in 
public affairs, they felt that England cared nothing 
for their separation, that England would lose nothing 
by that separation, while they themselves would 
gain a great deal. Their whole psychology was the 
psychology of the separatist. They were not re- 
sponsible to any but their own conscience. They 
were not objects of a concentrated and solicitous 
watchfulness. Nobody cared what they did. They 
were free to shape their own destiny and indulge their 
own honest and spontaneous personal proclivities. 
In such an atmosphere the finer sentiments . of life 
found a much warmer hospitality and a much freer 
expression. Among these finer sentiments of life 
we rejoice to recognize friendship. 

62 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

It is to Plymouth rather than to Massachusetts 
that we must look, therefore, for any considerable 
part that friendship may have played in the settle- 
ment of this Commonwealth. The Massachusetts 
men felt that they were working out a destiny greater 
than themselves and it was inevitable that they should 
give their foremost uninterrupted allegiance to the 
principles upon which that destiny was built. But 
the Plymouth men, dwelling contentedly in their 
little Valley of Humiliation, felt that their destiny 
held no significance for any but themselves, and 
while they were men of principle, yet their principles 
were not of the sort to inhibit the full play of natural 
self-expressions, among which we may gratefully 
recognize the mutual dependence and loyalty and 
support, the helpfulness and the sympathy — in short, 
the friendship for and with each other, which was both 
the life and the salvation of their little community. 

1918.] New York. 63 


Part IX: NEW YORK (M-W). 



The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue. In the case of common 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress " Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers arc considered to be of 

64 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations 
except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about twelve installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with a historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material 
will all be held in type until after the printing of the final in- 
stallment, the compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 

1918.1 New York. 65 


[Malone] Franklin Telegraph, 1820 -f. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 31, 1820, by Francis 
Burnap, with the title of "Franklin Telegraph." 
Wcad Lib., Malone, has Sept. 7 -Dec. 28, 1820. 

[Manlius] Derne Gazette, 1806-1807. 

Established at Manlius by Abraham Ilomeyn in July, 
1806, at which time the effort was made to change the 
name of the village from Manlius to Derne. It was dis- 
continued in a little over a year. (Munsell, "Typo- 
graphical Miscellany," pp. 102, 105, and J. V. H. Clark, 
"Onondaga", vol. 2, p. 222). No copy located. 

[Manlius] Herald of the Times, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established in May, 1808, judging from the 
date of the only issue located, that of Jan. 31, 1809, pub- 
lished by Leonard Kellogg, with the title of "Herald of 
the Times". (J. V. H. Clark, in his "Onondaga", 1849, 
vol. 2, p. 222, states that it was established May 24, 1808). 
In 1809, before July 18, the title was changed to "Manlius 
Times", which see. 

A. A. S. has: 
1809. Jan. 31. 

[Manlius] Onondaga Herald, 1818. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 28, 1818, by Daniel Clark, 
with the title of "The Onondaga Herald", in continuation 
of the "Manlius Times" (J. V. H. Clark "Onondaga", 
vol. 2, p. 223). No copy located. 

[Manlius] Spirit of the Press, 1816-1817. 

The "Columbian Gazette", Utica, Jan. 7, 1817, states 
that "A republican paper, under this title, 'Spirit of the 
Press', has been commenced at Manlius, by S. H. Moore". 
No copy located. 

66 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Manlius Times, 1809-1818. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the " Herald of the Times. " The change of title 
occured during the first part of the year 1809, the earliest 
issue located being that of July 18, 1809, vol. 2, no. 61, 
published by Leonard Kellogg, with the title of "Manlius 
Times." At some time between 1814 and 1817, Daniel 
Clark was evidently admitted to the firm, as the "Auburn 
Gazette" of May 28, 1817, records the death, upon May 
22, of Leonard Kellogg, of Kellogg & Clark, publishers of 
the "Manlius Times." J. V. IT. Clark, in his "Onon- 
daga," 1849, vol. 2, p. 223, states that the paper was 
successively issued by James Beardsley, Seneca Hale and 
Daniel Clark, and that on Oct. 28, 1818, the title was 
changed to "Onondaga Herald." The list of New York 
newspapers of Jan. 1, 1818 (Munsell, "Typographical 
Miscellany," p. 132) lists the paper as published by 
D. C. Clark. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 18, 1809; Sept. 8, 1812; June 
29, 1813; Mar. 8, 1814. Harvard has Apr. 20, 1813. 
Buffalo Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1810. Jan. 9. 
Apr. 3. 
May 15. 
June 19. 
July 17, 24. 
Sept. 18. 

1811. Mar. 12, 19. 
June 25. 
July 30. 
Aug. 6. 

1818. Extra: Jan. 31. 

[Martinsburgh] Black River Gazette, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 10, 1807, by James B. 
Robbins, with the title of the "Black River Gazette" and 
continued a year (see F. B. Hough, History of Lewis 
County, 1860, p. 284). No copy located. 

1918.] New York. ■ 67 

[Mayville] Chautauque Eagle, 1819-1820. 

Weekly. Established May 15, 1819, by R[obert] I. 
Curtis, with the title of "The Chautauque Eagle." The 
last issue located is that of Apr. 4, 1820, vol. 1, no. 47. 

Prendergast Lib., Jamestown, N. Y., has May 15, 
1819 -Apr. 4, 1820. 

[Montgomery] Independent Republican, 1813 - 1816. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 20, 1813, by Luther Pratt, 
with the title of "Independent Republican. " The last 
Montgomery issue located is that of Oct. 8, 1816, vol. 4, 
no. 30. On Oct. 21, 1816, an agreement was signed by 
which a group of proprietors residing in Goshen purchased 
the paper and transferred it to Goshen, where it was con- 
tinued without change of title or volume numbering. 
The original agreement is in the possession of Frank 
Drake, of Goshen, N. Y. For further issues see under 

Newburgh Lib. has June 15 -Oct. 5, 1813; Jan. 4 -Feb. 
22, 1814. Frank Drake, Goshen, has Oct. 31, 1813; Mar. 
21, 1815; Oct. 8, 1816. A. A. S. has: 

1813. Jan. 26. 

1814. Nov. 15 m . 
1816. July 30. 

Aug. 13. 

[Montgomery] Orange County Republican, 1806, see under 

[Morrisville] Madison County Gazette, 1817-1818. 

Weekly. Established in May, 1817, according to the 
issue of Apr. 23, 1818, vol. 1, no. 47, published by John 
B. Johnson & Son, at Morns Flats, with the title of 
" Madison County Gazette." French, in the" Gazetteer 
of New York," 1860, p. 389, says that it was established 
at Peterboro in May, 1817, by John B. Johnson & Son, 
with the title of "The Gazette and Madison County 
Advertiser," removed to Morrisville in 1819, and discon- 
tinued in 1822. The list of newspapers of Jan. 1, 1818 
(Munsell, "Typographical Miscellany," p. 132), records 

68 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr. ; 

the "Madison Gazette" as published by John B. Johnson 
& Son at Hamilton. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 23, 1818. 

Moscow Advertiser and Genesee Farmer, 1817- 1820+ . 

Established in 1817 by Hezekiah Ripley and continued 
by him until after 1820 (Follett, "Press of Western New 
York," p. 62). In a record of newspapers of Jan. 1, 
1818, it is listed as the "Genesee Farmer" (Munsell, 
"Typographical Miscellany," p. 133). No copy located. 

Mount Pleasant] Impartial Gazette, 1800. 

Weekly. Established July 15, 1800, judging from the 
date of the only issue located, that of July 22, 1800, vol. 1 
no. 2, published by Russel Canfield, with the title of 
"Impartial Gazette," Canfield printed at Mount Pleas- 
ant in 1800 and 1801. 

Conn. Hist. Soc. has July 22, 1800. 

[Mount Pleasant] Westchester Herald, 1818- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 15, 1818, with the title of 
"Westchester Herald, and Farmers' Register," printed 
by J[ ] A. Cameron, for S[tephen] Addington. Ac- 
cording to the imprint, it was published in the town of 
Mount -Pleasant, but in the village of Sing -Sing. 
With the issue ot Feb. 17, 1818, it was published by 
Stephen Addington and printed by S[tephen] Marshall. 
With the issue of Feb. 24, 1818, the title was shortened to 
''Westchester Herald." AVith the issue of Oct. 19, 1819, 
the paper was printed by S. Marshall for the Proprietor 
[Joshua Brooks]. With the issue of Dec. 28, 1819, it was 
printed and published by Stephen Marshall and was so 
continued until after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 28, 1818 -Dec. 26, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1818. Jan. 15 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: June 1G, Sept. 8, Oct. 6. 

1819. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Dec. 28. 
Missing: Nov. 2. 

1918.] New York. 69 

1820. Jan. 4 to Doc. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 15, Apr. 25, June 
13, 20, July 25, Sept. 5, 12, Oct. 10. 

New Hartford, see under Whitestown Gazette, 1793. 

New-Windsor Gazette, 1797-1799. 

Weekly, Established Nov. 14, 1797, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 10, 1798, 
vol. 1, no. 10, published by Jacob Schultz & Abraham 
Lott, with the title of "The New-Windsor Gazette. " 
In 1799 it was discontinued and removed to Newburgh, 
where it was re-established as "The Orange County 

Newburgh Free Lib. has Jan. 16, 1798. Harvard has 
Aug. 28, 1798. 

[Newburgh] Mirror, 1797-1799. 

Weekly. Established in September, 1797, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 15, 
1798, vol. 2, no. 3, published by Philip Van Home, with 
the title of "The Mirror." In November, 1798, the 
paper was transferred to J[oseph] W. Barber. The last 
issue located is that of July 9, 1799, vol. 2, no. 42. 

Newburgh Free Lib. has Oct. 22, 1798; May 28, June 
4 -July 9, 1799. Harvard has May 28, 1799. A. A. S. 

1798. Oct. 15, 22. 
Nov. 26. 
Dec. 10. 

[Newburgh] Orange County Gazette, 1799. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 17, 1799, judging from the 
date of the only issue located, that of Dec. 31, 1799, vol. 
1, no. 3, published by J[acob] Schultz, and J[oseph] W. 
Barber, with the title of "The Orange County Gazette." 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 31, 1799. 

[Newburgh] Orange County Gazette, 1819. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Orange Comity Gazette" of Goshen. 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

The paper was removed from Goshen to Newburgh in 
1818 or 1819, and the only issue loeated is that of Nov. 
22, 1819, vol 12, no. 36, entitled. "The Orange County 
Gazette, and Newburgh Public Advertiser," of quarto 
size, but without publisher's name or imprint. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 22, 1819. 

[Newburgh] Orange County Patriot, 1811-1812, see under 

Newburgh Packet, 1793-1795. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1793, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 3, 
1795, vol. 2, no. 62, published by Lucius Carey, with the 
title of "The Newburgh Packet." The last issue located 
is that of Apr. 21, 1795, vol. 2, no. 73. Carey removed 
to Geneva in 1796. 

Albany Inst, has Feb. 3 -Apr. 21, 1795. 

[Newburgh] Political Index, 1806- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 17, 1806, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of May 1, 1806, 
vol. 1, no. 3, published by Ward M. Gazlay, with the 
title of "Political Index." Continued by Gazlay until 
after 1820. 

Newburgh Free Lib. has May 8, 1806 -Dec. 15, 1812; 
Apr. 27, Aug. 31, Nov. 23, 1813; Jan. 4, Mar. 15, May 24, 
June 7, Nov. 1, 1814; July 18, 1815; May 7 -July 23, 
Aug. 20, Sept. 3, 17-Oct. 22, Nov. 26-Dec. 31, 1816; 
Jan. 7, 1817 -Dec. 26, 1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 1, 
1806 -May 21, 1807. Harvard has Sepjt. 4-18, Oct. 16, 
1806. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 5, 1811 -Apr. 6, 1813. 
Albany Inst, has Mar. 29, 1809; Mar. 13, 1810; Mar. 26, 
Apr. 23, 1811; Jan. 7, 14, July 14, Nov. 24, 1812; Mar. 
15, 1814. Lib. Congress has Jan. 4- July 25, Oct. 31- 
Dec. 26, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1806. Apr. 17 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: May 22, July 3, 24, 31, Aug. 7, 

21, Sept. 11, Oct. 9, Nov. 6. 
Missing: Apr. 17, 24. 


New York. 71 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 8, 22, Feb. 12, 26, Mar. 

19, Apr. 30, May 7, 14, 28, June 3, 24, 

July 1, 15, 22, 29, Sept. 2-Oct. 7. 

Missing: Feb. 19, Oct. 14 -Dec. 30. 


Feb. 17. 

June 22. 


Mar. 8. 


Aug. 27. 

Sept. 3, 10, 17. 

Oct. 1, 15, 22, 29. 

Nov. 10. 

Dec. 24. 


Jan. 21. 

Feb. 4, 18. 

Mar. 3, 10, 17, 31. 

Apr. 7, 14, 21. 

May 12. 

June 2. 

July 7, 14, 21. 

Nov. 17. 

Dec. 1, 8. 


Apr. 20. 

Aug. 10. 

Oct. 12. 

Nov. 2, 16. 

Dec. 7, 21. 


May 10. 


Dec. 12'\ 


June 16. 

[Newburgh] Recorder of the Times, 1803-1806. 

Weekly. Established June 22, 1803, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 3, 1803, 
vol. 1, no. 7, published by Dennis Coles, with the title of 
" Recorder of the Times." The last issue located is that 
of Aug. 22, 1805, vol. 3, no. 10. Discontinued early in 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Harvard has May 30, June 20-Nov. 21, 1804, fair; 
Jan. 17, Feb. 7-28, May 10, June 6, 20, July 18, Aug. 1, 
22, 1805. Newburgh Free Lib. has Aug. 29, 1804; 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1, 1804. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Aug. 3. 

1804. Feb. 8. 

Newburgh Republican, 1811. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 15, 1811, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Feb. 5, 1811, vol. 1, no. 4, 
published by Eldad Lewis, with the title of "The New- 
burgh Republican." The last issue located is that of 
Mar 12, 1811, vol. 1, no. 9. It was discontinued with the 
succeeding issue, and was then combined with the " Orange 
County Patriot," which was removed from Goshen to 
Newburgh. See under Goshen — Orange County Patriot. 
A. A. S. has: 
1811. Feb. 5'". 

Mar. 5, 12. 

[Newburgh] Rights of Man, 1799-1806. 

Weekly. Established in November, 1799, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 14, 
1800, vol. 1, no. 24, published by Benoni H. Howell, for 
Elias Winfield, with the title of "The Rights of Man." 
At some time between Aug. 25 and Oct. 20, 1800, Howell 
retired and the paper was printed by Elias Winfield. In 
January, 1801, Dennis Coles became the publisher and 
started a new volume numbering. In January, 1803, the 
paper was transferred to Robert Hinchman, the word 
"The" was dropped from the title and a new volume 
numbering was again adopted. David Denniston became 
editor of the paper soon after April, 1803, although his 
name was not given in the imprint, but died Dec. 13, 
1803. With the issue of Apr. 9, 1804, Hinchman retired, 
and Thomas Wilson became the publisher and continued 
the paper to the date of the last issue located, that of 
Mar. 13, 1806, vol. 4, no. 10. Wilson went to Pough- 
keepsie, to establish "The Farmer," in April, 1806. 

1918.] New York. 73 

Newburgh Free Lib. has Apr. 14-28, Oct. 20, 1800; 
May 13, 1802; Aug. 15, 1803; Mar. 5, July 23/1804- 
Jan. 14, 1805. Harvard lias Aug. 18, 1800; Apr. 12, 
1803; Jan. 7, 14, 28, Feb. 4, 25, Mar. 18, Apr. 29, May G, 
June 4, 18, 25, July 9, 16, Aug. 13, 27 -Oct. 9, 23, Nov. 

20, Dec. 4 

, 11, 25, 1805; Jan. 1, 22 -Feb. 12, 27, Mar. 13, 

1806. N. 

Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 3, 1800. Rutgers Coll. 

has Jan. 

28, 1805. Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has 

Jan. 22, 1806. A. A. S. has: 


May 26. 


Sept. 12. 

Nov. 14. 


Jan. 9. 

Mar. 5, 12. 

Apr. 9. 

May 21. 

June 11. 


Sept. 3. 

[Newtown] Investigator, 1819-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1819, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 1, 1821, 
vol. 2, no. 88. The publisher was Job Smith (French, 
"Gazetteer of New York/' 1800, p. 218). Newtown was 
the former name of Elmira. 

[Newtown] Telegraph, 1815-1818. 

Weekly. Established in November, 1815, judging 
from the date of the first and only issue located, that of 
Sept. 9, 1817, vol. 2, no. 45, published at Newtown 
Village [now Elmira] by W[illiam] Murphy, with the title 
of " The Telegraph. " There is a reference to the Newtown 
Telegraph in the " Federal Republican," Baltimore, of 
Sept. 30, 1816. In a list of New York newspapers of Jan. 
1, 1818, it is recorded as published by A[ ] & E[ ] 
Harkness (Munsell, " Typographical Miscellany," p. 132). 
The paper was succeeded in 1818 by "The Vedette." 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 9, 1817. 

74 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Newtown] Vedette, 1818 - 1819. 

Weekly. Established July 4, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 15, 1818, 
vol. 1, no. 7, published by W[illiam] Murphy, with the 
title of "The Vedette." The last issue located is that of 
July 10, 1819. 

A. A. S. has: 

1818. Aug. 15™. 

1819. July 10. 

Norwich Journal, 1816-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 14, 1816, by J[ohn] F. 
Hubbard, with the title of "The Norwich Journal," and 
so continued until after 1820. 

Norwich Journal has Nov. 14, 1816 -Dec. 20, 1820. 

[Norwich] Olive Branch, 1808. 

Weekly. Removed from Sherburne and established 
at Norwich without change of title or volume numbering. 
The first issue at Norwich was that of Feb. 13, 1808, vol. 
2, no. 91, published by John F. Fairchild & Co., with 
the title of "Olive Branch." The last issue located is 
that of Mar. 26, 1808, vol. 2, no. 97. 

N. Y. State Lib. has Feb. 13 -Mar. 26, 1808. 

[Norwich] Republican Agriculturist, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 10, 1818, by Thurlow 
Weed, with the title of "Republican Agriculturist, and 
continued by him for about fourteen months (French, 
"Gazetteer of New York, "p. 224, and Howell & Tenney, 
"History of Albany County, " p. 373). No copy located. 

[Norwich] Telegraph, 1812-1814. 

Weekly. Established in August, 1812, judging from 
the date of the first and only issue located, that of Jan. 
18, 1814, vol. 2, no. 75, published by James M. Miller, 
with the title of "The Telegraph." 

Municipal Museum, Rochester, has Jan. 18, 1814. 

1918.] New York. 75 

[Norwich] Volunteer, 1814-181G. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 4, 1814, with the title of 
"The Volunteer," printed by James M. Miller, for Lot 
Clark. The issue of Feb. 7, 1816, vol. 2, no. 71, the last 
located, was printed by John Burgess Johnson. 

Harvard has Oct. 4, 1814. Lib. Congress has Feb. 7, 

Ogdensburgh Palladium, 1810-1814. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 27, 1810, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 19, 1811, 
vol. 1, no. 13, published by Kipp & Strong (John C. Kipp 
and Timothy C. Strong), with the title of "Ogdensburgh 
Palladium, and St. Lawrence Advertiser." At some 
time between Feb. 26 and Apr. 23, 1811, Strong retired 
and the paper was published by J. C. & L. Kip (John C. 

and L Kip). Late in 1812, the paper was purchased 

and published by John P. Sheldon, who continued it until 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 13, 1811. A. A. S. has: 
1811. Feb. 19. 
Apr. 23. 
July 30. 
1813. Feb. 3. 

(Ogdensburgh] St. Lawrence Gazette, 1815-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1815, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 23, 
1817, vol. 3, no. 105, published by Strachan & Fairchild, 
with the title of "St. Lawrence Gazette." In a sketch 
of the county press written before 1850 from papers then 
in existence, it is stated that the "St. Lawrence Gazette" 
was established by David R. Strachan and Piatt B. 
Fairchild, and was continued by them until after 1820 
(Munsell, "Typographical Miscellany," p. 113). 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 23, 1817 -Dec. 22, 1818. 

[Olean] Hamilton Recorder, see under Hamilton. 

76 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Onondaga] Gazette, 1816- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in January, 1816, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located /that of Apr. 24,1816, 
vol. 1, no. 14, published by Evander Morse, Jun., with 
the title of " Gazette; and Onondaga Advertiser," issued 
at Onondaga Court House. William Ray edited the 
paper, but retired in October, 1816 (see " Advocate of the 
People/' Auburn, Oct, 2, 30, 1816). Morse was the 
publisher certainly as late as January, 1818 (see "Albany 
Argus, " Jan. 6, 1818). Continued until after 1820. 

Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 24, 1816. A. A. S. has: 

1816. Sept. 25. 
Oct. 2 m . 

1817. July 9. 

[Onondaga] Lynx, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established at Onondaga Hollow in Decem- 
ber, 1811, by Thomas C. Fay, with the title of "The 
Lynx." In September, 1812, the name of Thurlow 
Weed appeared as printer and publisher, and in October, 
1812, the paper was discontinued (see J. V. H. Clark, 
"Onondaga," 1849, vol. 2, p. 132, and Thurlow Weed, 
"Selections from Newspaper Articles," 1877, pp. 14, 16). 
No copy located. 

Onondaga Register, 1814- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Sept. 28, 1814, by L[ewis] H. 
Redfield & Co., with the title of "Onondaga Register, " 
printed at Onondaga Hollow. In April, 1817, the paper 
was published by Redfield & Morse (Lewis H. Redfield 

and Morse), and the title was altered to "The 

Onondaga Register. " In 1818 Lewis II. Redfield became 
sole publisher. Continued until after 1820. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 26, 1814. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has May 7, 1817. A. A. S. has: 
1814. Sept. 28- 

1817. Apr. 30. 

1818. Sept. 23'". 
Dec. 30. 

1918.] New York. 77 

Oswego Gazette, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established in 1817 by S[eth] A. Abbey & 
Bro. ; and by them transferred to Augustus Buckingham 
("History of Oswego County/' 1877, p. 117). In a list 
of New York newspapers of Jan.' 1, 1818, published in the 
"Albany Argus" of Jan. G, 1818, it is recorded as pub- 
lished by A. Buckingham. It was succeeded in 1819 by 
the "Oswego Palladium." No copy located. 

Oswego Palladium, 1819-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 7, 1819, by John Haines 
Lord, Jim., with the title of "Oswego Palladium." 
Continued by him until after 1820. 

Oswego City Lib. has Oct. 14, 1819 -Nov. 2, 1820. 

Otsego Herald, 1807-1813, see under Cooperstown. 
Ovid Gazette, 1817-1818. 

Established apparently in 1817, succeeding the "Seneca 
Patriot." It appears in a list of newspapers of Jan. 1, 
1818 ("Albany Argus," Jan. G, 1818), where the name of 
Michael Hayes is given as the publisher. No copy 

[Ovid] Seneca Patriot, 1815-1817. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 25, 1815, by George Lewis 
& Co., with the title of "Seneca Patriot." Lewis is 
given as the editor as late as October, 181G ("Advocate 
of the People," Auburn, Oct. 30, 1816), and continued 
until May, 1817 (see Munsell's "Typographical Mis* 
cellany,"p. 128). 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 8, 1815. A. A. S. has: 
1815. Aug. 25. 

Sept. 1, 8, 15. 
Oct. G. 

[Owego] American Farmer, 1803-1814. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 24, 1803, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 14, 1803, 
vol. 1, no. 4, published by Steward & Mack (Henry 
Steward and Stephen Mack), with the title of "American 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Farmer." The imprint states that it was published at 
"Tioga, (Owego Village, N. Y.)." Early in 1804, 
Steward sold out his interest, and the paper was published 
by Stephen Mack alone. In the winter of 1813, Stephen 
B. Leonard purchased a half interest. Mack died Apr. 
16, 1814, and in June, 1814, Leonard discontinued the 
paper under its early title, changing the name to "The 
Owego Gazette" (see history of paper in "Owego Gazette" 
of Nov. 22, 1900). 

Harvard has Sept. 14, 21, Oct. 5, 1803; Oct. 24, 31, 
1804. L. W. Kingman, Owego, has Mar. 13, July 20, 
1807; Feb. 8, 1809; Oct. 9, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Sept. 14. 
Oct. 20. 

1810. July 11, 18. 

Owego Gazette, 1814- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in June, 1814, by Stephen B. 
Leonard, with the title of "The Owego Gazette," suc- 
ceeding the "American Farmer." On June 15, 1815, 
Ebenezer Mack entered into partnership with Leonard 
(see "Owego Gazette" of Nov. 22, 1900), but the partner- 
ship did not last long, expiring before February, 1816, 
when Stephen B. Leonard was again sole publisher. The 
paper was continued by Leonard until after 1820. 

LeRoy W. Kingman, Owego, has Dec. 14, 1814; Jan. 
19, Mar. 30, Aug. 3, 24, 31, Sept. 21, Oct. 5, 19, 1819; 
Aug. 22, 1820. Cornell Lib. has Feb. 13, 20, 1816. Lib. 
Congress has Feb. 17, 1816. 

[Owego] National Whig, 1801-1803. 

Weekly. Established by Daniel Cruger, Jun., at 
Owego, to which town Cruger removed from Union late 
in 1801. He sold his establishment to Steward & Mack 
in August, 1803. These publishers changed the title to 
the "American Farmer," stating in an advertisment in 
that paper in the issue of Sept. 14, 1803, that they had 
purchased Cruger's establishment and were sending the 
new paper to all the former subscribers of the "National 
Whig. " No copy located. 

1918.1 New York. 79 

[Oxford] Chenango Patriot, 1809-1811. 

Weekly. Established in April, 1809, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 7, 1810, 
vol. 2, no. 11, published by John B. Johnson, with the 
title of " Chenango Patriot." The last issue located is 
that of Jan. 29, 1811. 

Review-Times office, Oxford, has Jan. 29, 1811. 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. Aug. 7. 

Oxford Gazette, 1813- 1820+ . 

Established Dec. 7, 1813, by Chauncey Morgan, with 
the title of "Oxford Gazette," and so continued until 
after 1820. 

Oxford Lib. has Dec. 7, 1813 -Dec. 27, 1820. 

[Oxford] President, 1808. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 27, 1808, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Apr. 2, 
1808, vol. 1, no. 6, published by Theophilus Eaton, with 
the title of "The President." 
A. A. S. has: 
1808. Apr. 2. 
Palmyra Register, 1817- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 20, 1817, by Timothy C. 
Strong, with the title of "The Palmyra Register," and 
continued until after 1820 (see Follett, "Press of Western 
New- York", 1847, p. 63, and Munsell, "Typographical 
Miscellany," p. 133). No copy located. 

[Peekskill] Westchester Gazette, 1808-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in October, 1808, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 28, 1810, 
vol. 2, no. 96, published by Robert Crumbie, with the 
title of "Westchester Gazette; and Peekskill Advertiser." 
The issue of Aug. 3, 1812, has this same title, but the next 
issue located, that of Apr. 9, 1814, is entitled "West- 
chester & Putnam Gazette. " Crumbie was the publisher 
as late as April, 1818, when the title was "Westchester 
Gazette." The paper was continued until after 1820. 

80 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 3, 1812. Albany Inst, has 
Apr. 9, 1814. Franklin Couch, Peekskill, has Apr. 25, 
1818. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Aug. 28. 

Penn-Yan Herald, 1818- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in May, 1818, judging from the 
date of the first and only copy located, that of Jan. 25, 
1820, vol. 2, no. 90, published by A[braham] H. Bennett, 
with the title of "The Penn-Yan Herald.' ' There is a 
reference to its establishment in the "Auburn Gazette" 
of May 27, 1818, and to the marriage on Oct. 4, of Abra- 
ham II. Bennett, "one of the editors," in the issue of 
Oct. 14, 1818. 

A. A. S. has: 
1820. Jan. 25. 

[Peterboro] Freeholder, 1807-1813. 

Weekly. Established in January, 1807, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of June 27, 
1810, vol. 4, no. 179, published by Jonathan Bunce, & Co., 
with the title of "The -Freeholder." At some time 
between May 8, 1811 and Jan. 29, 1812, vol. 6, no. 202, 
Jonathan Bunce became sole proprietor. In J. H. Smith's 
"History of Chenango and Madison Counties," p. 691, 
it is stated that this paper was established as the "Madi- 
son Freeholder" in 1808 by Peter Smith, who employed 
Jonathan Bunce to edit it, and that the name was 
changed to "The Freeholder," and in 1813 to the "Madi- 
son County Herald." Bunce's printing-office was des- 
troyed by fire, Jan. 18, 1813 (Munsell, "Typographical 
Miscellany," p. 118). 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 26, 1810; May 8, 1811; Jan. 
29, 1812. A. A. S. has: 
1810. June 27. 

[Peterboro] Gazette, 1817, see under Morrisville. 
[Peterboro] Madison County Herald, 1813-1819. 

Established in 1813 by Jonathan Bunce, with the title 
of "Madison County Herald" (Munsell, "Typographical 

1918.] New York. 81 

Miscellany, " p. 119). It is recorded in a list of New York 
newspapers given in the "Albany Argus" of Dec. 20, 
1815, and also in a list in the "Albany Argus" of Jan. 6, 
1818, where the editor is given as Jonathan Bunce. No 
copy located. 

[Pittsburgh] American Monitor, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 4, 1809, by Nichols k 
Lowell (George W. Nichols and Samuel Lowell), with the 
title of "American Monitor." On Sept. 1, 1809, Lowell 

was replaced by Marsh, and the paper was published 

by Nichols & Marsh. In October, 1809, Samuel Lowell 
became sole publisher. The paper was suspended with 
the issue of Nov. 10, 1810, vol. 2, no. 63, being succeeded 
by "The Clinton Advertiser." 

A. A. S. has: 

1809. Aug. % 11, 18. 
Sept. 22, 29. 
Oct. 14. 
Nov. 11, 18". 
Dec. 16. 

1810. Jan. 6, 13, 20. 
Feb. 3, 17. 
Mar. 3, 17, 31. 
Apr. 7, 28. 
May 12. 

June 16, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 28. 
Aug. 4, 18, 25. 
Sept. 8, 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10. 

[Pittsburgh] Clinton Advertiser, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 17, 1810, by Samuel 
Lowell, with the title of "The Clinton Advertiser." It 
was of quarto size, and succeeded the "American Moni- 
tor," continuing the advertisements, but adopting a new 
volume numbering. It was succeeded in March, 1811, 
by the "Political Observatory." 

82 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

A. A. S. has: 

1810. Nov. 17. 

1811. Jan. 12. 

[Pittsburgh] Northern Herald, 1812-1815. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1812, by Samuel Lowell, 
with the title of "The Northern Herald." It succeeded 
his other paper, the "Political Observatory/ ' continuing 
the advertisements, but adopting a new volume number- 
ing. In April, 1813, judging from later issues, the paper 
was printed by Frederic C. Powell, for the Proprietor, a 
new volume numbering being started. Early in 1814, it 
was printed by F. C. Powell for the Proprietors. The 
last issue located is that of Aug. 20,1814, vol. 2, no. 21. 
In a list of currently issued neswpapers printed in the 
"Albany Argus" of Dec. 26, 1815, is recorded the Pitts- 
burgh Herald, which would indicate a change of title. 

A. A. S. has: 

1812. Jan. 11. 

1813. Oct. 26. 
Dec. 23. 

1814. July 1. 
Aug. 26. 

[Plattsburgh] Political Observatory, 1811. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 29, 1811, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 12, 1811, 
vol. 1, no. 3, published by Samuel Lowell, with the title 
of "Political Observatory." It succeeded "The Clinton 
Advertiser," continuing the advertisements, but adopting 
a new volume numbering. It was suspended with the 
issue of Dec. 28, 1811, to be succeeded by "The Northern 
A. A. S. has: 
1811. Apr. 12. 

May 4, 11, 18. 
June 8, 15, 22, 29. 
July 6, 13, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

1918.] New York. 83 

[Pittsburgh] Republican, 1811-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 13, 1811, with the title of 
"Republican," printed for the Proprietors, by L[ ] 
J. Reynolds. In October, 1811, it was printed by Cady 
& Flagg (Heman Cady and. Azariah C. Flagg), for the 
Proprietors; but with the issue of Nov. 8, 1811, it was 
printed by Azariah C. Flagg, for the Proprietors. In 
October, 1813, the title was changed to "Plattsburgh 
Republican." The paper was continued by Flagg until 
after 1820. 

Harvard has July 19, 1811 -Dec. 24, 1814, scattering 
issues. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 18, Apr. 8, 1815. 
A. A. S. has: 

1811. Apr. 20. 

May, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
June 7, 14, 21, 28. 
July 12, 19, 26. . 
Aug. 16. 
Sept. 13. 
Oct. 4, 25. 

Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
: 1812. Sept. 4, 18. 

1813. Jan. 8. 
Apr. 16, 30. 
May 7. 
Aug. 28. 
Sept. 4. 
Oct. 16, 23. 
Dec. 11, 25. 

1814. June 11. 
Oct. 29. 
Dec. 17. 

1815. Jan. 28. 
May 20. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 16. 
Oct. 21. 
Dec. 2. 

84 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1816. Apr. 13. 

May 18. 
June 29. 
July 20. 
1819. Sept. 4. 

Potsdam Gazette, 1816- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 13, 1816, by Ffrederic] C. 
Powell, with the title of " Potsdam Gazette. " Continued 
until after 1820. (See Munsell, "Typographical Mis- 
cellany," p. 13). 

A. A. S. has: 

1816. June 21. 

1817. Aug. 8. 

[Poughkeepsie] American Farmer, 1798-1800. 

Weekly. Established June 8, 1798, by John Woods, 
with the title of "American Farmer, and Dutchess 
County Advertiser." Discontinued with the issue of 
July 22, 1800, vol. 3, no. 8. 

N. J. Hist. Soc. has June 8, 1798 -July 22, 1800. 
Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has June 8, 1798. Harvard 
has Sept. 10, 1799. Lib. Congress has Jan. 28, Feb. 18, 
1800. A. A. S. has: 

1799. July 25. 
Oct. 22, 29. 
Dec. 17. 

1800. Apr. 1, 22. 

[Poughkeepsie] Country Journal, 1785-1789. 

W r eekly. Established Aug. 11, 1785, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 13, 1785, 
no. 10, published by Nicholas Power, with the title of 
"The Country Journal, and the Poughkeepsie Adver- 
tiser." At some time between Sept. 23 and Oct. 14, 
1788, the title was altered to ''The Country Journal, and 
Dutchess and Ulster County Farmer's Register." With 
the issue of either July 14 or 21, 1789, the title was 
changed to "The Poughkeepsie Journal," which see. 

1918.] New York. 85 

Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has Oct. 13, 1785; Jan. 
10 -Oct. 24, Dec. 5-26, 1787; Dec. 9, 1788; Feb. 24- 
June 23, 1789. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 12, 1788; July 
7, 1789. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 12, 1788. A. A. S. 

1786. Nov. 1. 

Dec. 6, 13, 27. 

1787. Jan. 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Apr. 11, 18. 

May 9, 23. 
June 13, 20, 27. 
July 4, 11, 18. 
Aug. 1, 8, 22. 
Sept. 5, 12, 26. 
'Oct. 3, 10, 17. 
Nov. 14. 
Dec. 26. 
Supplement: Mar. 21. 

1788. Jan. 9, 22. 
Feb. 19, 26. 
Mar. 4, 18. 
Apr. 8, 15. 
May 6, 13. 
June 3. 

July 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 2, 16. 
Oct. 14, 21, 28. 
Nov. 25. 
Dec. 2, 23. 
Supplement: Jan. 22. 

1789. Jan. 13, 27. 
Feb. 10. 
Mar. 3, 17™ 
Apr. 7, 28. 
May 19. 

86 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Poughkeepsie] Dutchess Observer, 1815-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established May 10, 1815, by Barnum & 
Nelson (Charles P. Barnum and Richard Nelson), with 
the title of "Dutchess Observer. " With the issue of Jan. 
8, 1817, the title was changed to "The Dutchess Obser- 
ver," but with that of Mar. 17, 1819, reverted to its 
earlier form. With the issue of Nov. 17, 1819, the part- 
nership was dissolved and the paper published by Charles 
P. Barnum. With the issue of May 17, 1820, Nicholas 
Jacacks was admitted to partnership and the paper 
published by Barnum & Jacacks. With the issue of 
Nov, 1, 1820, the title was again altered to "The Dutchess 
Observer." Continued until after 1820. 

Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has May 10, 1815- 
Dec. 27, 1820. Lib. Congress has Dec. 31, 1817; May 

24, 1819 -Apr. 5, 1820, fair. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 

25, 1818. A. A. S. has: 

1816. July 24. 
1818. June 17. 

[Poughkeepsie] Farmer, 1806-1807. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 15, 1806, by Thomas 
Wilson, with the title of "The Farmer. " The last issue 
located is that of Feb. 10, 1807, vol. 1, no. 41. The paper 
was suspended in May, 1807, immediately after the State 
election (see "Republican Crisis," of Albany, June 19, 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 15, 1806 -Feb. 10, 1807. 
Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has Apr. 22, Nov. 25, 1806. 
Harvard has May 13, 20, June 3, Aug. 12, 1806. A. A. S. 

1806; Apr. 29. 

May 13, 20. 
June 10. 
Aug. 5. 

1807. Jan. 6. 
Feb. 3. 

1918 ] New York. 87 

[Poughkeepsie] Guardian, 1801-1802. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 10, 1801, by Buel & Joyner 
(Jesse Buel and Nathaniel Joyner), with the title of "The 
Guardian." It was discontinued with the issue of June 
1 ; 1802, vol. 1, no. 30, to be succeeded by the "Political 
Barometer," which see. 

Harvard has Dec. 15, 22, 1801; Jan. 19 -May 25, 1802. 
Lib. Congress has Mar. 30, May 4, 25, 1802. Adriance 
Lib., Poughkeepsie, has June 1, 1802. 

Poughkeepsie Journal, 1789 - 1820 -f. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Country Journal, "the first issue with 
the new title of "The Poughkeepsie Journal" being that 
of either July 14 or 21, 1789, published by Nicholas 
Power. At some time between Mar. 30 and May 25, 
1796, the imprint became Nicholas Power and Company. 
A few weeks later, probably with the issue of Sept. 28, 
1796, the paper was published by Nicholas Power and 
Richard Vanderburgh. With the issue of Nov. 9, 1796, 
the partnership was dissolved and the paper again pub- 
lished by Nicholas Power alone. With the issue of Mar. 
■27, 1798, Henry C. Southwick was admitted to partner- 
ship, and the paper was published by Power and South- 
wick. At some time between Nov. 11, 1800 and Mar. 30, 
1802, Southwick retired and the paper was published by 
Nicholas Power. On May 25, 1802, Power took a 
partner into business, under the firm name of Nicholas 
Power and Co., and at this time the title was changed to 
"The Poughkeepsie Journal, and Constitutional Republi- 
can. " Before the end of the year 1802, the initial "The" 
was omitted from the title. With the issue of Jan. 7, 
1806, the paper was purchased and published by Bowman 
and Potter (Godfrey Bowman and Paraclete Potter). 
With the issue of Apr. 1, 1806, Chester Parsons was 
admitted to the firm, which bcame Bowman, Parsons & 
Potter. In August, 1809, the firm was dissolved and the 
paper published by Paraclete Potter. With the issue of 
May 24, 1815, the title was shortened to "Poughkeepsie 

88 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Journal." The paper was so continued until after 1820. 
Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has Aug. 11, Sept. 1- 
Oct. 13, 27 -Nov. 10, 24, Dec. 8, 15, 1789.; Nov. 24, 1791; 
Jan. 27, Nov. 16, 1790; Aug. 8, 1797; Feb. 14, Nov. 6, 
1804; Mar. 12, 1805; Jan. 14, 1806-Dec. 30, 1807; Apr. 
6, 1808-Feb. 1, 1809; Jan. 3, 1810-Dec. 27, 1820. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Dec. 22, 29, 1789; Jan. 12, 19, 1790; Aug. 
16, 1803; July 19, 1815. Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 1- 
Sept. 18, 1793; Feb. 20-July 9, 1794; Nov. 27, 1798; Oct. 
1, 1799. Harvard has Nov. 18, 1795; Apr. 12, Aug. 1, 
1797; Mar. 30, 1802; Jan. 4, Oct. 11, 1803; Feb. 14, Apr. 
10, Sept. 4, 25, Dec. 25, 1804; Jan. 1, 1805; Apr. 8, Oct. 
14, 1806. Boston Pub. Lib., has Apr. 6, May 15, 1790. 
Yale has Jan. 13 - Feb. 3, 17, 24, 1796. Lib. Congress lias 
May 20, 1812; Oct. 13, 1813; July 15, 1818 -Sept. 13, 
1820, scattering issues. A. A. S. has: 

1789. July 21, 28. 
Aug. 4, 18, 25. 
Sept, 1, 8/ 15. 
Oct. 6, 27. 

Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22. 

1790. Jan. 19, 26. 

Apr. 20, 27. 
May 4, 11, 15, 29. 
June 12, 19, 26. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Aug. 7, 14. 
Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 16. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20. 
Dec. 18, 25. 

1791. Jan. 1, S m . 
Feb. 5, 19. 

Mar. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
May 12"', 26. 
June 2, 16, 30. 

1918.]. New York. 89 

July 7, 14, 21. 
Aug. 4, 11, 25. 
Sept, 1, 8, 22, 29. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 8, 15, 29. 

1792. Jan. 5, 19. 
Feb. 2™, 16, 23. 
Mar. 1, 8, 15, 29™. 
Apr. 5. 

May 3 m , 17. 
June 14. 
July 5, 12, 19. 
Aug. 1™, 15. 
Sept. 19, 26. 

1793. Jan. 9. 
Feb. 13, 27. 
Mar. 6, 13, 27. 
Apr. 10, 24. 
May 1, 8. 
Oct. 23. 

1795. Nov. 18. 

1796. Mar. 23™. 
May 25™. 

June 2"', 15™, 29. 

July 13. 

Oct. 12, 19, 26. 

Nov. 2. 

Dec. 21. 

1797. Jan. 25. 

Feb. 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1, 22, 29. 
Aug. 15. 

1798. Mar. 6, 13. 
May 8"». 
June 12™. 

Extraordinary: Mar. 6, Mar. 13. 
1800. Oct. 28™. 
Nov. 4 m . 

90 American A7itiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1802. July 6. 

1803. Aug. 16. 
Sept. 6, 27. 

1804. Mar. 13, 20. 
1806. Feb. 25. 

June 3. 
July 1. 
Oct. 7. 
Dec. 9. 
1808. Feb. 17. 

1810. Dec. 5. 

1811. June 5. 

1812. May 13. 
June 17, 24. 
July 1, 15. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 9, 23. 
Nov. 18. 
Dec. 2. 

1813. Feb. 3. 

Mar. 3, 10, 24. 

[Poughkeepsie] New-York Journal, 1778-1782. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The New- York Journal, 5 ' suspended at 
Kingston in October, 1777. The first Poughkeepsie issue 
was that of May 11, 1778, no. 1772, published by John 
Holt, with the title of "The New- York Journal, and the 
General Advertiser." It was suspended from Nov. 6, 
1780 to July 30, 1781, because of scarcity of paper and 
lack of financial support. After being resumed with the 
issue of July 30, 1781, it was suspended with the issue of 
Jan. 6, 1782, no. 1926, to allow Hblt to print the State 
Laws. The paper was revived by Holt at New York, 
under the title of "The Independent New-York Gazette, " 
Nov. 22, 1783. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 11, 1778 -Nov. 6, 1780; July 
30, 1781 -Jan. 6, 1782. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 11, 
1778 -Dec. 27, 1779; Jan. 31, Mar. 6, May 8, 22, 29, June 

1918.] New York. 91 

19, 2G, Sept. 11; Oct. 30, 1780; July 30, Sept. 3, 10, 24, 
Oct. 1, 15, 22, Nov. 5 -26, Dec. 10, 17, 1781. Lib. 
Congress has May 11, 18, June 8-29, July 20, Aug. 3- 
Sept. 14, 28, Oct. 12 -Nov. 30, Dec. 14, 21, 1778; Jan. 11, 

18, Feb. 8, Apr. 19, June 7, 14, July 5, 19, Aug. 16, Sept. 

20, Oct. 11, 18, Dec. 13, 1779. Phil. Lib. Co. has June 1, 
July 13, Oct. 5, Dec. 7, 1778; Feb. 1, 22, Mar. 1, Apr. 19, 
July 12, Aug. 16, Sept. 6, 1779. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
Aug. 31, Oct. 5, 12, Nov. 2, 23, 30, 1778; Feb. 15, Sept. 6, 
Oct. 4, 1779; Aug. 7, 1780; July 30, Sept. 24, Oct. 15, 29, 
Nov. 19, 1781. Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has Oct. 

19, 1778. Boston Pub. Lib. has Sept. 20, 1779. Albany 
Inst, has Sept. 3, 1781. A. A. S. has: 

1778. July 20. 

Aug. 10, 24™, 31". 
Oct. 19. 
Nov. 30. 
Dec. 21™. 

1779. Jan. 4. 
Feb. 22™. 
Mar. l'\ 
Apr. 12 m . 
May 10* 31. 
June 7 W , 21. 
July 5™. 
Aug. 9, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13, 20. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18-. 
Nov. 8. 

1780. Feb. 14. 
Mar. 27 m . 
Apr. 17 ,n . 
May 22"\ 
June 19 m . 
July 17. 
Oct. 23-. 
Nov. 6. 

1781. Aug. 6, 20. 

92 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Oct. 1, 29. 

Nov. 5. 

[Poughkecpsie] Northern Politician, 1812. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 16, 1812, by Isaac Mitchell 
with the title of "Northern Politician." It succeeded 
the " Political Barometer," continuing the advertise- 
ments, but adopting a new volume numbering. The 
last issue located is that of Oct. 21, 1812, vol. 1, no. 0. 
Mitchell died Nov. 2(3, 1812, being referred to in the 
obituaries as "editor of the Northern Politician, late the 
Political Barometer." 

Albany Inst, has Sept. 23, Oct. 21, 1812. 

[Poughkeepsie] Political Barometer, 1802-1812. 

Weekly. Established June 8, 1802, by Mitchell & 
Buel (Isaac Mitchell and Jesse Buel), with the title of 
" Political Barometer." It succeeded "The Guardian," 
but adopted a new volume numbering. With the issue 
of June 4, 1805, the partnership was dissolved, and Isaac 
Mitchell became sole publisher. With the issue of Sept. 
2, 180G, the paper was purchased and published by 
Thomas Nelson & Son. With the issue of Apr. 13, 1808, 
the partnership was dissolved and Joseph Nelson, who 
had been the junior editor, became sole publisher. In 
September, 1810, the paper was transferred to Charles 
C. Adams & Co. In September, 1812, the paper was 
discontinued under this title, to be succeeded by the 
"Northern Politician." 

Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has June 8, 1802 -Dec. 
30, 1807; Aug. 9, 1809. Harvard has June 15, 1802- 
Sept. 28, 1808, scattering issues. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
June 4, 1805 -May 27, 1807. Buffalo Hist. Soc. has May 
20, 1807 -May 24, 1809. N. J. Hist. Soc. has June 8- 
July 13, 1802. Lib. Congress has Oct. 20, 1802; May 10, 
1810. Albany Inst, has Aug. G-Dec. 24, 1805; Apr. 3, 
17, 30, 1811. Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 21, 1806. 
Newburgh Lib. has Sept. 10, 1807; May 11, June 15, 
1808. A. A. S. has: 

1918.1 New York. 93 

New York. 


Aug. 10. 


Jan. 3. 


Aug. 9. 

Nov. 1. 


Aug. 15. 


May 29. 

June 5. 

[Poughkeepsie] Republican Herald, 1811 -1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 28, 1811, by C[harles] C. 
Adams and D[aniel] MacDuffee, with the title of "Repub- 
lican Herald. " At some time before July 1, 1812, 
MacDuffee retired and the paper was published by 
Charles C. Adams alone. Adams died and it was 
published for Mrs. Adams in April, 1814. In Ma}', 
1814, the paper was purchased and published by Rudd & 
Stockholm (Reuben B. Rudd and Derick B. Stockholm). 
With the issue of Mar. 22, 1815, Rudd was replaced by 
Thomas Brownejohn and the paper was published by 
Stockholm & Brownejohn. Continued until after 1820. 

Adriance Lib., Poughkeepsie, has July 1, Aug. 26, 
1812; June 9, 1813; June 1, 1814; Jan. 4, Mar. 1, Apr. 
. 19, 1815; Mar. 19, 1817. Albany Inst, has July 8, 15, 
Sept. 9, 1812; Jan. 26, Mar. 23, 1814. Boston Pub. Lib. 
has Apr. 27, 1813. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 20, May 
25, June 8, 22, 1814. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4, 11, 
Feb. 15, Mar. 1, Apr. 12, 20, Sept. 27, Oct. 25, Nov. 15, 
29, 1815; May 1, 1816 -Apr. 23, 1817. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Aug. 19. 

1813. Mar. 3. 
Aug. 4, 18. 
Sept. 22. 

Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17. . 
Dec. 1, 29. 

1814. Jan. 5, 19, 26. 
Feb. 16, 23. 
Mar. 9. 
May 18. 

94 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

July 6, 13. 
Aug. 17, 21. 
Sept. 7. 
Oct. 5, 19, 26. 
Nov. 2, 9. 
1815. Mar. 8. 
May 3. 

[Poughkeepsie] Republican Journal, 1795-1796. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 30, 1795, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 21, 1795, 
vol. 1, no. 4, published by Nathan Douglas, with the 
title of ''Republican Journal. ,, On June 29, 1796, 
Douglas sold out and the paper was published by Richard 
Vanderburgh & Co. The last issue located is that of 
July 6, 1796, vol. 1, no. 41, and the paper was soon dis- 
continued, as Vanderburgh entered the management of 
"The Poughkeepsie Journal" in September, 1796. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 21, Nov. 4, 11, 18, Dec, 2, 
1795; June 8, 15, 22, 1796. Harvard has Nov. 18, Dec. 
23, 1795; May 25, June 8, 22, 1796. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has June 1, 1796. Mrs. Frank VanKleeck, Poughkeepsie, 
has July 6, 1796. A. A. S. has: 

1795. Nov. 4-, 11-, 25. 
Dec. 9, 30. 
Supplement: Dec. 16. 

1796. Feb. 24™. 

Rochester Gazette, 1816 -1820+. 

Weekly. Established in June, 1816, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of June 9, 1818, 
vol. 2, no. 102, published by A. G. Dauby & Co., with the 
title of " Rochester Gazette." Frederick Follett, in his 
"Press of Western New-York," 1847, p. 46, states that 
the paper was started by Augustine G. Dauby, that 
John Sheldon was associated with him for ten months 
immediately prior to removing to Detroit, and that 
Oran Follett succeeded Sheldon and remained with Dauby 
for a short time. John P. Sheldon established the 

1918.] New York. 95 

" Detroit Gazette," July 25, 1817, and Oran Follett 
established the "Spirit of the Times" at Batavia, Feb. 
3, 1819. In a list of New York newspapers of Jan. 1, 
(printed in the "Albany Argus" of Jan. 6, 1818), the 
"Rochester Gazette" is recorded as published by A. G. 
Dauby & Co. The issue of May 18, 1819 was published 
by A. G. Dauby. On Dec. 5, 1819, a fire entirely des- 
troyed the printing-office, and it was April, 1820, before 
Dauby was able to resume business. The issues in 
1820 were published by Augustine G. Dauby. 

Boston Athenaeum has June 9, 1818. Reynolds 
Lib., Rochester, has May 30 -Dec. 26, 1820. Chicago 
Hist, Soc. has June 6, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1819. May 18. 

Rochester Telegraph, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established July 7, 1818, by E[verard] Peck, 
& Co., with the title of "Rochester Telegraph." So 
continued until after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. and Reynolds Lib., Rochester, have 

July 7, 1818 -Dec. 26, 1820. Hist. Soc. Penn. has July 

7, 1818 -July 6, 1819. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4, Nov. 

" 14, 1820. Chicago Hist. Soc. has Nov. 21, 1820. A. A. S. 


1818. Sept. 22. 

1819. July 13, 20, 27. 

[Rome] Columbian Patriotic Gazette, 1799-1803. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 8, 1799, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 26, 1799, 
vol. 1, no. 8, published by Ebenezer Eaton & Thomas 
Walker, with the title of "Columbian Patriotic Gazette." 
The word "Patriotic" is in different type, so that the 
paper might possibly be called "Columbian Gazette." 
With the issue of Aug. 4, 1800, the paper was printed by 
Thomas Walker, for Eaton & Walker. With the issue 
of Aug. 3, 1801, the firm of Ebenezer Eaton and Thomas 
Walker dissolved partnership, and the paper was pub- 
lished by Thomas Walker. The last issue located is that 

96 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of Sept. 6, 1802, vol. 4, no. 102, and in March, 1803, 
Walker removed the paper to Utica, where he established 
it as the " Columbian Gazette." 

Harvard has Sept. 26, 1799; Aug. 25, 1800; Jan. 5- 
Feb. 2, Mar. 2, Apr. 13, 27, July 13, 1801; Feb. 1, 1802. 
Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has Aug. 4, 1800 Extra; Feb. 
15, Mar. 8, 1802. Boston Athenaeum has Nov. 17, 
1800. Lib. Congress has Apr. 27, 1801. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has July 28, 1800; July 27, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Feb. 24. 
Apr. 21. 
Aug. 11. 
Oct. 20. 
Nov. 17. 

1801. Apr. 13. 
Aug. 17, 24. 

1802. Sept. 6-. 

[Rome] Oneida Observer, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Removed from Utica, where it was called 
"The Utica Observer," and established at Koine as the 
"Oneida Observer" toward the close of the year 1818; 
it was returned to Utica in 1819 (Munsell, "Typographi- 
cal Miscellany," p. 138, and French, "Gazetteer of New 
York," 1860, p. 459). No copy located. 

Sacked Harbor Gazette, 181 7- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 17, 1817, by George Camp, 
with the title of "Sachet's Harbor Gazette" (F. B. Hough, 
"History of Jefferson County," 1854, p. 377). Early in 
1818, the title was changed to " Sacket's-Harbor Gazette 
& Advertiser." In February, 1820, Mathew M. Cole 
became the publisher and the title was changed to "The 
Sacket's Harbor Gazette." The paper was continued 
until after 1820. 

Yale has Oct. 27, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1818. June 9, 23. 

1918.] New York. 97 

[Sag Harbor] American Eagle, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 18, 1817, by Samuer A. 
Seabury, with the title of ''American Eagle," later 
changed to "American Eagle and Suffolk County General 
Advertiser. " Continued until after 1820. 

Jermain Lib., Sag Harbor, has May 8, 22, June 12, 
July 17, 24, Sept. 4, 11, 1819; July 8, 1820. Ivan Byram, 
Sag Harbor, has Feb. 13, 27, Mar. 27, Apr. 3, 1819. Long 
Id. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 10, 1818. 

[Sag Harbor] Frothingham's Long-Island Herald, 1791-1798. 

Weekly. Established May 10, 1791, by David Fro- 
thingham, with the title of "Frothingham's Long- 
Island Herald." The last issue located is that of Dec. 
17, 1798, vol. 7, no. 317. 

Ivan Byram, Sag Harbor, has May 10, June 14, 21, 
Aug. 9, 23, 30, Sept. 13, 27, Oct. 4, Nov. 1, 22, Dec. 20, 
1791; Jan. 5, Feb. 9, 16, Mar. 29, Apr. 12, 19, May 3, 
1792. Long. Id. Hist. Soc. has June 7, 1791; July 11, 
1793; Aug. 17, 1796; Feb. 1, Mar. 15 -Dec. 18, 1797, 
fair; Jan. 16, Mar 19 -Dec. 17, 1798, fair. Charles J. 
Werner, Huntington, N. Y., has Dec. 23, 1794; Apr. 13, 
May 11, 25, June 8, July 6, Dec. 14, 1795; Sept. 21, Oct. 

26, 1796; Jan. 25, Feb. 8, 28, May 3, 31, July 19, 26, 
Aug. 9, Sept. 27, Dec. 18, 1797. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
June 28, Sept. 6, 13, Oct, 4, 11, 25, Nov. 1, 22, Dec. 13- 

27, 1791; Jan. 5, Feb. 9, Nov. 29 -Dec. 20, 1792; Jan. 11, 
1796. Jermain Lib., Sag Harbor, has Dec. 6, 1792. 
Harvard has Mar. 12, 1798. A. A. S. has: 

1791. July 26. 
Sept. 13, 27. 
Oct. 4. 

1792. Apr. 12. 
July 12. 

[Sag Harbor] Suffolk County Herald, 1802-1803. 

Weekly. Established June 19, 1802, by Selleck 
Osborn, with the title of " Suffolk County Herald. " The 
last issue located is that of Jan. 3, 1803, vol. 1, no. 29. 

98 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Long. Id. Hist. Soc. has June 19 -Aug. 7, 21 -Sept. 11, 
Oct. 4, 11, Dec. 13, 1802; Jan. 3, 1803. Harvard has 
Nov. 29, 1802. Ivan Byram, Sag Harbor, has Sept. 4, 
1802. A. A. S. has: 
1802. Nov. 29. 

[Sag Harbor] Suffolk County Recorder, 1816-1817. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 19, 1816, by Samuel A. 
Seabury, with the title of "Suffolk County Recorder." 
Discontinued with the issue of Oct. 11, 1817, vol. 1, no. 
52, to be succeeded by the "American Eagle." 

Ivan Byram, Sag Harbor, has Oct. 19, 1816-Oct. 11, 
1817. Jermain Lib., Sag Harbor, has Oct. 26, 1816-Oct. 
11, 1817, fair file. A. A. S. has: 
1816. Oct. 19, 26. 

Nov. 2, 9, 23. 

[Sag Harbor] Suffolk Gazette, 1804-1811. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 20, 1804, by Alden Spooner, 
with the title of " Suffolk Gazette." With the issue of 
Sept. i, 1810, Spooner relinquished his control of the 
paper to a company, although continuing as printer, and 
the paper was printed by Alden Spooner, for the Pro- 
prietors. It was discontinued with the issue of Feb. 23, 
1811, vol. 6, no. 364. 

Jermain Lib., Sag Harbor, has Feb. 20, 1804 -Feb. 23, 
1811. Harvard has Feb. 20, 1804 -Apr. 14, 1806, fair. 
Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 8, 29, 1806; Jan. 21, Feb. 
25, Mar. 4, 18, Apr. 1, 29, May 6, 20, 27, June 17, 1809; 
Feb. 2, 1811. Albany Inst, has Jan. 14, Apr. 15, 1809. 

A. A. S. has: 

1804. Feb. 20. 
Mar. 5. 
Aug. 20. 
Sept. 17, 24. 
Oct. 1, 15, 29. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19. 
Dec. 3, 17, 24, 31. 


New York. 


1805. Jan. 7, 28. 
Feb. 25. 
Mar. 4, 18, 25. 
Apr. 8, 22. 
May 20, 27. 
June 3, 10. 
July 1, 15, 29 m . 
Sept. 23, 30. 
Oct. 7, 14. 
Nov. 25. 

Dec. 2, 9. 

1806. Jan. 6. 
Feb. 17. 
Mar. 10. 
Apr. 7, 21. 
May 5, 26. 
June 16, 23, 30. 
July 7, 14, 28". 
Aug. ll m . 
Oct, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10, 24. 
Dec. 8, 22, 29. 

1807. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 23. 
Mar. 2, 16. 

Apr. 6, 20, 27. 
May 18, 25. 
June 1, 15, 22, 29. 
July 6, 20. 
Aug. 3, 24, 31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Dec. 7, 14, 28. 

1808. Jan. 4, 11, 18. 
July 2, 23, 30. 
Sept. 10, 17. 
Oct. 1, 22. 
Dec. 3. 

100 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1809. Jan. 14™, 21, 28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18-25. 
Mar. 4, 18. 

Apr. 15, 22. 

May G, 13, 20. 

June 17. 

July 29. 

Sept. 9. 

Nov. 25. 

Dec. 2, 16, 23, 30. 

1810. Jan. 13, 20. 

Feb. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Mar. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 

Apr. 7, 14. 

May 5, 19. 

June 9. 

July 7, 21, 28. 

Aug. 25. 

Sept. 1, 8, 22, 29. 

Oct. G, 20, 27. 

Nov. 17. 

Dec. 1, 8, 22, 29. 

1811. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 23. 

[Salem] Northern Centinel, 1798-1800. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1798, by Henry Dodd, 
with the title of "Northern CentiIlel. ,, The last issue 
located is that of Jan. 7, 1800, vol. 3, no. 106. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 13, 1798. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has Nov. 27, 1798. Harvard has Jan. 7, 1800. A. A. S. 

1798. Jan. 1 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 1. 

[Salem] Northern Post, 1804- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established May 24, 1804, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 2, 1804, 
vol. 1, no. 11, published by Henry Dodd and David 
Rumsey, Jun., with the title of "The Northern Post." 

1918.] New York. 101 

At some time after 1810, Rumsey dropped the "Jun.", 
following his name. With the issue of May 19, 1814, 
the firm was dissolved and the paper published by H. 
Dodd & Co. (see issue of Dec. 22, 1814). With the issue 
of June 9, 1814, a new partnership was formed between 
Henry Dodd, David Rumsey, and James Stevenson, Jun., 
under the firm name of Dodd, Rumsey & Stevenson. 
With the issue of Dec. 29, 1814, Rumsey withdrew and 
the paper was published by Dodd & Stevenson, and was 
so continued until after 1820. 

Harvard has Aug. 2, 23, 1804. N. Y. Pub. Lib. lias 
Mar. 27, 180G. N. Y. State Lib. has Feb. 5, 1807. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has May 16, 1816 -May 7, 1818. Bancroft 
Lib., Salem, has May 14, 1818 -May 11, 1820. A. A. S. 

1809. Nov. 30. 

1810. Apr. 12, 26. 
May 24. 
June 7, 28. 
Dec. 27. 

1814. May 19 to Dec. 29. 

1815. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Apr. 20. 

1816. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: July 18. 

1817. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: July 17. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Apr. 16. 

[Salem] Times, 1794-1795. 

Weekly. Established June 18, 1794, by George 
Gerrish, with the title of "The Times; or, National 
Courier." Discontinued within a year. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 18, 26, 1794. 

[Salem] Washington Patrol, 1795. 

Weekly. Established May 27, 1795, by Win. W. 
Wands & S. J. [St. John] Honey wood, with the title of 
"Washington Patrol." The last issue located is that of 
Oct. 28, 1795, vol. 1, no. 23. f 

102 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Harvard has May 27, June 3, 17, July 15, Sept. 10, 
1795. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 27, 1795. Lib. Congress 
has Aug. 19 -Oct. 28, 1795. A. A. S. has: 
1795. June 3. 

July 8, 29. 

[Salem] Washington Register, 1803- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in November, 1803, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 
13, 1806, vol. 4, no. 157, published by J[ohn] P. Reynolds, 
with the title of "Washington Register." Reynolds was 
publisher certainly as late as June 21, 1810. In the 
Schenectady "Cabinet," of Jan. 13, 1813, is printed a 
notice of the death, at Cincinnati, Dec. 17, 1812, of John 
M. Looker, "printer, formerly editor of the Washington 
Register, published at Salem." In "The Salem Book," 
.1896, p. 119, it is stated that the paper was established in 
October, 1803, by John M. Looker, who in two years sold 
out to John P. Reynolds, who in December, 1815, trans- 
ferred it to Timothy Hoskins, who on Dec. 24, 1818, sold 
out to James B. Gibson, who continued the paper until 
after 1820. The name of the "Washington Register" is 
recorded in a list of New York newspapers of December, 
1815 ("Albany Argus," Dec. 26, 1815), and of January, 
1818 ("Albany Argus," Jan. 6, 1818), in which latter 
list it was published by T. Hoskins. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 7, 1808. A. A. S. has: 
1806. Nov. 13. 
1810. June 14, 21. 

[Sangerfield] Civil & Religious Intelligencer, 1816- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 18, 1816, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 16, 1816, 
vol. 1, no. 5, published by Joseph Tenny, with the title 
of "Civil & Religious Intelligencer." It was of octavo 
size, 4 pages to the issue, and although a magazine in 
appearance, contained current and local news and death 
and marriage notices. Included also as part of each issue 
was "The Christian's Weekly Monitor," separately 

1918.] New York. 103 

paged, and with a volume numbering which continued a 
magazine of that name begun by Tenny two ' years 
previous. In August, 1817, the title was changed to 
"Civil & Religious Intelligencer, or the Gleaner & Moni- 
tor." It was continued until after 1820, although no 
issues have been located in 1818-1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Dec. 16. 

1817. Jan. 27. 
June 7. 
July 19. 
Aug. 23, 30. 
Sept. 13. 

Saratoga Gazette, 1810. 

The "Saratoga Gazette" published at Saratoga, is 
recorded by Isaiah Thomas, in his list of newspapers 
published at the begiiming of 1810 (History of Printing, 
ed. 1874, vol. 2, p. 298), but the name of the editor is not 
given and Thomas evidently was unable to obtain a copy 
of the paper. 

[Saratoga Springs] Saratoga Sentinel, 1819 -1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 26, 1819, by Gideon M. 
Davison, with the title of "Saratoga Sentinel," and so 
continued until after 1820. 

Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 1, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1819. June 9. 

Aug. 11,25. :" 
Sept. 29. 

1820. Apr. 19. 

[Schenectady] Cabinet, 1810- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established May 20, 1810, by I[saac] Riggs, 
with the title of "The Cabinet." It succeeded the 
"Western Budget," continuing its advertisements, but 
adopting a new volume numbering. With the issue of 
July 6, 1814, Isaac Stevens was admitted to partnership 
and the paper was published by Riggs & Stevens. At 
some time between 1815 and 1817, the partnership was 

104 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

dissolved, and I. Riggs again became sole publisher. 
The paper was so continued until after 1820. 

Albany Inst, has Apr. 17, 1811. Buffalo Hist. Soc. 
has May 13, 1812. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 28, 1812. 
W. T. Hanson, Schenectady, has June 2, 1819. A. A. S. 

1810. July 24. 
Oct. 1G. 

1812. Sept. 30. 
Oct. 7, 14, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11. 
Dec. 23. 

1813. Jan. 6, 13, 27. 
Mar. 3, 10, 24, 31. 
June 23"', 30. 
Aug. 18. 

Oct. G. 
Dec. 1, 29. 

1814. Feb. 16. 
Mar. 2 m . 
Apr. 27. 
May 4, 11. 
June 29. 
Aug. 10. 
Sept, 7, 14, 28. 
Nov. 2, 9, 1G. 

1815. Jan. 18. 
Apr. 5. 

1818. July 22. 

Schenectady Gazette, 1799-1802. 

Weekly. Established in January, 1799, by John L. 
Stevenson, with the title of "Schenectady Gazette." 
The last issue located is that of Feb. 10, 1801, vol. 3, no. 
109, and the paper was probably suspended late in 1802. 

Harvard has Dec. 31, 1790. N. Y. Hist. Soc.. has Oct. 
7, 1800. Lib. Congress has Feb. 10, 1801. 

1918.] New York. 105 

Schenectady Gazette, 1812. 

Weekly. Established July 9, 1812, by Ryer Schermer- 
horn, with the title of "Schenectady Gazette." The 
last issue located is that of July 16, 1812, vol. 1, no. 2. 
A. A. S. has: 

1812. July 9, 16. 

[Schenectady] Mohawk Advertiser, 1807-1811. 

Weekly. Established July 31, 1807, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 7, 1807, 
vol. 1, no. 2, published by Ryer Schermerhorn, with the 
title of "Mohawk Advertiser." In October, 1810, 
Schermerhorn disposed of the paper, which was then 

printed by T[ ] Johnson, for William S. Buell, editor 

and proprietor. The last issue located is that of May 7, 
1811, vol. 4, no. 31. 

Harvard has Oct. 2, 1807; Oct. 23, Nov. 6, 1810. N. Y. 
Soc. Lib. has Dec. 11, 1807. Utica Pub. Lib. has Sept. 
19, 26, 1809. N. Y. State Lib. has Sept. 4, 1810. W. T. 
Hanson, Schenectady, has Jan. 22, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Aug. 7, 28. 
Sept. 11. 

1808. Oct. 18. 

1810. Apr. 10. 
June 19. 
July 3 m . 
Aug. 14. 
Oct. 23. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20. 

1811. Feb. 19, 26. 
Mar. 5, 19. 
Apr. 9. 
May 7. 

[Schenectady] Mohawk Mercury, 1794-1798. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 15, 1794, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 9, 1795, 
no. 9, published by Wyckoff & Brokaw (Cornelius P. 

106 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Wyckoff and Abraham Brokaw), with the title of "The 
Mohawk Mercury." With the issue of Sept. 8, 1795, 
the partnership was dissolved, and the paper was pub- 
lished by Cornelius P. Wyckoff. The last issue located 
is that of Mar. 13, 1798, no. 170, in which issue the pub- 
lisher announced his removal from the town during the 
following month. 

Harvard has Feb. 9, 24, May 19, 26, June 9, 16, 30, 
Sept. 8, Dec. 22, 1795; Mar. 1, 22, Apr. 12 -May 24, June 
21, July 12-26, Sept. 13, 20, Oct. 4, 11, Nov. 22, Dec. 13- 
27, 1796; Jan. 3-24, Feb. 7, 14, Mar. 21, 28, Apr. 4, 18, 
25, 1797; Jan. 2, 1798. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Feb. 24, 
1795. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 24, Aug. 18, 1795. 
A. A. S. has: 

1795. Feb. 9, 24. 
Mar. 31. 
Apr. 14, 21. 
June 16, 30. 
July 7, 28. 
Aug. 11, 18. 
Sept. 1, 22. 
Nov. 10- 17. 

1796. May 17, 24. 
June 14, 21. 
July 12. 
Sept. 20, 27-. 
Oct. 4, 11, 25. 

1797. Jan. 3", 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21. 
Mar. 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 25. 
May 2, 9, 23, 30. 
June 6. 
July 25. 

Aug. 1, 8, 22- 29. 
Sept, 5, 12, 26. 
Oct. 3, 10, 24. 
Nov. 7, 21, 28. 
Dec. 5, 19- 26. 

1918.] New York. 107 

1798. Jan. 16, 23, 30. 
Feb. 13, 20, 27. 
Mar. 6, 13. . 

[Schenectady] Western Budget, 1807-1810. 

Weekly. Established July 4, 1807, by D[erick] & 
C[ornelius] VanVeghten, with the title of "Western 
Budget. " With the issue of Aug. 1, 1S07, the name of the 
publishing firm was changed to VanVeghten & Son. In 
December, 1808, the firm was dissolved, Hermon Van 
Veghten stating that he was authorized to collect the 
firm's debts, and I[saac] Riggs became the publisher. 
The paper was discontinued under this title with the 
issue of May 19, 1810, vol. 3, no. 156, and was succeeded 
by "The Cabinet." 
A. A. S. has: 

1807. July 25. 

Aug. 1, 8. - 

1809. Jan. 10, 24, 31. 

Feb. 28. 

Mar. 14, 21, 28. 

Oct. 3. 

1810. Jan. 23, 30. 
Feb. 6, 20. 
Apr. 24. 
May 1, 8. 

[Schenectady] Western Spectator, 1802-1807. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1802, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 21, 
1803, vol. 1, no. 18, published by John L. Stevenson, with 
the title of "The Western Spectator; or, Schenectady 
Weekly Advertiser." The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 15, 1805, vol. 3, no. 152. The title appears in a list 
of papers published at the end of 1S06 (Munsell, " Typo- 
graphical Miscellany," p. 105), and it was evidently 
succeeded in July, 1807, by the "Western Budget." 

Schenectady Hist. Soc. has Apr. 21, 1803.' Harvard 
has Nov. 8, 15, 1805. 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Schoharie] American Herald, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established in June, 1809, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 23, 1809, vol. 
1, no. 30, published by John C. G. Groesbeek, with the 
title of "American Herald." Early in 1810 the paper 
was transferred to Derick VanVeghten and the title 
slightly altered to "The American Herald." The last 
issue located is that of July 7, 1810, vol. 1, no. 58. W. E. 
Roscoe, in his " History of Schoharie County," 1882, 
p. 79, states that the title was changed to " Schoharie 
Herald" in 1812, soon after which it was discontinued. 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Dec. 23. 

1810. July 7. 

Schoharie Budget, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established in June, 1817, by Derick Van- 
Veghten (Munsell, "Typographical Miscellany," p. 128). 
It is recorded in a list of New York newspapers of January, 

1818 (see "Albany Argus" of Jan. 6, 1818) where Van- 
Veghten is given as the publisher. It was succeeded in 

1819 by the "Schoharie Republican" (Roscoe, "History 
of Schoharie County," p. 80). No copy located. 

Schoharie Gazette, 1815. 

A paper with the title of "Schoharie Gazette" is 
recorded in a list of New York newspapers of December, 
1815, printed in the "Albany Argus" of Dec. 2G, 1815. 
No copy located. 

[Schoharie] Observer, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 28, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of May 12, 1819, 
vol. 1, no. 29, published by Mfathew] M. Cole, with the 
title of "The Observer." The only other issues located 
are those of Apr. 11, 1820, vol. 2, no. 25, published by 
Solomon Baker, with the title of "Schoharie Observer," 
and Nov. 14, 1820, published by Baker & Fish (Solomon 

Baker and Fish), with the title of "The Schoharie 

Observer. " 

1918.] New York. 109 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 12, 1819; Apr. 11, Nov. 14, 
1820. The N. Y. State Library owned a file, 1818- 
1823, which was destroyed in the Capitol fire of 1911. 

Schoharie Republican, 1819-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in .1819 by Deriek VanVeghten 
(Roscoe, " History of Schoharie County," p. 80), and 
continued until after 1820. No copy located. 

The N. Y. State Library owned a file, 1819 - 1824, which 
was destroyed in the Capitol fire of 1911. 

[Schoharie] True American, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 9, 1809, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 20, 1810, 
vol. 1, no. 7, published by Thomas M. Tillman, with the 
title of "The True American." The last issue located 
is that of July 14, 1810, vol. 1, no. 32. 
A. A. S. has: 
1810. Jan. 20. 

May 12, 19. 
July 14. 

[Scipio] Levana Gazette, 1798. 

Weekly. Established June 20, 1798, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 5, 1798, 
vol. 1, no. 25, published by R[oger] Delano, with the title 
of " Levana Gazette: or, Onondaga Advertiser." The 
imprint gives " Scipio, Onondaga County" as the place 
of publication, although the name of Levana, a small 
village, is given at the heading of the local news. An 
issue of Nov. 21, 1798, vol. 1, no. 23, is noted in Storke's 
"History of Cayuga County," p. 415, and in Follett's 
"Press of Western New York," p. 66, is noted a copy of 
the third number. 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 5, 1798. 

[Scipio] Western Luminary, 1801. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 31, 1801, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 7, 1801, vol. 
1, no. 2, printed by Ebenezer Eaton, for Eaton, & Co., 

110 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

with the title of ''Western Luminary." The imprint 
states that it was "Printed in Scipio, at Watkins's 
Settlement, Cayuga County." The only other issue 
known is that of Apr. 21, 1801, vol. 1, no. 4. 

Lib. Congress has Apr. 7, 1801. A. A. S. has: 
1801. Apr. 21. 

[Sherburne] Morning Star, 1810. 

Weekly. In the prospectus of the "Republican Mes- 
senger" of May 22, 1810, it is stated that the junior 
editor, James Percival, "has recently been employed in 
printing a Federal newspaper entitled 'The Morning- 
Star, ' in this village; but .... has thought proper to 
embark in an undertaking which promises fairer results." 
The advertisements of "The Morning Star " were evident- 
ly continued in the "Republican Messenger," and 
judging from the dates of these advertisements, the former 
paper was established Mar. 27, and discontinued May 8, 
1810. No copy located. 

[Sherburne] Olive Branch, 1806-1808. 

Weekly. Established May 21, 1806, by Phinney & 
Fairchild (Elihu Phinney and John P. Fairchild), with 
the title of "Olive -Branch." With the issue of June 11, 
1806, the title was altered to "Olive Branch." With the 
issue of May 20, 1807, John F. Fairchild became sole 
publisher, changed with the issue of Jan. 9, 1808, to John 
F. Fairchild & Co. The last issue at Sherburne was 
that of Feb. 6, 1808, vol. 2, no. 90, after which the paper 
was removed to Norwich, without change of title or 
volume numbering. See under Norwich. 

N. Y. St. Lib. has May 21, 1806 -Feb. 6, 1808. Harvard 
has June 18, July 2, 9, 23, 1806. 

[Sherburne] Republican Messenger, 1810. 

Weekly. Established May 22, 1810, by Pettit & 
Percival (Jonathan Pettit and James Percival), with the 
title of "Republican Messenger." The paper succeeded 
"The Morning Star" and continued its advertisements. 
The last issue located is that of Nov. 6, 1810, vol. 1, no. 25. 

1918.] New York. Ill 

Harvard has Oct. 2, Nov. 6, 1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. May 22. 

June 5, 12, 19, 2G. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Aug. 7. 

[Sherburne] Western Oracle, 1803-1806. 

Weekly. Established at Sherburne Four Corners in 
1803 by Abraham Romeyn, with the title of "Western 
Oracle," and discontinued probably in 1806 (J. H. Smith, 
"History of Chenango and Madison Counties," p. 107). 

Chas. C. Merrill has Mar. 30, 1805. 

Sing-Sing, see under Mount Pleasant. 
Somers Museum, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 8, 1809, by Milton F. 
Cushing, with the title of "Somers Museum." The last 
issue located is that of July 24, 1810, vol. 1, no. 36, which 
issue is entitled "Somers Museum. And Westchester 
County Advertiser." 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Nov. 8. 
Dec. 20-. 

1810. July 24. 

Stillwater, see under Upton. 

Tioga, see under Owego — American Farmer. 

[Troy] Farmer's Oracle, 1797-1798. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 31, 1797, by Luther Pratt, 
& Co. (Luther Pratt and Daniel Curtiss, Jim.), with the 
title of "Farmer's Oracle." It was removed from 
Lansingburg'h to Troy, where it was started with a new 
volume numbering. With the issue of Apr. 11, 1797, the 
firm was dissolved and Luther Pratt became sole pub- 
lisher. The last issue located is that of Apr. 10, 1798, 
vol. 2, no. 11. 

Harvard has June 27, Sept. 5, 12, Oct. 10, 31, Nov. 28, 
Dec. 5, 19, 1797; Jan. 16, Feb. 13 -Mar. 13, Apr. 3, 1798. 

112 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 5, 1797. Troy Pub. Lib. has 
Apr. 10, 1798. A. A. S. has: 
1797. Feb. 28. 

Mar. 14, 21. 

Apr. 11, 25. 

May 2 m , 9. 

June 27. 

Aug. 22. 

Oct. 10, 31. 

Nov. 21"'. 

[Troy] Farmers' Register, 1807-1820+. 

Weekly. Removed from Lansingburgh and established 
at Troy without change of title or volume numbering. 
The first issue at Troy was that of Nov. 24, 1807, vol. 5, 
no. 44, published by Francis Adancourt, with the title 
of "Farmers 7 Register." It was so continued until after 

Albany Inst, has July 12, 1808; Feb. 14, Nov. 21, Dec. 
5, 1809; Apr. 2, 9, 23, 1811; Mar. 24, July 14, Aug. 18, 
Oct. 6-Nov. 10, 1812; Jan. 3, 1815. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 25, Nov. 15, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Dec. 22, 29. 

1808. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Mar. 1, Apr. 12, Sept. 6. 

Missing: Jan. 5, 26, Feb. 9, 23, Mar. 22, 
29, Apr. 26, May 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, June 
14, 21, 28, July 5, 19, Aug. 2, 9, 16, Sept. 
20, Oct. 4, Nov. 1, 29, Dec. 13. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 17, Feb. 14, Mar. 21, Apr. 4, 
18, May 9, 16, June 6, 13, July 4, 11, 18, 
Aug. 1, 15, 22, Oct. 17, 24, Nov. 7, 14, 28, 
Dec. 19. 

1810. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 20. 

Missing: Feb. 6, 13, Mar. 6, 13, 20, 27, 

May 15, 29, June 5, 12, July 17, 24, Aug. 

7, 14, Sept. 25, Oct. 23, Nov. 20, Dec. 4, 









New York. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Mar. 19, 

26, Apr. 


16, May 


June 18, 25, Ju 

iiy 2, 






Sept. 3, 10, 17, Oct. 8 

,22 ; 

Nov. 12, 



Dec. 10, 17, 24, 


Jan. 21. 

Feb. 18. 

Mar. 10. 

Apr. 7, 14. 

May 5. 

June 9 m , 23. 

Aug. 25. 

Sept. 1. 

Oct. 13, 27'". 

Dec. 15. 

July 20. 

Aug. 31. 

Sept. 14, 21. 

Dec. 21. 

Jan. 18, 25. 

Feb. 1, 8. 

Mar. 1, 10, 17. 

July 26 m . 

Aug. 9. 

Sept. 27. 

Oct. 4. 

Nov. 15, 29. 

Dec. 13. 

Jan. 3. 

Mar. 21, 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 18. 

July 4, 11. 

Sept. 2G. 

Dec. 20. 

Jan. 23. 

Feb. 0, 13, 20. 

Mar. 5. 

Apr. 2, 9. 

114 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

June 25. 
July 23, 30. 
Aug. 6. 

Troy Gazette, 1802-1812. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 15, 1802, by Thomas 
Collier, with the title of " The Troy Gazette. " With the 
issue of Sept. 4, 1801, the title was altered to "Troy 
Gazette," and the paper was transferred to Wright & 
Willbur (John C. Wright and Solomon Willbur, Jun., 
changed to Wilbur with the issue of Sept. 18, 1804). With 
the issue of Dee. 25, 1804, Henry Stockwell was admitted 
to the firm, which became Wright, Wilbur & Stockwell. 
With the issue of Sept. 10, 1805, Sterling Goodenow re- 
placed Wilbur in the firm, which became Wright, Goode- 
now, & Stockwell. With the issue of Dec. 1, 1807, the 
paper was printed by John R. Weld, for Wright, Goode- 
now, & Stockwell, but with that of July 12, 1808, Weld's 
name was omitted, and the paper was published by 
Wright, Goodenow, & Stockwell. With the issue of Dec. 
20, 1808, the partnership was dissolved and the paper was 
published for the proprietors by John C. Wright. With 
the issue of Dec. 5, 1809, the title was changed to "Troy 
Gazette, and Rensselaer Philanthropist," and the paper 
was purchased and published by Eldad Lewis. In 
October, 1810, the title was shortened to "Troy Gazette, " 
Ryer Schermerhorn was admitted to partnership, and the 
firm name became Lewis and Schermerhorn. At the 
end of the year 1810, R}^er Schermerhorn became sole 
publisher. The last issue located is that of Mar. 17, 
1812, vol. 8, no. 394, in which issue Schermerhorn an- 
nounced that the paper was for sale, as he was intending 
to remove from Troy. He established the "Schenectady 
Gazette," July 9, 1812. 

Troy Pub. Lib. has Sept. 15, 1802 -July 17, 1804; Sept. 
4, 1804 -May 29, 1810. Harvard has Sept. 22, 1802- 
Dec. 27, 1808, scattering issues. N. Y. Hist, Soc. has 
Sept. 3, 1805 -July 21, 1807. Boston Athenaeum has 
Dec. 3, 10, 17, 31, 1805; Jan. 14, 28, Feb. 4, 1806. Lib. 

1918.] New York. 115 


New York. 

Congress has Mar. 17, May 26, 1807. A. A. S. has 


Oct. 20" 


Apr. 12. 

Aug. 1G, 23. 

Sept. 6. 


Mar. 27. 


Mar. 3. 

July 7. 

Aug. 4. 


May 31. 

Dec. 27. 


Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Feb. 7, 14™. 

Nov. 7. 

Dec. 5. 


May 1, 22, 29. 

June 12, 19. 

July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 

Aug. 7. 

Sept. 18. 

Oct. 23, 30. 


Feb. 26 m . 

Mar. 5, 26. - 

Nov. 19. 


Mar. 17. 

[Troy] Northern Budget, 1798-1820+. 

Weekly. Removed from Lansingburgh and estab- 
lished at Troy without change of title or volume number- 
ing. The first issue at Troy was that of May 15, 1798, 
vol. 1, no. 48, published by Robert Mofiitt & Co. (Robert 
Moffitt and Jesse Duel), with the title of "Northern 
Budget." With the issue of July 7, 1801, this firm was 
dissolved, Buel retired in favor of Zebulon Lyon, and the 
paper was issued by Moffitt & Lyon. Moffitt died May 4, 
1807, and with the issue of May 12, 1807, Oliver Lyon 
became the publisher. The printing-office was destroyed 

116 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

by fire on Mar. , 1810, and no papers were issued until 
June 19, 1810. At some time between Nov. 22, 1814, 
and Feb. 28, 1815, Lyon was replaced as publisher by 
Ebenezer Hill. With the issue of cither Aug. 20, or 
Sept. 2, 1817, Zephaniah Clark became the publisher and 
continued the paper until after 1820. 

Troy Pub. Lib. has May 15, 1708- June 10, 1801; July 
19, 1803; June 11, 1805-June 7, 1808; July 8 -Aug. 19, 
1817; Sept. 9, 1817 -Dec. 20, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
July 3 Extra, Nov. 9 Extra, 1798; July 10, 1800; July 7, 
Aug. 25, 1801; May 3, 1803. Phil. Lib. Co. has May 22, 
1798. Lib. Congress has Nov. 20, 1799; Mar. 4, 1801. 
Troy Budget Office has Nov. 20, 1800. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has June 14, 1803; June 26, 1810; Dec. 31, 1811. Harvard 
has Jan. 1, 1805 -Nov. 17, 1807, scattering file. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has Feb. 9, 1813. Boston Athenaeum has 
May 5, 1818. A. A. S. has: 

1798. May 15 to Dec. 25. 
Extra: July 3. 

Mutilated: May 22, June 5, 12, 26, July 10, 
31, Aug. 7, Oct. 16, Nov. 13. 

Missing: Aug. 14, 28, Sept. 4, Oct. 23, Nov. 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Apr. 9, July 2, Aug. 13, Oct. 2, 

Dec. 25. 
Missing: Dec. 18. 

1800. Jan. 1», 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12. 

Apr. 9. 

1801. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 14, Feb. 4, Mar. 18, Apr. 22, 
29, Dec. 29. 

1802. Jan. 5, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 16. 
Mar. 9, 23. 

Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
May 4, 11, 18. 

1918.1 New York. 117 

New York 

July 20. 


Jan. 11. 

May 24. 

Aug. 16, 23. 

Sept. G, 13. 


Mar. 13. 


Apr. 16. 


Apr. 22, 29. 

May 13. 

June 3, 10, 17, 24. 

July 15. 

Aug. 12, 19. 

Sept. 2. 

Oct. 7. 

Nov. 11. 

Dee. 9, 16, 23, 30. 


Jan. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Mar. 31. 

Apr. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

May 5, 12, 19, 26. 

June 30. 

July 7, 21. 

Aug. 25. 

Sept. 15, 22, 29. 

Oct. 6, 20. 

Nov. 10, 17. 

Dec. 8, 22. 


Jim. 12, 26. 

Feb, io. 

Mar. 8, 15. 

Apr. 5, 19. 

May 3. 

June 7. 

July 12. 

Aug. 9. 

Sept. 27. 


Apr. 11. 

118 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

June 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 22, 29. 
Sept. 12, 19, 26. 
Oct. 3, 10. 
Nov. 14-, 28. 
Dec. 5, 26. 

1810. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Jan. 2, Feb. 13, Mar. 6, July 10, 
Aug. 14, Oct. 2, 16, Nov. 6, 20, 27, Dec. 4. 

1811. Jan. 8, 15, 22. 
Feb. 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 2, 23, 30. 
May 14, 21. 
June 4, 11. 

July 16, 23 wl , 30. 
Aug. 27. 
Sept. 17, 24. 
Oct. 1, 15, 29-. 
Nov. 5, 12, 26. 
Dec. 3. 

1812. Jan. 14, 21. 
Feb. 11. 
Mar. 10. 
Apr. 14. 
May 19. 
June 23, 30. 
July 7. 
Sept. 22. 

1813. Jan. 26. 

1814. Feb. 8-. 
June 28. 
Aug. 23. 
Nov. 22. 

1815. Feb. 28. 

Mar. 7, 14", 21. 
July 4. 

1816. Jan. 9. 

1918.] New York. 119 

Troy Post, 1812-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 1, 1812, by Parker ' and 
Bliss (William S. Parker and Pellatiah Bliss), with the 
title of "The Troy Post." With the issue of Nov. 10, 
1812, the title was altered to "Troy Post." Bliss died 
Sept. 30, 1818, but there was no change in the imprint. 
With the issue of Apr. 6, 1819, the paper was published 
by William S. Parker, with the announcement of the 
dissolution of partnership signed by Parker alone and 
dated Mar. 23. The paper was continued by Parker 
until after 1820. 

Troy Pub. Lib. has Sept. 1, 1812 -Dec. 26, 1820. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 1, 1812 -Aug. 23, 1814. N. Y. 
State Lib. has Apr. 27, 1813; Aug. 27, 1816-Aug. 19, 
1817. Boston Athenaeum has Dec. 5, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Oct. 13. 

1816. May 28. , 

1818. Feb. 10. 

[Troy] Recorder, 1795. 

Weekly. Removed from Lansingburgh and estab- 
. lished at Troy in May 1795, without change of title or 
volume numbering. It was entitled "The Recorder" 
and was published by Gardner & Hill (George Gardner 
and James Hill). On June 26, 1795, this firm was dis- 
solved and the paper was published by Gardner and 
Billings (George Gardner and Nathaniel Billings.) The 
earliest Troy issue located is that of July 14, 1795, vol. 
3, no. 203. In August, 1795, George Gardner became 
sole publisher. The last issue located is that of Dec. 8, 
1795, vol. 7, no. 224. At some time between Sept. 1 and 
Nov. 3, 1795, the numbering was changed from vol. 5 to 
vol. 7, possibly because Gardner assumed that his paper 
was the successor of "The Federal Herald," established 
at Lansingburgh in 1788. 

Harvard has July 28, Sept. 1, Dec. 8, 1795. Troy 
Pub. Lib. has Aug. 18, 1795. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 
18, 1795. Lib. Congress Nov. 3, 1795, A. A. S. has: 

120 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1795. July 14, 28"'. 
Aug. 4. 
Nov. 17. 

[Union] American Constellation, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 22, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 15, 1801, 
vol. 1, no. 39, published by D[aniel] Cruger, Jun., with the 
title of "The American Constellation." Cruger re- 
moved to Owego late in 1801. 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 15, 1801. LeRoy W. Kingman, 
Owego, has Sept. 12, 1801. 

[Union Springs] Cayuga Tocsin, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1812, by Royall T. Cham- 
berlain, with the title of "The Cayuga Tocsin." The 
last issue located which was published at Union Springs 
is that of Apr. 15, 1813, vol. 2, no. 68. Between this 
date and June 2, 1813, the paper was removed to Auburn, 
where it was continued under the same title, without 
change of volume numbering. 

Harvard has Mar. 12, Oct. 22, Nov. 19, Dec. 3, 10, 
1812; Apr. 1, 15, 1813. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 1812. 
A. A. S. has: 

1812. Jan. 2, 9, 1G, 23, 30. 
Feb. 27. 

1813. Jan. 20. 

[Upton] Columbian Courier, 1794. 

Weekly. Established June 3, 1794, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 9, 1794, 
vol. 1, no. 15, published by Gardner and Hill (George 
Gardner and James Hill), with the title of "Columbian 
Courier." The paper was published at "Upton, in 
Stillwater," and an advertisement, dated Sept. 1, 1794, 
stated that the inhabitants of the village had voted that 
that portion of the town "near the Church" was to be 
called Upton. Gardner and Hill removed to Lansing- 
burgh in December, 1794, where they established the 
" Lansingburgh Recorder. " 

1918.] Neio York. 121 

A. AS. has: 

1794. Sept. 9, 1G. 

UticaClub, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 11, 1814, with the title of 
"The Club," edited by Henry Goodfellow, Esq. & Com- 
pany, and published by Seward & Williams (Asahel 
Seward and William Williams). It was of quarto size 
and was suspended before the close of the year (J. C. 
Williams, "An Oneida County Printer," p. 60, and 
"Utica Patriot" of Aug. 2, 1814). A new series was 
announced to begin Jan. 5, 1815, but the day of publica- 
tion was delayed ("Utica Patriot," Jan. 3, 10, 1815). It 
was revived Feb. 27, 1815, with new volume numbering, 
judging from the issue of Mar. 6, 1815, vol. 1, no. 2, 
entitled "The Club," edited by Henry Goodfellow, 
Esquire and Company, and printed by Willard & Ingersoll 

( Willard and Jonathan Ingersoll, Jun.). The next 

issue located, that of May 15, 1815, vol 1, no. 12, was 
entitled "The Utica Club," and was published by Jona- 
than Ingersoll, Jun. The last issue located is that of June 
12, 1815, vol. 1, no. 16. 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has June 12, 1815. A. A. S. 

1S15. Mar. 6, May 15. 

[Utica] Columbian Gazette, 1803- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 21, 1803, by Thomas 
Walker, with the title of "Columbian Gazette." It 
succeeded his " Columbian Patriotic Gazette" published 
at Rome, continuing the advertisements, but adopting a 
new volume numbering. With the issue of Jan. 4, 1814, 
Kliasaph Dorchester was admitted to partnership, under 
the firm name of Walker & Dorchester. With the issue 
of Dec. 31, 1816, the firm was dissolved and T. Walker 
again became sole publisher. The paper was so con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has Mar. 28, 1803 -Mar. 12, 
1804; Mar. 18, 1805-Mar. 10, 1807; Mar. 8, 22, Apr. G, 

1918.] New York. 121 

A. A. S. has: 

1794. Sept. 9, 1G. 

Utica Club, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 11, 18J4, with the title of 
"The Club/' edited by Henry Goodfellow, Esq. & Com- 
pany, and published by Seward & Williams (Asahel 
Seward and William Williams). It was of quarto size 
and was suspended before the elose of the year (J. C. 
Williams, "An Oneida County Printer," p. GO, and 
" Utica Patriot" of Aug. 2, 1814). A new series was 
announced to begin Jan. 5, 1815, but the day of publica- 
tion was delayed ("Utica Patriot," Jan. 3, 10, 1815). It 
was revived Feb. 27, 1815, with new volume numbering, 
judging from the issue of Mar. G, 1815, vol. 1, no. 2, 
entitled "The Club," edited by Henry Goodfellow, 
Esquire and Company, and printed by Willard & Ingersoll 

( Willard and Jonathan Ingersoll, Jun.). The next 

issue located, that of May 15, 1815, vol 1, no. 12, was 
entitled "The Utica Club," and was published by Jona- 
than Ingersoll, Jun. The last issue located is that of J line 
12, 1815, vol. 1, no. 1G. 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has June 12, 1815. A. A. S. 

1S15. Mar. G, May 15. 

[Utica] Columbian Gazette, 1803- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 21, 1803, by Thomas 
Walker, with the title of "Columbian Gazette." It 
succeeded his "Columbian Patriotic Gazette" published 
at Hume, continuing the advertisements, but adopting a 
new volume numbering. With the issue 1 of Jan. 4, 1814, 
Eliasaph Dorchester was admitted to partnership, under 
the firm name of Walker & Dorchester. With the issue 
of Dec 31, 1816, the firm was dissolved and T. Walker 
again became sole publisher. The paper was so con- 
tinued until alter 1820. 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has Mar. 28, 1803-Mar. 12, 
1801; Mar. 18, 1805 -Mar. 10, KS07; Mai. X, 22, Apr. G, 

122 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1808; Apr. 25, 1809; Mar. 12, 1811 -Mar. 3, 1812; July 
6, 1813; June 21 -Nov. 22, 1814, fair; Feb. 21, Oct. 3, 
1815; July 9, 30, Oct. 15-Dec. 17, 1816; Jan. 28, July 22, 
Sept. 16, 23, Nov. 11, 18, Dec. 9-30, 1817; Jan. 13, 
1818-Dec. 26, 1820. Harvard has Apr. 25, 1803-Mar. 
24, 1806, scattering issues; Mar. 31, 1807. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 17, 1807-Mar. 5, 1811; Mar. 10, 1812- 
Feb. 28, 1815; Mar. 4, 1817-Dec. 26, 1820. N. Y. State- 
Lib, has July 13, Sept. 7, Nov. 2, Dec. 14, 1813; Apr. 12, 
19, Aug. 23, Sept. 6, 1814; Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 17-31, 1816; 
Jan. 7, 28, Mar. 4, 1817. Wis. Hist. Soc. has May 9, 
1803. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 19, 1813. Lib. Congress 
has Apr. 27, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Apr. 25. 
Sept. 5, 19, 26. 
Oct. 3. 

Nov. 28. 

1804. Feb. 13, 27. 
Mar. 12, 19. 
June 18. 
Dec. 3. 

1805. Apr. 8, 22. 

1806. June 3. 
July 8. 
Nov. 25. 

1807. June 16. 
Sept. 29. 
Oct. 13. 

1808. Mar. 29. 
Apr. 19. 
May 17. 
July 5, 12, 26. 
Aug. 16, 23. 
Sept. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8, 15 m . 
Dec. 20. 
Supplement: Oct. 4. 

1918.1 New York. 123 

New York. 


Jan. 10, 17, 31. 

Feb. 7, 21. 

Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 18, 25. 

May 2, 16, 23, 30™. 

June 6, 27. 

July 4, 18. 

Aug. 1. 

Oct. 31. 

Nov. 7. 

Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2, 9, 23. 

Feb. 6. 

May 1, 8. 

June 5. 

July 10, 17, 24. 

Sept. 18. , 


Feb. 19, 26. 

Mar. 2, 19. 

May 28. 


Nov. 3. 


Jan. 5. 


Aug. 5. 


July 27. 

Utica Observer, 1817-1818, 1819-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1817, by E[liasaph] 
Dorchester, with the title of "The Utica Observer." 
Toward the close of the year 1818, it was removed to 
Rome, where it was called the "Oneida Observer," but 
in 1819, it was brought back to Utica, where it was con- 
tinued under its early title until after 1820 (see Munsell, 
"Typographical Miscellany," p. 138; French, "Gazetteer 
of New York," 1860, p. 459; and Bagg, "Memorial 
History of Utica, "p. 481). 
A. A. S. has: 
1817. July 1, 8. 
Aug. 5. 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Utica] Patriot, 1803-1820-f. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Feb. 28, 1803, 
with the title of "The Patriot," printed for the Editor 
[John H. Lothrop], by Merrell & Seward [Ira Merrell and 
Asahel Seward]. It sueeeeded the " Whitestown Gazette 
and Cato's Patrol" and continued its advertisements, 
although adopting a new volume numbering. With the 
issue of Feb. 27, 1804, the title was changed to "Utiea 
Patriot." With the issue of Aug. 2G, 1806, Seward 
retired from the firm and the paper was printed fur the 
Editor, by Ira Men-ell. In 1811 Lothrop was succeeded 
as editor by William H. Maynard (M. M. Bagg, "Pioneers 
of Utica," p. 367). With the issue of May 4, 1813, 
Merrell took George Camp into partnership, and the 
paper was printed for the Editor by Merrell& Camp. 
With the issue of Jan. 2, 1816, the paper was combined 
with "The Patrol" and issued semi-weekly under the 
title of "Utica Patriot, & Patrol," printed for the Pro- 
prietors by Ira Merrell. The prospectus of the union 
shows that the Proprietors were Asahel Seward, William 
H. Maynard and William Williams, and the issue of Apr. 
2, 1816 states that Maynard was the editor. With the 
issue of Apr. 2, 1816, the paper reverted to a weekly. 
Williams retired as a proprietor in 1817. Merrell con- 
tinued to print the paper for the other two proprietors 
until after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 7, 1803 -Dec. 29, 1807, fair; 
Feb. 15, 1814-Dec. 26, 1820. Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, 
has Dec. 19, 1803; Jan. 9, 1804; Feb. 10, Apr. 21, 1807; 
Jan. 19, 1808-Feb. 13, 1810; May 22, 1810; Sept. 10, 
1811; Apr. 21, May 5, June 2, Nov. 24, 1812; July 6, 
1813; Mar. 29, May 24, July 5 -Aug. 2, 23, Sept. 20, Nov. 
22, Dec. 20, 1814; Feb. 7, Mar. 21, Apr. 18, May 2, June 
13, July 25, Aug. 8, 22, Oct. 10, 31 -Nov. 28, Dec. 19, 26, 
1815; Jan. 19, 30, Feb. 2, 9, 13, 23, May 21, June 18, 
July 23, Aug. 6, 20, Sept. 17, Oct. 8, 29, Nov. 12, 26, 
Dec. 17, 24, 31, 1816; Dec. 30, 1817; Feb. 3, Mar. 24, 
1818; Jan. 26, May 2, 16, July 4, 1819; May 9, 1820. 
Rochester Hist. Soc. has May 21, 1811 -Nov. 15, 1814, 

1918.] New York. 125 

fair. Buffalo Hist. Soc. has Feb. 18, 1812 -Feb. 8, 1814. 
N. Y. State Lib. has Aug. 19, 2G, 180G; Apr. 20, July G, 
Aug. 3, 10, Sept. 7, Nov. 9, Dec. 14, 1813; Jan. 25, Mar. 
2, Apr. 19, 2G, May 10, 17, June 28 -July 12, Aug. 9, 
Oct. 18, 1814; Mar. 12, Sept. 17, Nov. 5, 12, 20 -Dec. 17, 
1816; Jan. G, Feb. 18 -Mar. 4, 1817. Lib. Congress has 
June 20, 1803. Yale has May 28, 1811. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Feb. 22, 1814; Mar. 14, 1815. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Mar. 14, 21- 28"'. 
Apr. 4'", 11-, 18-, 25. 
May 30. 

June 13, 20, 27. 
July 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Sept. 5, 12, 19, 2G. 
Oct. 10, 17, 24, 31. 

1804. Mar. 5, 12-. 

Apr. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30-. 
May 14-, 21. 

June 4- 11, 18-, 25 

July 1G-, 23, 30. 

Aug. 6, 20. 

Sept. 3, 17, 24-. 

Oct. 8, 22, 29-. 

Nov. 5, 12, 19, 2G-. 


Apr. 1, 15. 


Oct. 14. 

Dec. 9. 


Oct. 27. 


Aug. 22. 

Sept. 2G. 

Nov. 21. 


Jan. 30. 

Apr. 10, 24. 

May 8. 

July 10. 


Feb. 2G. 

126 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 





June 25. 










1816. Jan. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 23, 26, 30. 

Feb. 2, 6'", 9, 13, 1G, 20, 23, 27-. 
Mar. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19-, 22, 26. 

[Utica] Patrol, 1815-1816. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 5, 1815, by Seward and 
Williams (Asahel Seward and William Williams), with 
the title of "The Patrol. " Although a weekly, published 
on Thursday, another edition, with later news, was fre- 
quently issued on Monday. The last issue with this title 
was that of Jan. 1, 1816, vol. 1, no. 52, after which the 
paper was combined with the "Utica Patriot," to form 
the "Utica Patriot, & Patrol," which see. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 5, 1815 -Jan. 1, 1816. Utica 
Pub. Lib. has Sept. 18, 1815. A. A. S. has: 

1815. Jan. 5, 12, 30, 31. 

Feb. 2, 6™ 13, 23- 
Mar. 6, 9, 13, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 12, 24- 
May 8, 11, 22. 
June 1, 8, 19, 22, 29. 
July 10, 17-, 24, 31. 
Aug. 7-, 14, 21, 28. 
Sept. 11, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Dec. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Supplement: Dec. 11. 

1816. Jan. 1. 

1918.] New York. 127 

[Utica] Whitestown Gazette, 1798-1803. 

Weekly. Removed from Whitestown, without change 
of volume numbering, in July, 1798. The earliest Utica 
issue located is that of Sept. 3, 1798, vol. 3, no. 118, 
published by William M'Lean, with the title of "Whites- 
town Gazette. And Cato's Patrol." With the issue of 
June 21, 1802, the title was altered so as to read "Whites- 
town Gazette and Cato's Patrol." The last issue with 
this title was that of Feb. 21, 1803, vol. 7, no. 351, when 
the paper was succeeded by "The Patriot," which see. 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, lias Sept. 17, Dec. 3, 1798; 
Mar. 31, Apr. 7, 1800; Jan. 5, 12, 1801. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has Oct. 6, 1800; Jan. 12, 1801 -Feb. 21, 1803. Amer. 
Inst, of N. Y. has Apr. 5, 12, 1802. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has Mar. 9, 1801; July 19, 1802. A. A. S. has: 
■ 1798. Sept. 3. 
Oct. 1. 
1800. May 26. 
June 30. 
Nov. 3, 24. 
1803. Feb. 21. 

[Wardsbridge] Orange County Republican, 1806-1808. 

Weekly. Established May 6, 1806, with the title of 
"Orange County Republican, " published for the Pro- 
prietors by Cyrus Beach, and Luther Pratt. The issue 
of May 6, 1806, has "Montgomery" at the head of the 
local news, but the issue of May 13 and subsequent 
issues have "Wardsbridge" at the head of the local news 
and "Wardsbridge: Montgomery Township" in the im- 
print. The paper was so continued at least until Dec. 
11, 1806, vol. 1, no. 32. The next issue located is that 
of Mar. 23, 1808 ; vol. 2, no. 19, published by Cyrus 
Beach. This issue contains an advertisement of the 
dissolution of the firm of Cyrus Beach & Co., signed by 
Cyrus Beach and Joseph Tennery, and dated Jan. 1, 
1808. It mentions accounts due from May 6, 1806, to 
Oct. 1, 1807. No issue has been located after Mar. 23, 

128 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr. 

Newburgh Lib. has May 6 -Sept. 11, 180G; also 
Carrier's Address Jan. 1, 1807. Harvard has May 22, 
July 3, 1806; Mar. 23, 1808. Frank Drake, Goshen, has 
July 31, 1806. A. A. S. has: 
1806. May 22, 29. 
June 5. 
Nov. 27. 
Dec. 11. 

Waterford Gazette, 1801-1818. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 27, 1801, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 17, 1801, 
vol. 1, no. 4, published by Horace H. Wadsworth, with 
the title of " Waterford Gazette." About 1812, Charles 
Webster became the publisher, and he was succeeded in 
1815 by Truman Webster. In a list of New York news- 
papers of Jan. 1, 1818 (see " Albany Argus," Jan. 6, 
1818), the paper is recorded, with Truman Webster as 
publisher. How long thereafter it was continued is not 

Harvard has Nov. 17, 1801 -Dec. 10, 1805, fair; Sept. 
22, Oct. 6, 20, 1807; Sept. 11, 25, 1810. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
has Mar. 9, 1802; Apr. 9, 30, May 21, 1811. Amer. 
Inst, of N. Y. has Apr. 6, 1802. N. Y. State Lib. has 
Mar. 5, Apr. 2, 1811. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Feb. 20, 1816. 
A. A. S. has: 


July 26. 

Aug. 23. 

Sept. 6, 13, 27 


July 3. 


Apr. 21. 

June 16. 

Dec. 29. 


Jan. 5, 12. 


Feb. 13. 

May 29. 

July 24, 31. 

Oct. 30. 

1918.] New York. 129 

1811. Feb. 26. 

Mar. 5, 19. 

Apr. 2. 
May 7 M . 
Nov. 5. 

1813. Aug. 3. 

Waterloo Gazette, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 28, 1817, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 2, 1817, vol. 
1, no. 6, published by George Lewis, with the title of 
"Waterloo Gazette." At some time between Oct. 8 and 
Dec. 17, 1817, Lewis transferred the paper to Hiram 
Leavenworth, who continued it until after 1820. 

Waterloo Lib. has July 2, 1817 -Dec. 13, 1820, fair. 
Yale has Nov. 11, 1818. 

[Watertown] American Advocate, 1814-1817. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the " Northern Luminary." The earliest 
issue located with the title of " American Advocate" is 
that of Nov. 23, 1814, vol. 2, no. 96, published by Jairus 
Rich. It is included in a list of New York newspapers 
of December, 1815 (printed in the "Albany Argus". ..of 
Dec. 26, 1815). It probably was discontinued early, in 

A. A. S. has: 

1814. Nov. 23. 

[Watertown] American Eagle, 1810-1812. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 10, 1810, with the title of 
" American Eagle," printed for Henry Coffeen. It 
succeeded "The Hemisphere," continuing the advertise- 
ments, but adopting a new volume numbering. F. B. 
Hough, in his "History of Jefferson County, " 1854, p. 372, 
states that Coffeen was the proprietor, and Abraham 
Taylor was the printer, but Taylor's name does not 
appear in any of the issues located. The last issue 
located is that of Sept. 25, 1810, vol. 1, no. 25. In 1811 
or 1812, the paper was succeeded by the "Republican 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

N. Y. State Lib. has Sept. 25, 1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Apr. 10, 24. 
May 29. 
June 5, 19. 
Aug. 14. 

[Watertown] Hemisphere, ] 809 -1810. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 17, 1809, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Feb. G, 1810, vol. 1, no. 17, 
printed by Abraham Taylor, with the title of "The 
Hemisphere." It was discontinued in April, 1810, to be 
succeeded by the " American Eagle," which see. 
A. A. S. has: 
1810. Feb. 6. 

[Watertown] Independent Republican, 1819- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in the spring of 1819 by Seth A. 
Abbey, with the title of " Independent Republican," and 
so continued until after 1820 (F. B. Hough, "History of 
Jefferson County," 1854, p. 372). No copy located. 

[Watertown] Jefferson and Lewis Gazette, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established in the spring of 1817 by 
Dorrephus Abbey and John H. Lord, Jr., with the title 
of "Jefferson and Lewis Gazette," and discontinued in 
April, 1819 (F. B. Hough, "History of Jefferson County," 
1854, p. 372). It is included in a list of newspapers of 
Jan. 1, 1818 (printed in the "Albany Argus" of Jan. G, 
1818), where Lord is given as the publisher. No copy 

[Watertown] Northern Luminary, 1813-1811. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 20, 1813, by J [aims] Rich, 
with the title of "Northern Luminary." It succeeded 
Coffeen's paper, the "Republican Watchman," continu- 
ing the advertisements, but adopting a new volume 
numbering. The title was not printed across the tern of 
the first page, but was given only in column headings 
on the second and fourth pages. The last issue located 
is that of Mar. 2, 1814, vol. 2, no. 58. The paper was 

1918.] New York. 131 

succeeded, without change of volume numbering, in 1814 
by the "American Advocate," which see. 
A. A. S. has: 

1813. Feb. 2, 23. 
Apr. 20. 

1814. Mar. 2. 

[Watertown] Republican Watchman, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established in 1812, or possibly in 1811, by 
Henry Coifeen, and continuing his other paper, the 
"American Eagle" (see statement in "Northern Lumi- 
nary "of Feb. 2, 1813). Coffeen sold out the establishment 
in January, 1813, to Jairus Rich, who changed the title 
to the "Northern Luminary. " No copies of the " Repub- 
lican Watchman" have been located. 

[West Farms] West-Chester Patriot, 1813. 

Semi-weekly. Established in April, 1813, judging 
from the date of the first and only issue located , tha;t of 
July 3, 1813, no. 23, published by M[ ] Lopez, with 
the title of "West-Chester Patriot." 
A. A. S. has: 
1813. July 3. 
Whitesborough, see under Whitestown, Western Centinel. 

Whitestown Gazette, 1793, 1796-1798. 

Weekly. Established July 11, 1793, by Richard 

Vanderburgh, with the title of "Whitestown Gazette." 
The Utica Directory of 1828 states that the paper was 
published in the village of New Hartford, in the town of 
Whitestown, that the proprietors were Jedediah Sanger, 
Samuel Wells and Elijah Risley, that the printer was 
Richard Vanderburgh, and that it was discontinued in the 
winter of 1793-1794. Under date of Mar. 12, 1794, 
R. Vanderburgh advertises in "The Western Centinel" 
of Mar. 26, 1794, that beginning with Apr. 15, 1794, he 
will publish the "Whitestown Gazette" in a more ex- 
tensive manner, under the firm of Vanderburgh, Lang 
and Johnson, and refers to his "former patrons." It 

132 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

was revived on June 7, 1796, judging, from the issue of 
July 5, 179G, vol. 1, no. 5, published by Samuel Wells, 
with the title of Whitestown Gazette." With the issue 
of July 12, 179G, William M'Lean was admitted to 
partnership and the paper was published by Wells and 
M'Lean. In August or September, 1790, Wells with- 
drew and William M'Lean became sole publisher. The 
last Whitestown issue was that of July 17, 1798, vol. 3, 
no. Ill, after which the paper was removed to Utica, 
where it was continued without change of volume num- 

Oneida Hist. Soc, Utica, has July 11, Aug. 22, 1793; 
Oct. 4, 1790; July .17, 1798. Harvard has July 19, 2G, 
1796; Nov. 7, 1797; June 12, 1798. A. A. S. has: 

1796. July 5. 
Oct. 25. 

1797. Apr. 4"\ 
Aug. 15. 

1798. Jan. 30. 
Feb. 13. 

[Whitestown] Western Centinel, 1794-1800. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1794, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 2G, 1794, 
vol. 1, no. 12, published by Oliver P. Easton, with the 
title of "The Western Centinel." The Utica Directory 
of 1828 states that James Swords of New York was the 
proprietor and Easton the printer, and that the paper 
was printed in the village of Whitesborough, in the town 
of Whitestown. Before June, 1794, the title was changed 
to "Western Centinel." The last issue located is that 
of Apr. 19, 1797, vol. 4, no. 16. Pomroy Jones, in his 
"Annals of Oneida County," 1851, p. 521, says that 
Easton was succeeded by a Mr. Lewis, who was the 
publisher in the summer of 1799. Whitestown imprints 
show that Lewis & Webb were printers in that town in 
1797, and Warren Barnard in 1800. 

1918.] New York. 133 

N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 11, 1794. Mass. Hist. Soc 
has Feb. 4, 1795. Harvard has Feb. 25, May 27, July 1, 
15, Aug. 19, Sept. 16, Oct. 28, Nov. 11, Dec. 30, 1795; 
Apr. 6, 13, 27, May 11, 18, June 1, 22 -July 0, 27 -Aug. 
17, 31, Sept. 14, 21, Oct. 5, 26, Nov. 2, 16-Dec. 28, 1796; 
Jan. 4, 11, 25, Feb. 8-Mar. 1, 15-29, Apr. 12, 19, 1797. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 18, Aug. 12, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Mar. 26. 

1795. Aug. 12. 

1796. June 15. 
Oct. 26. 

1918.] Proceedings. ^ 135 



The annual meeting was called to order in Antiqua- 
rian Hall, at 10.45 a. m., President Lincoln in the 

There were present the following members: 

Henry Herbert Edes, Augustus George Bullock, 
Francis Henshaw Dewey, William Trowbridge Forbes, 
George Henry Haynes, Charles Lemuel Nichols, 
Waldo Lincoln, Edward Sylvester Morse, George 
Parker Winship, Samuel Utley, Benjamin Thomas 
Hill, Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Clarence Saunders 
Brigham, Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Franklin Pierce 
Rice, Worthington Chauncey Ford, William Coolidge 
Lane, Julius Herbert Tuttle, Samuel Bayard Wood- 
ward, George LIubbard Blakeslee, Charles Grenfill 
Washburn, Edward Luther Stevenson, Wilfred Harold 
Munro, Henry Winchester Cunningham, Albert Bush- 
nell Hart, Rev. Shepherd Knapp, Samuel Verplanck 
Hoffmann, Archer Butler Hulbert, Rev. Herbert 
Edwin Lombard, Otis Grant Hammond, Charles 
Francis Jenney, Leonard Wheeler and Alexander 
George McAdie. 

After the call for the meeting had been read, it was 
moved by Mr. Edes and voted that the reading of the 
records of the last meeting be omitted. 

The President then read the Report of the Council, 
which included a memorial of Librarian Emeritus 

136 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Edmund M. Barton and reminiscences of the early 
meetings of the Society, prepared by Andrew Mc- 
Farland Davis. The financial report was presented by 
the Treasurer and the Librarian's report was read by 
Mr. Brigham. It was moved by Mr. Cunningham, 
and so voted, that these papers be accepted as the 
Report of the Council and referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

The President then appointed Messrs. Bowen, Rice, 
and Lombard to collect and count the ballots for the 
election of new members. They reported the election, 
as resident members, of the following:— 

Alfred Lawrence Aiken, of Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Knowles Bolton, of Boston, Mass. 

George Watson Cole, of New York, N. Y. 

John Henry Edmonds, of Boston, Mass. 

Leonard Leopold MacKall, of Savannah, Ga. 

Samuel Lyman Munson, of Albany, N. Y. 

The committee on election of President, Messrs. 
Edes, Knapp and Jenney, reported the unanimous 
election of Waldo Lincoln. For the other officers the 
committee, Messrs. Cunningham, Tuttle and Brigham 
reported the election of the following: 


Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., of Groton, Mass. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A M., of Cambridge, 


Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Utley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Milton, 

1918.] Proceedings. 137 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., of New York, 
N. Y. 

George Parker Winship, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., of New Haven, Conn. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., of Worcester, 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence: 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence: 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., of Cambridge* 

Recording Secretary: 

Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., of Worces- 
ter, Mass. 


Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., of Worcester, 

Committee of Publication: 

Franklin Pierce Rice, of Worcester, Mass. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt. D., of Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 


Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Homer Gage, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

The oath was administered to the Secretary by 
Judge Forbes and there being no further business the 
Society listened to the following papers: ''Nova 
Albion, 1579," by Alexander G. McAdie; "The Wor- 
ship of Great-Grandfather, " by Professor Albert B. 
Hart; "The Journal of Robert Rogers," prepared by 
William L. Clements, and read by Professor Archer 
B. Hulbert, Mr. Clements being prevented from 

138 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

attending the meeting; "The Press in British Guiana," 
by James Rodway, of Georgetown, British Guiana, 
was read by title. 

It was voted, on motion of Mr. Morse, that these 
papers be referred to the Committee of Publication. 
The President then invited the members present to 
lunch at his house, No. 49 Elm Street, at the close of 
the exercises. 

There being no further business the meeting was dis- 


Recording Secretary. 

1918.] Report of the Council. - , 139 


Since the last meeting three active members have 
died and the death of one foreign member has been 
reported. The death of another member, Rev. 
Charles S. Vedder, March 2, 1917, has only recently 
been reported to the Society. Edmund Mills Barton, 
long librarian and for the last ten years librarian 
emeritus, died only four days after the April meeting, 
not unexpectedly, for his health had been failing for 
several months. He was elected a member in Octo- 
ber, 1878, and at the time of his death stood second 
on the list in length of membership. At a special 
meeting of the Council held April 15, the following 
minute was passed: — 

The death of Edmund Mills Barton, for seventeen years assistant, for 
twenty-five years librarian and, since 1908, librarian emeritus, deserves 
more than a passing notice from the Council under whom he served so 

During his protracted tenure of office he had an eye single to the 
interests of the Society. It was the object of his solicitous affection, and 
it was by his faithful, watchful devotion that, when limited income per- 
mitted no extensive addition to the library by purchase, much material 
was secured and preserved to form the nuclei of what are now some of the 
Society's most useful collections. 

Few of the present members of the Council had official association with 
Mr. Barton, but all who had will bear testimony to the absolute fidelity 
and loyalty with which he served the Society, to his unfailing civility 
toward all the users of the library, and to the enthusiasm with which 
he welcomed every progressive movement towards increasing the Society's 

Retiring from active work nine years ago by reason of advancing age, 
he left behind him pleasant recollections of a gentle serenity of temper 
and a lovable courtesy, which marked him as a gentleman of the old 
school, and endeared him to all his associates. 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A biographical sketch of Mr. Barton prepared by 
Mr. Andrew McFarland Davis will appear later in this 
report. Reverend Austin Samuel Garver, the loved 
pastor-emeritus of the First Unitarian Church of 
Worcester, and a member of this Society since October, 
1899, died in Worcester June 21, 1918. Professor 
Herbert Levi Osgood, Ph.D., of New York died in that 
city September 11, 1918. He was elected a member 
in April, 1908. Biographical notices of these two 
gentlemen will be printed in the next number of the 

Federico Gonzalez Suarez, Archbishop of Quito 
since 1895, died December 1, 1917, at the age of 
seventy-three, having been born in Quito April 15, 
1844. He was elected a foreign member of this 
Society in April, 1910. At the age of twenty-one he 
became a member of the order of Jesuits and, until he 
retired from that order in 1872, taught literature and 
philosophy in several Jesuit colleges and became a pro- 
lific writer on church affairs. After his retirement 
from the order he devoted all the time he could spare 
from arduous ecclesiastical duties to historical re- 
search but was always strongly attracted to archaeol- 
ogy. He published a number of historical works, the 
most important being the history of Ecuador in nine 
volumes, in which he brought the story down to 1809. 
In the preparation of this great work he passed three 
years in Spain and Portugal. He is called the " father 
of Ecuadorian archaeology " and ranked as one of the 
brilliant men of letters of South America. 

The greater portion of the newspaper duplicates 
have recently been disposed of by exchange and sale, 
which has relieved the basement of a vast and em- 
barassing accumulation and will re-establish the 
Purchasing Fund at nearly double its original sum. 
By exchange the large debt to the Library of Congress 
has been cancelled, and by sale the generosity of our 
associate, William L. Clements, has not only aided 
this Society, but has enabled the University of Michi- 

1918.] Report of the Council 141 

gan to acquire a large and comprehensive newspaper 
collection which must prove invaluable to the students 
of Michigan and the neighboring States. This Society 
is extremely satisfied thus to furnish the means for 
establishing another important collection of news- 
papers in the West, and congratulates the University 
at Ann Arbor upon being the fortunate recipient of 
this gift, by which this Society also reaps a certain 
benefit. It is not always that two literary institutions 
are benefited by the same generous deed. 

The war, to the successful prosecution of which all 
else must be subservient, is casting its baleful influence 
upon the activities of this Society. Whether its 
library is a necessary enterprise and therefore entitled 
to ask for the exemption of its librarian and to receive 
its full quota of fuel, is a question which is seriously 
disturbing your officers. The loss of the librarian 
would be so grave a disaster that your president refuses 
to consider its possibility. Up to the present but half 
the amount of coal has been granted by the fuel com- 
mittee of the city, which will be required to maintain 
the temperature within the building sufficiently high 
to permit the staff or the public to work there. Un- 
fortunately bituminous coal cannot be used in the 
heating plant, and plans are being made to burn wood 
in one of the boilers if more anthracite cannot be 
secured. It is essential for the safety of the collections 
to maintain the temperature high enough to preserve 
the books and papers from dampness and frost, and 
this can be done with the coal on hand, even if the 
building must be closed to readers. The war is also 
responsible for the retirement of Miss Louise Cole- 
grove from the staff, of which she has been an es- 
teemed member since 1908. She is now in Switzer- 
land in the service of the Red Cross. It is hoped that 
at the conclusion of the war she will return to her 
former position in the library. Due also indirectly to 
the war with its high cost of living, which has obliged 
him to seek more remunerative employment than this 

142 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Society can offer, is the retirement from the staff of 
Mr. Curtis H. Morrow, who has given up library work 
for teaching. His services during the past six years 
have been of great value in the arrangement of the 
newspapers and government publications. The Socie- 
ty is fortunate in having, during the coming winter, 
the assistance of our associate, Archer B. Hulbert, 
who will contribute a portion of his time, while 
lecturing at Clark University, to the duties formerly 
performed by Mr. Morrow. 

In the Council report for April, 1917, reference was 
made to the extensive collection of newspaper clip- 
pings presented to the library by Mr. Franklin P. 
Rice, consisting largely of biographical sketches and 
obituary notices printed since 1860. Mr. Rice con- 
tinues his interest in this collection and has added 
very largely to it during the last eighteen months. It 
occupies a part of the card catalogue case, and as a 
supplement to the manuscript biographical notes of 
the late Samuel Jennison, must prove of inestimable 
value as a source of biographical data, in the prepara- 
tion of that long hoped for Dictionary of American 
Biography, which we have faith to believe will some- 
time be published. The Society may not appreciate 
how much the library owes to the fostering care of 
individual members. Without the interest taken in it 
during the past ten years by Dr. Charles L. Nichols, 
our almanac collection would not have attained half of 
its importance and value; and that our collection of 
bookplates has become one of the finest in the country, 
is due to the efforts of Rev. Mr. Lombard, who not 
only presented the Society with his own collection, but 
has continued to labor ever since for its increase and 
improvement. The Society has recently been offered 
an opportunity to acquire at a very reasonable cost a 
large number of engraved American portraits, which 
with its own not inconsiderable collection, might be 
made, as opportunity comes to increase it, of very 
great importance. It will need, however, the discrimi- 

1918.] Report of the Council 143 

nating care of an enthusiast, who must devote con- 
siderable time to its arrangement and growth, as our 
staff is too small and too busy with other matters to 
give it the attention such a subject deserves. While 
this may not be a favorable time, when so many are 
engaged in war work, to seek for such an enthusiast, 
it seems advisable to let the members know that the 
opportunity exists in the hope that before it is lost 
the right man will appear. 

An exhibition has been arranged in the upper hall of 
a number of recruiting posters used in 1861 and 1862 
during the Civil War, together with specimens of the 
paper currency and political caricatures of that period, 
which the members may be interested to examine. 
The Society owns over a hundred of these posters but 
room has been found to hang only about thirty of them. 
They present a marked contrast to the more elaborate 
and high colored posters of the present war, and in 
reading them one wonders if it was really necessary to 
lay so much emphasis upon the bounties offered to 
recruits. If it was, patriotism was evidently at a 
lower ebb than has been popularly supposed. The 
writer's own boyish recollection is, that after the first 
burst of patriotic fervor, which lasted for perhaps a 
year, enthusiasm died out, patriotism diminished, and 
it became necessary to entice recruits with bounties, 
which varied from one to several hundred dollars, 
according to the liberality of the several towns and 
cities and the pressing need for recruits. The draft 
which followed soon after the publication of these 
posters in 1862, was very unpopular and led to serious 
riots in New York City and to much uneasiness else- 
where. The contrast with the present draft is marked. 
In the Civil War "bounty jumpers," as they were 
called, were one of the evils of the recruiting system 
and drafted men frequently purchased substitutes for 
large sums. Under the method adopted in the present 
war, by which no bounties are offered and no substi- 
tutes can be purchased, not only are the evils of the 

144 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

former system avoided but patriotism seems to be 
increasing as the war continues. 

Our honored and beloved junior vice-president is 
unfortunately unable to attend this meeting. As one 
who knew the late Edmund Mills Barton better, per- 
haps, than any member now living, he was invited to 
prepare a brief memoir of him, and as the memoir of 
the late Mr. Haven was, at his decease, incorporated 
in the report of the Council, it was proposed that a 
similar course be pursued now. The suggestion was 
therefore made to Mr. Davis, that if he would also 
write out his reminiscences of the early days of the 
Society, to be included with the memoir in the Council 
report, the members would be much interested in 
what he could tell them. This Mr. Davis kindly 
consented to do and his tribute to Mr. Barton and 
reminiscences of the Society are therefore herewith 
presented as the interesting portion of this report. 

The death of Edmund Mills Barton in his eightieth 
year has removed from our midst the most familiar 
form amongst us and we have lost from the adminis- 
trative list of our service, the name which has longest 
been associated with our active work. Born in Wor- 
cester, September 27, 1838, his career was completed 
in the same place on April 14, 1918. Indeed nearly 
all of his life was spent within the precincts of his 
native town and about two-thirds of it in the service 
of this Society. His education, begun in the public 
schools, was finished with a course at a private school 
in Northborough, following which came three years of 
mercantile life. During the war formerly spoken of 
as the War of the Rebellion and of late as the Civil 
War, he was for a time in the service of the Sanitary 
Commission. It was far more consonant with his 
gentle and affectionate disposition that his patriotic 
activities should be in the nature of relief to the suffer- 
ing and aid to the wounded than that he himself 
should be responsible in any way for the conditions 
which it was his vocation to relieve. At the close of 

1918.] Report of the Council. 145 

the War he was on duty in connection with the 5th 
Corps of the Army of the Potomac. Relieved from 
this service he granted himself the one great indulgence 
of his life, a few months of travel and then on the first 
of April, 18G6, as assistant librarian, entered upon the 
loyal and faithful service in the employment of this 
Society which was to prove continuous for fifty-two 

He was deeply interested in the little church of 
which he was a member for a period covering nearly 
the same time as that which he gave to us, and on that 
side of his life was connected with many philanthropic 
and benevolent societies, while on the side of his pro- 
fessional labors he became associated with the great 
organizations known as the American Library Asso- 
ciation and the American Historical Association. He 
was fond of music and this found expression in the 
record of his life, through the active support of the 
Worcester Choral Union and the Worcester Musical 

The story of his professional career can be told in a 
few words. Chosen as an assistant to Doctor Haven 
April 1, 1866, he was elected Librarian April 24, 1883. 
His last report as Librarian was submitted at the 
October meeting of the Society in 1908, at which meet- 
ing the Council reported that in view of Mr. Barton's 
long and faithful services, he had been elected Librar- 
ian Emeritus and to this announcement was added 
the statement: "Mr. Barton will have a desk in the 
Library and advise the staff so that his great knowledge 
of the Library will be still available to the Society. " 
From that date till he was stricken with the illness 
which carried him off, he performed no specific duty 
at the Hall, but there was seldom a day passed when 
he did not pay a visit to his old co-workers. These 
daily meetings revived memories in their minds of 
their years of association with him, characterized on 
his part throughout the entire period by his cheerful 
smile and his unruffled temper, and these memories 
secured for him at all times an affectionate reception. 

146 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Any person who analyzes the record of Mr. Barton's 
life and examines the educational opportunities which 
had been at his disposal at the time that he was ap- 
pointed assistant librarian, will recognize at once that 
it was not probable that he could ever have acquired 
the qualifications demanded of a professional librarian 
today. It must not be forgotten, however, that at that 
time there was no such profession. Should we apply 
the same test to Mr. Haven we should find that he 
could lay no claim to the title. He was a lawyer by 
profession, and a historical student who had already 
acquired reputation when he was summoned to Wor- 
cester. His great learning and the wonderful astute- 
ness which he displayed in the prosecution of his 
investigations in American archaeolog}', were of far 
more value to the reputation of this Society than 
would have been his services as librarian had he pos- 
sessed the technical training and professional require- 
ments demanded of a librarian today. Notwithstand- 
ing the fact that William Lincoln, when he wrote his 
History of Worcester, said that the collections of this 
Society had been kept open to the public freely, and 
had been much frequented by strangers and scholars, 
the liberal manner in which the books upon the shelves 
of a public library today are made available to stu- 
dents, whether they have special rights of access or 
not, was not fully conceived of at that time, and the 
necessity of opening up this access to the books through 
a suitable catalogue was not adequately recognized. 
The card catalogue, the key that opens the door to 
the shelves today, had not been brought to its present 
state of perfection, and as a rule, knowledge of what 
was in a library was only to be obtained from an in- 
adequate catalogue supplemented by the aid of those 
who arranged the books upon the shelves. In the 
development of the use of our library and in the im- 
provement of the means of bringing our resources to 
the knowledge of students, Mr. Barton participated, 
and it was under his personal supervision that the ex- 

1918.] Report of the Council. 147 

tensive acquisitions gained during the period of his 
active service were arranged upon the shelves, and 
nuclei established for future growth in special direc- 
tions. The miscellaneous character of many of the 
gifts to the Society demanded intelligent supervision, 
and the study of the needs of the library made him 
keen to recognize in the waifs which passed through 
his hands, actual or potential values, hidden from 
those who were not educated by experience in han- 
dling such material. The increase of the number of 
public libraries and the steady development of their 
use has created the professional librarian, and if the 
limitations of Mr. Barton's education cut him off from 
some of the activities demanded in that field, he had 
at any rate the compensation of knowing that with 
every year of experience his knowledge of the demands 
of his service had increased and that he had thus be- 
come of greater value to us in the administration of 
his daily work. 

During the first hundred years of this Society, there 
were practically but three persons elected to the office 
of librarian: Christopher C. Baldwin, Samuel F. 
Haven, and Edmund M. Barton. It is inevitable 
that one who can call himself a contemporary of all 
three should pause while recalling the career of the 
last and indulge in reminiscences of the other two. It 
is quite within the probabilities that I may have seen 
Mr. Baldwin. At any rate I have a distinct idea of 
his social characteristics, which if it does not permit 
ine to recall his personal appearance, at least presents 
a vivid picture of his social attractions. During the 
days of my boyhood, I have heard my mother often 
speak of him. It was evident that he was a frequent 
and welcome guest in our household, and whenever 
his name was mentioned it was generally accompanied 
by anecdotes, the interest of which hinged upon some 
witty sally, or humorous conversational turn of which 
he was the author, He was clearly the one upon 
whom, when he was present, the little clique of inti- 

148 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

mates depended for the life and animation of their 
social circle, and precisely as he has left behind him a 
distinct impression among our librarians as a collector 
whose characteristic it was to discover hidden treasure 
of valuable material which could be procured for our 
use, so his brilliant conversation created a reputation 
which was passed on to me with such force that I shall 
always think of his social personality with almost as 
much clearness as if I had actually met him. 

With Mr. Haven, my relations were on a widely 
different basis. I knew him while I was still a mere 
boy and I can almost claim that his friendship which 
I had occasion to realize at different times in my life, 
began at that early period. He permitted me several 
times in my boyhood to inspect what was termed by 
William Lincoln the " valuable cabinet illustration of 
antiquities and natural history," access to which was 
gained through his office, then established in the 
southern wing of the Society building on Summer 
Street, and it was in this building and in this office 
that I once attended a meeting of the Council of this 
Society. The meeting was held in the evening. I do 
not know in what year, but think it must have been 
in the middle forties. My father asked me if I would 
like to go with him to the meeting, and of course I 
was only too glad to keep him company. I remember 
nothing of what took place there, or of those present, 
but when I try to recall the scene, I think of an astral 
lamp on Mr. Haven's desk, illuminating a small area 
on its surface, and of the rest of the office in a sort of 
twilight. It is safe to say that I am the only person 
living who ever attended a Council meeting in the old 
building on Summer Street. Absence from Worcester 
reduced the opportunities for familiarizing myself 
with the library in its new home, when it was first 
moved to Court Hill. The various articles of interest 
which constituted the cabinet or museum were trans- 
ferred to this building, and at a later date this side of 
the work of the Society was accentuated by the pre- 

1918.] Report of the Council. 149 

sentation by Mr. Salisbury of two plaster casts of 
heroic size, one of Michael Angelo's Moses and one of 
his Christ. The former startled the visitor on enter- 
ing the lower hall of the building. Here he kept 
perpetual watch, and raised doubts in the minds of 
those familiar with the alleged objects of the Society 
whether he was illustrative of "antiquity" or of 
"natural history." When it became evident to the 
Council that the field covered by the collections of the 
Society would, under the altered conditions of modern 
life, be better covered by narrowing its limits, the 
question arose what should be done with these various 
objects of interest in the cabinet. How they were 
distributed, and what finally became of the statues, 
has been disclosed in the reports of the Council and of 
the librarian. Suffice it to say that the Society 
entered upon its work in the new building on Salisbury 
Street without a cabinet of antiquities and without the 
giant statues one of which, as has already been stated, 
confronted the- visitor on entering the lower hall of the 
Court Hill building, while the other was on the story 

What the members who were in the habit of attend- 
ing the meetings in that building will always miss was 
the opportunity for seeing their friends afforded by 
the informal assemblage in the librarian's office prior 
to the opening of the meeting. Here one could confer 
with the Worcester members and later as the trains 
arrived from the various points of compass, the newly 
arrived members from more distant localities. This 
opportunity for the interchange of friendly intercourse 
was of inestimable value, and was followed by a formal 
meeting, held in a pleasant room with good acoustic 
properties, on the walls of which numerous portraits 
were hung. Moreover, the room was equipped with 
interesting furniture which at every turn reminded 
one that the Society was Antiquarian. The informal 
and the formal meeting together left a highly satis- 
factory impression on those who were present. The 

150 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

whole thing was in its way unique. With a good 
chance of seeing Doctor Peabody and Charles Deane, 
George E. Ellis and Justin Winsor and possibly also 
Doctor Green seated on the sofas which were placed 
on either side of the Secretary's table, at right angles 
to the chairs in which the audience was seated, and 
perhaps with Charles Francis Adams and William B. 
Weeden, "Nat" Paine and Henry Haynes in the front 
row of the old-fashioned chairs which furnished the 
seating capacity for the meeting, the scene was one 
not easily to be forgotten. . As a rule some of these 
gentlemen interposed with remarks or questions 
during the progress of the meeting. These were 
generally appropriate, suggestive and interesting, but 
I well remember one occasion when Doctor Ellis, 
without any hint, or suggestion to call for his inter- 
position, rose and pointing to the portraits of Doctor 
Bancroft and my father, told how on a certain occa- 
sion when he was sent to Worcester as a delegate to 
some convention, he was assigned to the hospitable 
care of my mother. There was but little point to his 
gossipy and not altogether appropriate anecdote, but 
it was characteristic of the man and the occasion, and 
illustrates the personal element introduced in these 
meetings by the presence of so many distinguished men. 
In my review of the career of Mr. Barton, I have 
mentioned but three of the librarians that this Society 
has had. May it be long before any person is called 
upon to perform a similar service for Mr. Brigham, the 
successor and for ten years the co-adjutor of Mr. 
Barton. If our first librarian could be properly 
characterized as a wonderful collector; our second 
as a distinguished archaeologist; our third as one who 
knew how skilfully to sort out, arrange and make 
accessible our acquisitions, it would seem that our 
fourth is destined to become the authority upon the 
gigantic subject of the place in history of the news- 
papers of the American continents and of the islands of 
the Caribbean Sea. 


For the Council. 

1918.1 Obituaries. 151 



Austin Samuel Garver died in Worcester, Mass., 
June 20, 1918. He was born in Scotland, Perm., De- 
cember 12, 1847; was a student in Pennsylvania State 
College 1865-1867, receiving his A.M. from that col- 
lege in 1890. He was graduated from Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1871, remaining as a post-graduate 
student about one year, was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in Hingham, Mass., 1872-1875, and in 
Wakefield, Mass., 1875-1880. In 1880 he became 
pastor of the Unitarian Church in Hopedale, Mass., 
remaining there till 1883, when he came to the Second 
Parish Church in Worcester, holding this pastorate 
till his resignation in 1910, on the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of his installation; and since then he has been 
pastor emeritus. On August 2, 1881, he married 
Sarah C. Brackett, of Braintree, Mass., who survives 

Doctor Garver was a deep student of art and taught 
classes in art for many years; was active in all religious 
educational and philanthropic work in Worcester and 
vicinity; was trustee of Clark University and of the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, vice-president of 
Leicester Academy, an incorporator, trustee and 
president of the Worcester Art Museum, president of 
the Worcester Art Society, member of the Worcester 
School Board for thirteen years, and a member of 
many local clubs and societies. Pie was elected to 
this Society in 1899, and made these contributions to 
its Proceedings: — " Greek Arclneology" at the April 

152 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct.,, 

meeting in 1902; Obituary Sketch of Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale at the October meeting in 1909. 

s. u. 


Herbert Levi Osgood, who died on September 11, 
1918, was born at Canton, Me., was prepared for college 
at Wilton Academy, and was graduated with honors 
from Amherst in 1877. After teaching two years at 
Worcester Academy he took post-graduate courses at 
Yale and Amherst, and in 1880 received the A.M. de- 
gree from the latter institution. In 1881 he matricu- 
lated in the University of Berlin. On returning to 
America he taught from 1883 to 1889 in the Boys' 
High School, Brooklyn, during part of which time he 
studied at Columbia, chiefly under Burgess, and in 
1888 took the Ph.D. degree, with a dissertation on 
"Socialism and Anarchism: Rodbertus and Proud- 

In 1890 he was called to Columbia as adjunct pro- 
fessor of history, and in 1896 was given the professor- 
ship which he held until the time of his death. He 
had been much influenced by the work of Leopold von 
Ranke, and, like that historian, tracing the course of 
political development, rigorously followed his maxim 
to seek out the "most genuine immediate documents, " 
and emulated the brevity and clarity of his style. 
While still a graduate he dedicated himself to the 
study of the institutional beginnings of the United 
States. In 1887 he contributed his first essay on 
"England and the Colonies" to the "Political Science 
Quarterly, " of which he subsequently became an 
editor and in which he published many articles and 
scores of reviews. After 1895, he read several papers 
before the American Historical Association, establish- 
ing his classification of the American Colonies. In 
1904 he produced the first two volumes of the "Ameri- 
can Colonies in the Seventeenth Century," followed 

1918.] Obituaries. 153 

by a third in 1907. This work won him the Loubat 
prize and the degree of LL.D. from Amherst. Three 
sojourns for study in England (1889-'90, 1908-'09, 
1914) enabled him to consider fairly the imperial side 
of the development of the English settlements, and 
the material gained, together with that gathered by 
extended researches in every one of the thirteen origi- 
nal states, constituted the basis for four volumes on 
the " American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century," 
which he has left almost ready for the press. His 
article in the "Encyclopedia Britannica" (11th Edi- 
tion), vol. xxvii, pp. 633-684, sets forth many of his 

Besides his contribution to the literature of Ameri- 
can history, should be mentioned that to archival 
science. He had been impressed with the utility of 
von SybePs service in the orderly arrangement of the 
public papers of Prussia, and with this ideal of 
thoroughness, his elaborate report on the condition 
of the archives of New York, published in 1901, set a 
model for other investigations conducted by the 
Public Archives Commission of the American Histori- 
cal Association, and influenced legislation in several 
states. He long served as a member of the commission 
and was for a time its chairman. He edited the eight 
volumes of the minutes of the common council of 
New York, as published in 1905, and was a member of 
the committee to publish the subsequent volumes now 
appearing. He arranged for and superintended the 
publication of the records of the Virginia Company by 
the Library of Congress in 1906. As a teacher he 
developed important seminars in European, English 
and American history, conceived and supervised the 
production of many valuable dissertations, and sent 
forth many scholars well-trained and zealous. He is 
survived by his widow, Mrs. Caroline A. Symonds 
Osgood, two sons and a daughter. 

His works are his monument. 

D. R. FOX. 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


Rev. Charles Stuart Vedder died March 2, 1917, 

at Charleston, S. C. He was born' in Schenectady, 
N. Y., October 7, 182G, the son of Albert A. and 
Susan Fulton Vedder, and was graduated from Union 
College in 1851 with the degree of A. B. After a few 
years spent in newspaper work he entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Columbia, S. C, where he was 
graduated in 1861. In that year he was ordained in 
the Presbyterian church and assumed a pastorate at 
Summer ville, where he served until I860, when he 
accepted a call to the Huguenot church at Charleston. 
Here he remained until 1914 when he became pastor 
emeritus. During this long period he was promi- 
nently engaged in the social, religious and educational 
life at Charleston, being connected with many religi- 
ous and philanthropic societies. He received the 
degree of D.D. from the University of New York in 
1876, the degree of LL.D. from the College of Charles- 
ton in 1876, and the degree of L.H.D. from Union 
College in 1911. On June 7, 1854, he married Helen 
A. Scovel, of Albany, N. Y. He was elected to the 
American Antiquarian Society in 1901, and at the 
time of his death was the oldest member of the 

c. s. B. 

1918.] Report of the Treasurer. 155 


The Treasurer presents herewith his annual report of receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending Sept. 30, 1918, to which is 
appended a statement of the Society's investments and of the 
condition of the various funds. 
Oct. 1, 1918, the net assets were invested as follows: 

Library Building $189,905 . 7 1 

Public Funds 115,589.50 

Railroad bonds 101,515.50 

Miscellaneous bonds 47,772.00 

Railroad shares 22,017 . 00 

Bank shares 5,345.00 

Miscellaneous shares , 8,234 . 50 

Mortgages 15,100.00 

Bank deposit 2,000.00 

Cash on deposit 978 . 25 

. Which sum includes unexpended income 

amounting to 5 . 90 

Less Library Building 189,905 . 71 

Capital bearing interest $318,545.85 

With the exception of $6,800 New York, New Haven & Hartford 
stock, $5,000 Boston & Maine bonds, and $4,000 Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois bonds; all of our securities are paying dividends 
or interest. 

$8,000 in bonds, of the City of Chicago became due and were 
paid during the year, and in their place the Treasurer, with the 
consent of the Finance Committee, purchased $3,000 United 
States Government 4% bonds, which have since been converted 
into 414% bonds; $2,000 United Kingdom of Great Britain 
& Ireland 5^>% bonds, and also paid a note of $3,756 owed by 
the Society to the Worcester Art Museum. 

150 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Principal account has been increased by receipt of $57.36 from 
the James Lyman Whitney Estate; $405 by dividends in liquida- 
tion of two banks, $450 from Worcester National Bank and 
$15 from Old Boston National Bank; $811 by gifts; $100 by 
income transferred to principal; $50 by life membership; $703.25 
by sale of duplicates; $252 by reimbursement to the Publishing 
Fund and $177 to the Salisbury Legacy Fund according to the 
plan of the Council three years ago. 


19 18.] Report of the Treasurer. 157 


Principal Oct. 1, 1917 (less unexpended income for 1917) $509,169 . 10 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1917 

Dividends in liquidation $465.00 

Julius H. Tuttle Life Membership 50. 00 

Reimbursement of Publishing Fund by one- 
third amount charged in 1915 report 252.00 

Reimbursement of Salisbury Legacy Fund by 

one-third amount charged in 1915 report. . . . 177.00 
Income added to principal: 

James L. Whitney Fund $10 . 00 

Purchasing Fund 90.00 


Herbert E. Lombard : for Special Gifts Fund. . . 26 . 00 

Henry W. Cunningham : for Special Gifts Fund. 285 . 00 

Anonymous: for Special Gifts Fund 300.00 

Worcester Art Museum: for Special Gifts Fund. 200 . 00 

James Lyman Whitney Estate 57 . 36 

Sale of duplicates 763.25 



Expended for books from Purchasing Fund $2,582. 15 

Expended for books from Special Gifts Fund 311 .00 

Expended for salaries from Special Gifts Fund... . 300.00 
Expended for work on manuscripts from Special 

Gifts Fund 200.00 




Unexpended Income 1917 $56 . 81 

Income from Investments 13,871 . 82 

Assessments 295. 00 

Sale of Publications 105 . 00 




Income carried to Principal $100 . 00 

Incidental Expense 418 . 63 

Salaries 6,923.33 

Light, Heat, Water, and Telephone 1,468 . 65 

Office Expense 576 .31 

Supplies 404.82 

Books ; 1 ,428 . 15 

158 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct, 



Care of Grounds 

Work on manuscripts. 
Extra Service 


Real Estate $189,905 .71 

Mortgages 15,100:00 

Bonds 264,S77.00 

Stocks 35,596 50 

Bank Deposit. . ." 2,000 . 00 

Cash on deposit 978 . 25 







$508,457 . 46 


Unexpended Balance October 1, 1918 $5.90 

Principal October 1, 1918 $508,451.56 

Oct. 1, 1918 
Condition op the Fund Accounts 

Balance Income Expended 

Fund Title Principal 1917 1918 1918 Balance 

1-Alden $1,000.00 $45.00 $45.00 

2-Bookbinding 7,500 . 00 337 . 50 337 . 50 

3-George Chandler 500.00 $.50 22.50 23.00 

• 4-Collection and Research . 17,000.00 765.00 765.00 

5-1. and E. L. Davis 23,000 . 00 1,035 . 00 1 ,035 . 00 

6-John and Eliza Davis . . . 4,000 . 00 220 . 50 220 . 50 

7-F. H. Dewey 4,800.00 41.50 216.00 256.41 $1.09 

8-G. E. Ellis 17,500.00 787.50 787.50 

9-Librarian's and General.. 35,000.00 1,575.00 1,575.00 

10-IIaven 1,500.00 3.02 67.50 67.50 3.02 

12-Life Membership 3,750 . 00 168 . 75 168 . 75 

13-Lincohi Legacy 7,000 .00 315 . 00 315 . 00 

14-Publishing 32,001.91 1,420 00 1,420.00 

17-Salisbury 104,348.39 4,693.50 4,093.50 

18-Tenncy 5,000 . 00 225 . 00 225 . 00 

19-B. F. Thomas 1,000 .00 . 57 45 .00 45 . 00 . 57 

22-Special Gifts 497 . 82 22 . 50 22 . 50 

23-F. W. Haven 2,000.00 90.00 90.00 

24-Purehasing 219 98 90 . 00 90 . 00 

25-Chas. F. Washburn 5,000.00 225.00 225.00 

26-Centennial 34,500.58 1,440.57 1,440.57 

27-Eliza D. Dodge 3,000 .00 11 . 22 135 . 00 145 .00 1 . 22 

28-Hunnewell 5,000.00 215.00 215.00 

29-Jas. Lyman Whitney... 412.20 10.00 10.00 

1918.] Report of the Treasurer. 159 

Statement of Investments 

Pap. Book 

Name Rate Maturity Val. Val. 
Public Funds: 

Baltimore, Md 4 May, 1955 $1 5,000 $15,000 . 00 

Boston, Mass 'Sy 2 July, 1919 15,000 1 1,325 . 00 

Cuyahoga County, Ohio.... 5 Oct., 1922 3,000 3,151.00 

Duluth, Minn 4 April, 193G 2,000 1,910.00 

Jersey City, N. J 4 April, 1928 5,000 4,931 .00 

Memphis, Tenn 4 May, 1 933 5,000 4,887 . 00 

Middletown, Conn 3K May, 1925 5,000 4,700 . 00 

New York, N. Y VA May, 1957 20,000 20,000.00 

Omaha, Neb 4^ Mar. 1928 15,000 15,000.00 

San Francisco, Cal 4H July, 1948 5,000 4,914 . 00 

Waterbury, Conn 4 Jan., 1919 10,000 9,000.00 

Woonsocket, It. 1 4 June, 1929 12,000 11,179,00 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland h>A Feb., 1919 2,000 1,977.50 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 5^ Nov., 1921 1,000 985.00 

United States of America. . A\i May, 1942 3,000 3,000. 00 


Railroads : 
Atchison, Topeka & Sante 

Fe 4 May, 1995 2,000 $1,540.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Sante 

Fe 4 May, 1995 1,000 885 . 00 

Baltimore & Ohio 3 Y 2 July, 1 925 5,000 4,037 . 00 

Boston Elevated 4 May, 1935 2,000 2,000,-00 

Boston Elevated 4^ April, 1937 8,000 7,960.00 

Boston & Maine 3^ Feb., 1925 5,000 4,593 . 00 

Chicago, Burlington & 

Quincy 4 July, 1949 5,000 5,000 . 00 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois . . 5 Nov., 1937 4,000 4,000 . 00 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul . . AYi June, 1932 2,000 1,932.50 

Chicago, Indiana & 

Southern 4 Jan., 1956 12,000 10,920 . 00 

Chicago & Northwestern... 4 Aug., 1920 1,000 945.00 

Fitchburg 3V 2 Oct., 1921 10,000 9,300.00 

Illinois Central 3 V 2 July, 1952 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Illinois Central 5 Dec, 1963 2,000 2,010 . 00 

Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern . . 4 May, 1931 5,000 4,621 . 00 

Lowell, Lawrence & Haver- 
hill 5 June, 1923 7,000 6,570.00 

160 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Marlboro & Westboro 5 July, 1921 1,000 1,000.00 

N. Y., N.H. & Hartford.... 4 May, 1954 10,000 10,000.00 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford.. .3^ Jan., 195G 50 50.00 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford.. .6 Jan., 1948 2,200 2,189.00 

Old Colony 4 Jan., 1938 3,000 2,970.00 

Penobscot Shore Line 4 Aug., 1920 5,000 4,943 . 00 

Pere Marquette 4 July, 1950 5,000 4,500.00 

Pere Marquette 5 July, 1956 500 500.00 

Southern Indiana 4 Feb., 1951 2,000 2,000.00 

Union Pacific 1 July, 1927 500 450 . 00 

Wilkesbarre & Eastern 5 June, 1942 2,000 2,000.00 

Worcester & Webster 5 Dec, 1919 2,000 2,000.00 


Miscellaneous Bonds: 

Arncr. Tel. & Tel. Co 4 July, 1929 11,000 11,000.00 

Bethlehem Steel Co 5 Jan., 1 920 2,000 2,005 . 00 

Business Real Estate Trust . 4 June, 1921 2,000 1,915.00 

Congress Hotel Co G Feb., 1933 5,000 5,000 . 00 

Detroit Edison Co 5 July, 1940 5,000 4,800.00 

Ellicott Square Co G Mar., 1935 5,000 5,000.00 

Michigan State Tel. Co 5 Feb., 1924 3,000 2,990 . 00 

Norton Co.. 5 Feb., 1927 3,000 3,000.00 

Seattle Electric Co 5 Aug., 1929 5,000 5,000.00 

Terre Haute Trac. Lt. & 

Power Co 5 May, 1944 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Western Electric Co 5 Dec, 1922 5,000 5,056 . 00 

_ __ $47,772.00 

Stocks , $264,877.00 

Par Book 

Shares Value Value 

24 American Tel. & Tel. Co -. . $2,400 $2,353 . 50 

11 Atchinson, Topeka & Sante Fe R. R. (Pref .) 1,100 G87 . 00 

3 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Pref.) 300 210.00 

6 Baltimore & Ohio It. R. Co. (Com.) 600 420 . 00 

6 Fitchburg Bank & Trust Co GOO GOO .00 

50 Fitchburg R. R. Co 5,000 5,000.00 

35 Mass. Gas Light Cos.' (Pref.) 3,500 2,900.00 

G8 N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co.. 6,800 8,450.00 

30 Northern R. R. (N. II.) 3,000 3,000.00 

11 Old South Building Trust (Pref.) 1,100 981 .00 

30 Union Pacific R. R. (Com.) 3,000 3,000.00 

16 Webster & Atlas National Bank 1 ,600 1,800 . 00 

25 West End St. Ry. Co. (Pref.) . . . 1,250 1,250.00 

14 Worcester Gas Light Co 1,400 2,000 . 00 

31 Worcester Bank & Trust Co 3,100 2,945.00 


1918.] Report of the Treasurer. 161 

Mortgage Loans 

J. Burwick $2,100 00 

L. L. Mellen 1,500.00 

B. F. Sawyer 3,500.00 

J. P. Sexton, Trustee 8,000.00 

Bank Deposits 
Deposit in Worcester Bank & Trust Co., Interest 

Department $2,000.00 

Real Estate 
Library Building with land $180,005.71 

The undersigned, Auditor of the American Antiquarian 
Society, begs leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1918, have been 
examined by Elmer A. MacGowan, Accountant, and his certificate 
that they are correct is herewith submitted. 

The Auditor further reports that he has personally examined 
the securities held by the Treasurer and finds the same to be as 
stated by him and the balance of cash on hand duly accounted for. 


October 1, 1918. Auditor. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1918. 
I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made up 
for the year ending September 30, 1918, and find same to be 



-'-••--•'--' : rs^ii j*:. 

I MBMB Wk •' 

1018.] Report of the Treasurer. 163 

1887 Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

1889 Francis H. Dewey, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

1891 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5,000 

1895 George E. Ellis, Charlestown (legacy) 10,000 

1899 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

1900 John C. B. Davis, Washington, D. C 1,000 

Horace Davis, San Francisco, Calif 1,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

1905 Andrew II. Green, New York, N. Y. (legacy) 4,8 10 

1907 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 00,000 

Charles E. French, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

1908 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 175,000 

1909 Mrs. Frances W. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

1910 Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 5,000 

Mrs. Eliza D. Dodge, Worcester (legacy) 3,000 

James F. Hunnewell, Boston 5,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5,000 

Charles H. Davis, Worcester 2,000 

Austin P. Cristy, Worcester 100 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1,000 

Henry A. Marsh, Worcester 100 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven, Conn 100 

Eugene F. Bliss, Cincinnati, 1,000 

A. George Bullock-, Worcester 2,000 

W T illiam B. Weeden, Providence 500 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 2,500 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel S. Green, Worcester 1,000 

James L. Whitney, Cambridge (legacy) 216 

1911 Austin S. Garver, Worcester 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,500 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, Pa 100 

William Lawrence, Boston 100 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 100 

Samuel A. Green, Boston 150 

1912 James P. Baxter, Portland, Me , 100 

Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven, Conn 100 

Justin H. Smith, Boston 100 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Worcester, 200 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York, N. Y 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit, Mich 100 

Henry II. Edes, Boston 250 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

1913 Albert H. Whitin, Whitinsville 1,000 

164 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1913 Daniel Merriman, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

Miss Jane A. Taft, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Katharine Allen, Worcester (legacy) 4,000 

1916 Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 200 

1917 Horace Davis, San Francisco, Cal. (legacy) 5,000 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 165 


The number of accessions in 1917-1918 has main- 
tained the average of previous years. The great 
world-war has had little effect upon the dispersing and 
the disposal of books. Owners of libraries have con- 
tinued to die and the exigencies of probate courts have 
required the marketing of their collections. In fact, 
the war, with the financial rewards of war work, has 
stimulated rather than retarded the sale of books, and 
embryo bibliophiles who only needed sufficient capital 
to become earnest collectors rushed into -competition 
with wealthy Philistines who regarded books chiefly 
as intellectual wallpaper. Prices in New York auction 
rooms last winter ruled higher than ever before. 
The first edition of Milton's "Comus," which brought 
$4,000 at the Huth sale in 1915, went for $9,200 when 
sold with the Huntington duplicates last February. 
Mr. W. H. Hagen's copy of the 1640 Shakespeare's 
"Poems" brought $5,010, although nearly everyone 
thought seven years ago that the Hoe price of $2,700 
was excessive. Another book, John Skelton's "Poems," 
which was purchased from a prominent dealer a short 
while ago for $1,100, brought $9,700 at this sate. Mr. 
Hagen's prophecy that his books were worth more 
than bonds was true, for his library must have sold 
for three times what he paid for it. 

Americana, although showing few titles of com- 
manding value, generally sold for record prices. 
George Fox's "A New England Firebrand Quenched, " 
1679, brought $360, an increase of fifty per cent over 
the previous high price. William Coddington's " Dem- 

166 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

onstration of True Love," 1074, fetched the record 
figure of $420. A Brooklyn collector, who invested 
heavily in Americana within the past few years, sold 
his books last winter for double what he had paid for 
them. Religious tracts of the Mathers, without any 
particular historical value, worth perhaps $25 each a 
short while ago, sold repeatedly for $400 and $500. 
Money apparently was plentiful and collectors could 
not wait for desired volumes to turn up at some future 

The share of the Antiquarian Society in all this 
literary spoil was not noticeable, although this fact 
is due to the foresight of early collectors in providing 
this Library with most of the American rarities, as 
well as to our lack of income. It has been in the 
acquisition of large numbers of comparatively unim- 
portant titles — books and pamphlets which are dis- 
regarded by present collectors— that we have made the 
greatest strides in the past year, as in the past ten 
years. Nearly five hundred early American titles 
have been added to our imprint collection, including 
tracts and discourses, reports of eighteenth century 
societies, chap-books, examples of pioneer presses, and 
three additions to our already large collection of New 
England Primers. 

Among the more interesting titles were "The 
Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the 
State of New- York," New York, 1788; Pelatiah 
Webster's "A Sixth Essay on Free Trade and Fi- 
nance," Philadelphia, 1783; Humphrey Marshall's 
"An Address to the People of Kentucky," Philadel- 
phia, 1796; "The Beginning, Progress, and Conclu- 
sion of the Late War," with the map, London, 1770; 
and an anonymous tract "Continued Corruption, 
Standing Armies, and Popular Discontents Consid- 
ered," London, 1708, in which the author, William 
Bollan, attempted to heal the breach between the 
English colonies and the mother-country. An inter- 
esting pamphlet secured is "A Letter to George 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 1G7 

Washington, President of the United States," by 
Jasper Dwight of Vermont, printed at Philadelphia, 
1796. In this virulent controversial tract, William 
Duane, the real author, attacked the character of 
Washington in a way unfamiliar to modern ears. 
" Posterity will in vain search for the monuments of 
wisdom in your administration," Duane asserts, and 
then continues, "Examining in order to discover the 
true features of your character, the declarations of 
your former enemies and present friends will be 
minutely examined, who assert that your attachment 
to the revolution was not the result of a love of repub- 
lican freedom, but of disappointed ambition, — that 
had you obtained promotion, as you expected, for the 
services rendered after Braddock's defeat, your sword 
would have been drawn against your country." He 
finds "the name of Washington sunk from the ele- 
vated rank of the Solons and Lycurguses to the 
insignificance of a Venetian Doge or a Dutch Stadt- 

By far the most important gift of the year came from 
Mrs. Josephine S. Gay of Brookline, the widow of our 
late member, Frederick Lewis Gay. It was always 
Mr. Gay's wish that no part of his library should ever 
be sold, and although he left no specific directions 
regarding the disposition of his books, it was fairly 
well understood by his brother, Ernest L. Gay, and 
his librarian, John II. Edmonds, what libraries should 
be the gainers as a result of his years of collecting. 
After the unexpected death of Ernest Gay, the books 
were presented to the various libraries by Mrs. Fred- 
erick L. Gay, according to the following plan: Har- 
vard received the bulk of the collection, including the 
Civil War and Commonwealth Tracts, and most of 
the leading books on New England history and 
colonization; the Massachusetts Historical Society 
received the works of John Cotton, Thomas Shepard 
and other early divines, and the Transcripts from 
English Records; and the American Antiquarian 

168 American Antiquarian Society. . [Oct., 

Society received the newspapers, almanacs, American 
imprints and many tracts and historical works. 

Among the more important titles received by this 
Library are the following: 

Edward Johnson, A History of New England, London, 1654. 

A. Montanus, Die Unbekante Neue Welt, Amsterdam, 1073. 

Charles Morton, The Spirit of Man, Boston, 1G93. 

Benjamin Wadsworth, Good Souldiers a Great Blessing, 
Boston, 1700. 

John Hale, A Modest Inquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft, 
Boston, 17Q2. 

N. Bayley, English and Latine Exercises, Boston, 1720. 

Judah Monis, A Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue, Boston, 1735. 

An Account of the Expedition to Carthagena, London, 1743. 

Boston Weekly News-Letter, 1747. 

A Patent for Plymouth in New England, Boston, 1751. 

Samuel Hopkins, Historical Memoirs Relating to the Housa- 
tunnuck Indians, Boston, 1753. 

A Confession of Faith in New England, New London, 1760. 

A Dialogue Between Sir George Cornwell and Mr. Flint, 
Boston, 1769. 

Letters to the Earl of Hillsborough, Boston, 1769. 

Francis Bernard, Select Letters on the Trade and Govern- 
ment of America, London, 1774. 

Thomas Jefferson, Summary View of the Rights of British 
America, Philadelphia, 1774. 

Henry Clinton, Observations on the Answer of Cornwallis 
to Clinton, London, 1783. 

Boston Directory for 1796 and 1798. 

J. White, Narrative of Events in the Revolutionary W'ar, 
Charlestown [1833]. 

Cotton Tufts' Manuscript Diary, 1769. 

Belcher Noyes' Manuscript Diauy, 1775 and 1782. 

Set of the Pelham Club mezzotints. 

Most of the books in the Gay library were beauti- 
fully bound and bear evidence of his care and dis- 
crimination. He collected books for the love of them 
and for historical study, and not for mere possession. 
Mr. Gay was a keen student of the colonial history of 
New England, and although he wrote little himself, 
he aided and initiated a considerable and valuable 
amount of historical publication. His library was a 
remarkable collection, noteworthy in that so many of 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. . 169 

the fields which it embraced were covered so thorough- 
ly. Perhaps the most important volume that he ever 
acquired was the Record-book of the Council for New 
England beginning in 1022, which priceless manu- 
script he generously presented to the Society in 1912. 
During the ten years of his membership, he was one 
of our warmest supporters and most constant bene- 
factors. The Society is glad to have, in the books 
from his library, a reminder of one who was a patron 
of all worthy literary undertakings that concerned 
subjects near to his heart, who was always ready to 
share his treasures with others, and who was one of the 
last of the group of old-time collectors who sought 
rare books with the enthusiasm of the bibliophile 
rather than to show the power of money. 

A summary of the accessions for the year ending 
October 1, 1918, arranged in the same statistical 
form as in former Reports, shows that there have been 
added to the Library 3,089 books, 4,709 pamphlets, 
and 253 maps, broadsides and miscellaneous items. 
The newspapers acquired comprise 310 bound vol- 
umes, included in the above total of books, and 4200 
unbound issues. 

A larger number of genealogies than usual have been 
acquired, 158 titles in all, including most of the family 
histories of the past two years and many of the scarcer 
pamphlets and books published by early American 
genealogists. The rarest title obtained was the 
Farmer Genealogy, by John Farmer, Concord, 1813, 
one of the earliest known American genealogies. 

Among the miscellaneous items noted in the year's 
accessions are a manuscript plan of the town of Barre, 
1739, the gift of William A. Emerson, and the Manu- 
script diaries of Nahum Jones, covering the years 
1795-1806, with a few preliminary entries of 1775- 
1786. Nahum Jones was a schoolmaster, who kept 
school at Rindge, N. H., Montgomery County and 
Herkimer County, N. Y., and Cerry (Phillipston), 
Winchendon, and Provincetown, Mass. He was an 

170 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

observant man, and his diaries, especially those which 
relate to upper New York State, contain considerable 
local history. He kept a complete register of the 
names of all his scholars, showing that during ten 
years of teaching he taught 1456 scholars. These 
diaries were presented by Clara A. Jones, of Warwick, 

The bookplate collection has received many addi- 
tions during the year, chiefly through the activity of 
Rev. Herbert E. Lombard, although a remarkable lot 
of early American plates was received through ex- 
change with William E. Baillie, of Bridgeport. The 
collection has finally been arranged and every plate is 
mounted on a card and immediately accessible. In 
the April number of the " Bookplate Quarterly," 
Mr. Lombard wrote an article on the Antiquarian 
Society's collection, which is so descriptive and con- 
cise, that it is herewith reprinted as part of this 
Report : 

It may be said that, in a certain sense, the bookplate collec- 
tion of the American Antiquarian Society began with the 
formation of the Society in 1812, for since then there have been 
in its stacks plates by Paul Revere, both signed and unsigned, 
together with other equally interesting early Americana. No 
systematic attention, however, was paid to bookplates till 
quite recently, when a member of the Society presented his 
collection, which, though composed largely of the work of 
modern engravers, contained many choice specimens from the 
earlier years. 

"Since the receipt of this gift the collection has grown rapidly 
by purchase, gift and exchange. This is easily understood 
when it is remembered that some seventy-five plates by E. D. 
French, J. W. Spenceley, and S. L. Smith are owned or con- 
trolled, at least partially, by members of the American Anti- 
quarian Society. Engravers have fully co-operated, that their 
work might be preserved in a great national library — the only 
one making a particular effort to secure a complete collection. 
Owners of coppers who are inaccessible to the commercial 
collector have responded almost without exception. 

The purchase of the famous Terry collection increased the 
holdings of early American plates. This purchase also gave 
many duplicates valuable for exchange. The collection has 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 171 

been further increased through the generous bequest of Mr. 
Nathaniel Paine, for years a councillor and constant benefactor 
of the Society. Mr. Paine was a collector of Americana in 
many lines, a member of the earlier and greatly lamented 
American Bookplate Society, and also of the Ex-Libris Society. 

The collection is strongest in plates and labels of the United 
States, probably exceeding any other institutional collection 
in this line. The widest interpretation has been given to the 
word 'American' so as to include plates made by foreign 
artists for American patrons, thus making room for a few 
plates by Barrett, Downey, Eve, Sherborn, and Von Bayros. 

Till this year no attempt has been made to secure other than 
United States plates. As a result, the Canadian collection is 
most inadequate, while the West Indian and South American 
collections are hardly worth mentioning. This condition has 
begun to improve in the Canadian field, as the result of the 
sympathetic attitude of several Canadian artists. Negotia- 
tions are now being carried on which, it is hoped, will open up 
the interesting field of Mexican plates as well. 

In early Americana the most interesting examples are the 
seventeenth century dated labels. Of the eight thus far 
located the American Antiquarian Society has six, as follows: 
William Brattle (1677), Edward Thompson (1080), John 
Hancock (1687), Samuel Thompson (1688), John Hancock 
(1689), and Nicholas Lynde (1690). William Brattle was 
graduated from Harvard in 1680. This copy of his book- 
label is the only known impression of what is believed to be the 
earliest dated American plate. 

Unlike Harvard and many of the other early foundations, 
the American Antiquarian Society had no appropriate plate 
or label for many years. In fact, its earlier labels are so poor 
that they have long been refused to collectors, in the hope that 
even their memory might perish. Isaiah Thomas, the founder 
and first president of the Society, had two plates by Revere, 
though unsigned. The second plate is the one familiar to 
collectors. The earlier Isaiah Thomas plate has been hitherto 
unnoticed by bookplate collectors. It follows Revere's 
Gardner Chandler plate, so far as concerns the mantling, the 
ribbon and the number space, with literal exactness. The 
name Isaiah Thomas underneath is engraved in lower case 
lettering so crude as to cheapen the plate. 

Thomas must have disliked either the lettering or the 
thought of having his bookplate so closely resemble the 
Chandler arms, for he soon had another plate engraved, which 
is also in Revere's characteristic style, although much better 
than the first attempt. Incidentally, it may be well to note 
that it is the earlier plate by Revere that S. L. Smith lias so 

172 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

faithfully reproduced for Isaac Rand Thomas. While in the 
South, Isaiah Thomas used the label, "Isaiah Thomas, 
Charleston, S. C, July 8, 1769," of which the society has one 
of the only two copies located. 

Passing without note a series of plates and labels used by the 
Society, we come to the famous double portrait plate made in 
1905 by Wilcox, who also engraved the Widener plate at 
Harvard. This plate has been criticized, and probably justly, 
as "Eastlake," 3 r et it is a dignified piece of work, in thought and 
execution not unworthy of a great learned society. Members 
of the Bookplate Society will be glad to know that S. L. Smith 
is at present at work on a plate for the Antiquarian Society. 

All of Revere's plates are in the collection of the Society, ex- 
cept his own personal plate, of which but two copies are known. 
In earlier years the New England colleges had many good 
plates. The Society has practically complete collections of 
the plates of Harvard, Yale, and Dartmouth, along with many 
others of the older foundations. 

Of the early American plates listed in Allen's "American 
Bookplates," the Society has about two-thirds. Among those 
less known are: No. 47, Baldwin; 05, Sam'l Bayard; 73, 
Belcher; 159, Child; 160, Clark; 225, Dolbeare; 234, Duer; 
305, Gibbs; 325, Greene; 380, Hill; 428, Jeffry; 43G, John- 
ston; 400, Kinlock; 511, Logan; 533, McComb; 505, 
Masterton; 581, Minturn; 005, Newberry; 031, James 
Otis, Jr.; 081, Pierpont; 092, Powell; 710 and 717, Randolph; 
744 Ruff; 703, Schuyler; 782, Silvester; and 882, Van 

This would seem to the uninitiated to be a list of mere names 
just as to them the "Rose" or "William Dummer" would be 
only a name; but there are also the plates of presidents, 
governors, judges, and diplomats; of "signers"; of men who 
achieved and those who wrote of their achievements; of 
masters of finance and captains of industry; of historians, 
poets, and artists; of preachers, physicians, and lawyers. 
The story these old bookplates recall is the story of the nation's 
birth and progress. 

While the specialty of the American Antiquarian Society is, 
of course, early American plates, it has complete sub-col lec- 
tions, or nearly so, of the work of French, Spenccley, Smith, 
Hopson, Macdonald, Bird, Mielatz, Cole, Thompson, Clark, 
Cheney, Garrett, Noll, Ilarrod, Alexander, and Azeant. In 
most instances the modern plate is either a print or a signed 
proof, but many times it is shown in both forms, while an 
occasional artist's drawing, or even the copper plate itself, 
adds increased interest. The Society has held two exhibitions, 
one of early American plates, the other of the bookplates of 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 173 

S. L. Smith. In addition to all available literature, bookplate 
correspondence is preserved for future reference. 

In recapitulation, the collection of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society is naturally strongest in United States plates and 
labels, containing some fifteen thousand, including a great 
many interesting early Americana. Of the early American 
plates and labels listed by Allen it has two-thirds. It has also 
the earliest known dated American label, that of William 
Brattle (1677). Of the eight known dated seventeenth 
century labels, it has six, each being a unique impression. 
There are about a thousand Canadian plates, and also a few 
plates from Mexico, South America, and the West Indies. 
The Society requests the co-operation of members of the 
Bookplate Society in its attempt to build up a permanent 
collection that shall be of value to artists and antiquarians in 
years to come." 

The collection of American newspapers has received 
numerous additions, totalling 310 bound volumes and 
4,200 unbound issues. It is in this department more 
than any other that the need for greater space is felt. 
The newspaper stack, built to accommodate the acces- 
sions of fifteen years, is now full after five year< of 
unlooked for acquisitions. Five years ago it would 
have scarcely been thought possible that so many 
long files could have been located, much less obtained, 
but the preparation of a newspaper bibliography of 
the several States has taken the compiler thereof 
into man}' out-of-the-way places and revealed many 
unexpected stores. How to shelve the papers is now a 
problem. The arrival of even a dozen of these great 
folio volumes in the stack requires a reshifting often 
of hundreds of other volumes, so that the alphabetical 
order by States may be maintained. But the non- 
elasticity of steel is generally more than a match for 
the ingenuity of the library staff. A temporary 
solution of the difficulty is to take certain long files 
which are less likely to be used and store them in a 
room in the basement. This expedient may suffice 
for about two years, and then we shall have to take 
up seriously the enlargement of the stack, costing per- 
haps $50,000, or stop the growth of the newspaper 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct.. 

collection. When one considers the great value of 
this collection, not only to students and historians, 
but also to the general public, it would seem that there 
could be few gifts which would reach so wide a circle 
of users. 

The great mass of duplicate newspapers in the 
basement, as has been mentioned in the Council 
Report, has been finally disposed of. The work of 
sorting and arranging these files has taken a large 
amount of time for the past three years. It is both a 
relief and a satisfaction to have them go from this 
library as a collection, and especially to so serviceable 
an institution as the University of Michigan. Their 
bulk was impressive. They weighed ten tons and 
measured eleven hundred cubic feet, almost filling a 
freight car. Although there were many eighteenth 
century papers, most of the hies were from the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century to the close of the Civil 
War, in which later period newspapers were of far 
more historical value than during the earlier era when 
their columns were filled chiefly with foreign news and 
items only of interest to the local antiquarian. The 
Society has thus obtained a sum of money which will 
be invaluable in aiding it to complete its own files, and 
the University of Michigan Library has made an ac- 
quisition which will place it among the first ten news- 
paper collections in the country. 

Among the important hies obtained by the library 
during the year are the following: 

Concord, Courier of New Hampshire, 1799-1805. 
Concord, New Hampshire Courier, 1S34. 
Concord, Daily Patriot, 1S71-1S74 
Concord, New Hampshire Repository, 1826. 

Concord, New Hampshire Journal, 1SS4-1S91. 
Concord, New Hampshire Statesman, lSol-1917. 


Montpelier, Vermont Watchman. 1>47-KU0. 
Montpelier, Vermont Chronicle, 1S75-1S9J. 
Brattleuorough Messenger, 1828-1830. 
Boston, American Traveller, 1825-1836. 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 175 

Boston Investigator, 1843-1848. 

Concord, Yeomans Gazette, 1826-1827. 

Hingham Journal, 1850-1905. 

New York, Weekly Visitor, 1802-1803. 

New York, American, 1840. 

New York, New Yorker, 1837-1841. 

New York, Statesman, 1828. 

New York, Independent Journal, 1785. 

Albany Freeholder, 1845-1851. 

Albany Argus, 1833. 

Albany Microscope, 1834-183G. 

Albany, Signs of the Times, 1828. 

Mount Pleasant, Westchester Herald, 1818-1823. 

Salem, Centinel, 1798. 

Salem, Northern Post, 1816-1818. 

Philadelphia, Aurora, 1799-1800. 

Harrisburgh Telegraph, 1832-1866. 

Harrisburgh, Miners' Journal, 1848-1849. 

Chillicothe, Weekly Recorder, 1816-1821. 

Columbus, Ohio State Journal, 1858-1860. 

Knoxville Register, 1798. , 

San Francisco, Daily Alta, 1850-1851. 

San Francisco, Prices Current, 1854-1856. 

Trinidad Mirror, 1905-1914. 

Trinidad, Port of Spain Gazette, 1907-1913. 

Paramaribo, Surimaamsche Courant, 1825. 

Among a small collection of rare pre-Revolutionary 
issues acquired is a copy of "The Antigua Gazette' 7 of 
April 12, 1775. There seems to be very little known 
regarding the early history' of printing at Antigua, one 
of the most important islands in the British West 
Indies. Isaiah Thomas in his "History of Printing 
in Am erica/ ' says "I cannot determine the year when 
printing was introduced to Antigua, but believe it 
was about 1748. I have not discovered that any press 
was erected on this island prior to the time when 
Mecom opened a printing-house, about 1748. It was 
at St. John that he first began business, and published 
a newspaper, entitled the Antigua Gazette. Mecom 
continued this publication six or seven years, and then 
removed to Boston, Massachusetts, his native place." 
The massive folio three-volume history of Antigua, by 
Oliver, makes no mention either of this paper or of the 

176 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

beginnings of printing on the island. Nor is there 
any other reference to the subject except that which 
is given by Thomas. 

It seems strange that no copy of the Antigua 
Gazette, during Mecom's editorship, has been hitherto 
located in any library. The issue obtained by the 
Society is entitled "The Antigua Gazette," April 
12, 1755, no. 130, printed by Benjamin Mecom, at 
the Old Printing-Office on Kerby's Wharff, in St. 
John's. If the numbering was regular, this would 
show that the paper was started by Mecom about the 
first of November, 1752. 

Additional light is thrown on the matter by a letter 
from Benjamin Franklin, his uncle, to Mecom's 
parents, Edward and Jane Mecom, November 14, 
1752. Franklin evidently backed Mecom in the 
printing venture. lie says, " Benny sailed from hence 
this day two weeks, and left our Capes the Sunday 
following. They are seldom above three weeks on 
the voyage to Antigua. That island is reckoned one 
of the healthiest in the West Indies. My late partner 
there enjoj^ed perfect health for four years, till he 
grew careless, and got to sitting up late in taverns, 
which I have cautioned Benny to avoid, and have 
given him all other necessary advice I could think of, 
relating both to his health and conduct, and I hope 
for the best. He will find the business settled to his 
hand: a newspaper established, no other printing- 
house to interfere with him, or beat down his prices, 
which are much higher than we get on the continent. 
He has the place on the same terms with his predeces- 
sor, who, I understand, cleared from five to six hundred 
pistoles during the four years he lived there. I have 
recommended him to some gentlemen of note for their 
patronage and advice." 

Writing again to Jane Mecom, February 12, 1765, 
Franklin says: " Benny, I understand, inclines to 
leave Antigua." On June 28, 1756, Franklin again 
writes Jane Mecom giving her the reasons for his 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. 177 

nephew's removal and stating: "When I set him up 
at Antigua, he was to have the use of the printing- 
house on the same terms as his predecessor. Air. Smith; 
that is, allowing me one-third part of the profits." 
The letter refers to Mr. Smith's ''decease" and gives 
many details of Mecom's business arrangements with 
Franklin, and was followed by a letter of December 
30, 1756, congratulating his sister on the safe return 
from the West Indies of her son. Franklin say.-: 
"He has also cleared the old printing-house to himself, 
and sent it to Boston, where he purposes to set up 
his business." 

The identity of Air. Smith is established by the 
imprint of a pamphlet only recently discovered and 
now for sale by a Boston book-dealer, '"Occasional 
Poems," Antigua, printed by T. Smith, for the author 
[William Shervington], 1749. 

The copy of "The Antigua Gazette," obtained by 
the Antiquarian Society, is made additionally inter- 
esting by the fact that it was owned by Benjamin 
Franklin and has his name, written presumably in 
Mecom's hand, on the first page. 

The war seems to have brought about a slight de- 
crease in the use of the library, although this refers to 
the number of visitors rather than to the amount of 
correspondence. We have had far fewer university 
graduates working on doctoral dissertations and also 
fewer students from the various New England colleges. 
In every recent }'ear at least half a dozen researchers, 
generally from the Western States, passed a portion 
of the summer vacation period in Worcester, engaged 
in studying historical records, but this has somewhat 
diminished. Correspondence, however, has increased. 
The curtailment of travel seems to have caused 
querists to rely more upon the mail for answer to their 
problems. The ordinary genealogical questions we 
do not attempt to look up, turning them over to pro- 
fessional genealogists, but historical queries which 
can be answered only from records in this Library we 

178 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

deem it our duty to investigate, even at the expense 
of considerable time. A query from a historian in 
Minnesota which involved the exact reading of a 
single page of a seventeenth century manuscript 
required over four hours to obtain a correct tran- 
script of the document. To assist a United States 
Senator who was preparing the biography of a national 
character we gave half a day's research in files of 
newspapers available nowhere else but at this library. 
The queries concern all sorts of subjects — the history 
of early manufactures at Pittsburgh, steamboating 
on the Mississippi, newspaper allusions to the North- 
eastern Boundary dispute, the paintings of John 
Greenwood, when did Esek Hopkins take command of 
the American navy, how many copies exist of Revere's 
View of Harvard College, who is the best authority 
on the Island of Nevis, where was Blackburn the 
painter born, what was the first American edition of 
Shakespeare, are but a few of recent examples which 
come to mind. 

The war, too, has brought its queries — what would 
be the best books on American history for a camp 
library, what is the leading Greek newspaper for the 
numerous Greeks who are training for the national 
army; what paper in South America best covers the 
war. The correspondence arising from the attempt 
to provide a proper nomenclature for American naval 
vessels grew to considerable proportions and in at 
least two instances the newspaper files have been used 
by secret service agents in search of certain informa- 

Not until the United States entered the war did 
this Library attempt to gather material illustrating 
the world struggle. Our precedent of not preserving 
the literature of foreign countries, but restricting our 
energies to the gathering of material relating to Ameri- 
ca, seemed the proper course to follow. Moreover, 
the Clark University Library was amassing a collection 
relating to these foreign aspects of the war, which was 
second to none in the country. 

1918.] Report of the Librarian. . 179 

Since April, 1917, however, the Society has endea- 
vored to acquire every book, pamphlet and document 
it could obtain which concerned this country's part in 
the conflict, and not without some success. Not 
only will its newspaper files prove of value for the 
future study of the subject, but its collection of camp 
newspapers,, covering the activities of thirty-four 
camps throughout the country, would be difficult to 
duplicate. Most of these camp papers have been 
given to the Library by Mr. Charles H. Taylor, Jr., 
of Boston, who has also sent us a large amount of the 
pamphlet literature of the war. Mr. Taylor has an 
unusual opportunity to obtain such material and his 
aid is hereby acknowledged as one of our greatest 
sources of help. Most of the members of this Society 
are in touch with public affairs, or receive some of the 
literature of the war, such as patriotic speeches, con- 
troversial tracts, pamphlet appeals for war charities, 
trench newspapers or even important manuscript 
material. Will they not send it to the library of the 
Society, where it will be properly arranged and classi- 
fied to be of service to the historian who a generation 
or two hence will approach with impartial mind the 
study of the greatest conflict the world has ever known. 
Respectfully submitted, 




American Antiquarian Society. 




Balch, Thomas Willing 
Baldwin, Simeon E. 
Barton, Edmund M. 
Bassett, John S. 
Bates, Albert C. 
Bell, Alexander G. 
Bowen, Clarence W. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Burton, Clarence M. 
Clements, William L. 
Cunningham, Henry W. 
Davis, Andrew McF. 
De Puy, Henry F. 
Dewey, Francis H. 
Dexter, Franklin B. 
Farwell, John W. 
Garver, Austin S. 
Gay, Frederick L., Estate 
Green, Samuel A. 
Greene, Richard W. 
Hammond, Otis G. 
Haynes, George H. 
Hill, Benjamin T. 
Hodge, Frederick W. 
Jameson, J. Franklin 

Jenney, Charles F. 
Jordan, John W. 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln W. 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Lord, Arthur 
Matthews, Albert 
Moore, Clarence B. 
Morison, Samuel Eliot 
Morse, Edward S. 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Norcross, Grenville H. 
Oliver, Vere L. 
Paltsits, Victor H. 
Park, Lawrence. 
Rice, Franklin P. 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Smith, Charles C. 
Steiner, Bernard C. 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr. 
Taylor, Hannis 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Utley, Samuel 
Washburn, Charlus G. 
Wmship, George P. 


Adadourian, Haig 
Albree, John 
Aldrich, Charles F. 
Anderson, Mrs. Edward L. 
Arnold, James N. 
Avery, Elroy M. 
Baker, Mrs. Frank 
Baker, Fred A. 

Barnes, Mrs. Eliza W 
Barton, William E. 
Batchelder, Samuel F 
Bates, Onward 
Bell, Alexander G. 
Bicknell, Thomas W. 
Bliss, Mrs. Edward P 
Bolton, Charles K. 




Bom an, Eric 
Brandegee, Emily S. 
Buck, Howard M. 
Burrill, Ellen Mudge 
Caplin, Stephen 
Carbonncl, Emile 
Carpenter, Charles C. 
Cary, Henry N. 
Gary, SethC. " 
Chad wick, Edward M. 
Chapman, Hamilton E. 
Chase, Frederic A. 
Chase, James F. 
Cheney, Mrs. Louis R. 
Choate, Mrs. Joseph H. 
Clark, Harold T. 
Clark, J. C. L. 
Cochran, William C. 
Coes, Frank L. 
Comstock, William O. 
Cook, Albert S. 
Cope, Gilbert 
Corbett, Henry 11. 
Cortright, Mrs. William H. 
Crocker, Courtenay 
Cummins, Thomas K. 
Cutting, Alfred 
Daggett, Leonard M. 
Davenport, Bennett F- 
Davidson, Paul 
Debenedette, Salvador 
DeBooy, Thcodoor 
Delabarre, Edmund B. 
Dietz, It. E. Company 
Dixon, W. Macneile 
Doran, George H., Company 
Doremus, Cornelius 
Doremus, Frank E. 
Drake, Mrs. Nellie W. 
Dunning, M. B. 
Earle, Mrs. Stephen E. 
Edes, Grace W. 
El well, Mrs. Levi H. 
Emerson, William A. 
Erskine, Albert It. 
Fishback, Frederick L. 
Flint, Robert F. 

Forbes, Mrs. William T. 
Forehand, Frederic 
Gage, Stephen DeM. 
Gay, George W. 
Gendrot, Almira B. Fenno 
Goodspeed, C. E. 
Green, Mary Wolcott 
Greenman, Lawrence P. 
Hamilton, Frederick W. 
Harlow, Ralph V. 
Hart, Minerva 
Heyer, William C. 
Hopkins, Miss Sarah B. 
Hord, Arnold H. 
Huston, A. J. 
James, Edward J. 
Jewett, George A. 
Jipson, Norton W r . 
Johnson, Burges 
Johnson, Edward F. 
Johnson, George H. 
Jones, Clara A. 
Keidel, George C. 
Kellogg, Henry N. 
Kent, Daniel 
Kilroe, Edwin P. 
Lamont, Thomas W. 
Landon, Fred 
Leavitt, Charles H. 
Linzee, John W., Jr. 
Longfellow, Marian 
Lum, Edward H. 
Maar, Charles 
McNary, Josej)h R. 
McPike, Eugene F. 
Marsh, Henry A., estate 
Martin, Frederick R. 
Mason, Orion T. 
May, Miss Elizabeth G. 
May, The Misses 
Mayer, Harriet H. 
Membreno, Alberto 
Merrill, William S. 
Merritt, Percival 
Meyer, Eugene Jr., 
MofTett, William T. 
Monroe, Walter S. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Muncaster, John E. 
Myers, Albert Cook 
Newkirk, Thomas J. 
Nutt, Charles 
Otis, Harrison G. 
Paine, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Patterson, John H. 
Peirson, Charles L. 
Pence, Kingsley A. 
Pierce, Dwight S. 
Poole, Cleveland 
Powell, Fred W. 
Putnam, Eben 
Ransdell, Joseph E. 
Rathom, John R. 
Raynolds, Alvah 
Reynolds, Mary R. 
Rice, Leslie M. 
Rice, William G. 
Robinson, Doane 
Rockwell, Robert C. 
Roe, Miss Annabel C. 
Rogers, Mary C. 
Rose, Theodore, C. 
Salisbury, Ebon G. 
Sanborn, Victor C. 
Seeley, C. Barnum 
Shannon, Richard C. 
Simmons, Furnifold M. 

Skelton, Olive N. 
Smith, Clarence D. 
Smith, Edgar Pales 
Smith, Fitz-Ilcnry, Jr. 
Smith, Sarah M. 
Steele, Richard 
Stone, Wilbur M. 
Streets, Thomas H. 
Sweetser, Frances W. 
Tappan, Eva March 
Teachenor, Richard B. 
Thayer, Mrs. Ezra Ripley 
Tower, Walter L. 
Trumbull, Frank 
Van Syckle, Raymond E. 
Wait, Stephen E. 
Ward, Artemas 
Ward, George O. 
Ware, Horace E. 
Warner, Charles H. 
W T eaver, Ethan A. 
Webb, Edwin Y. 
Werner, Charles J. 
Wethered, Frank M. 
Willcox, Joseph 
Winthrop, Henry R. 
Witcraft, John R. 
Wood, Charles B. 


Abbot Academy. 

Academia Nacional de Artes y Letras (Habana). 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Science of St. Louis. 

Alliance Francaise. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

American Association for International Conciliation. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

American Catholic Historical Society. 

American Congregational Association. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Hellenic Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Historical Society. 

American Irish Historical Society. 

1918.] Donors. 183 

American Jewish Historical Society. 

American Library Association. 

American Numismatic Society. 

American Oriental Society. 

American Philosophical Society. 

American Red Cross. 

American Seaman's Friend Society. 

American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company. 

American Type Founders Company. 

Amherst College Library. 

Andover Theological Seminary. 

Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal. 

Arkansas History Commission. 

Australian Museum. 

Bangor Public Library. 

Barre Gazette. 

Bay State Historical League. 

Biblioteca Nazionale centrale di Firenze. 

Biblioteca Nazionale Estados Unidos Mexicanos. 

Boston Athenaeum. 

Boston, City Auditor. 

Boston, City of. 

Boston City Hospital. 

Boston Globe. 

Boston Legal Aid Society. 

Boston Port and Seamen's Aid Society. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston, Social Law Library. 

Boston Transcript. 

Boston Transit Commission. 

Boston University. 

Bowdoin College. 

Brockton Public Library. 

Brookline Public Library. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Brooklyn Public Library. 

Brown University. 

Buenos Aires, La Universidad de. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Buffalo Public Library. 

Bureau of Railway Economics. 

California Historical Survey Commission. 

California, Sons of the Revolution. 

California State Library. 

California, University of. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

184 American Antiquarian Society. . [Oct., 

Canada, Department of Mines. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Catholic University of America. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 

Chicago, University of. 

Christian Science Monitor. 

Colgate University. 

Colorado College. 

Colorado, University of. 

Columbia University. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Connecticut State Library. 

Cornell University. 

Dartmouth College. 

Daughters of the Cincinnati. 

Davis Press, Worcester. 

Dedham Historical Society. 

Drevv-Allis Company, Worcester. 

Essex Institute. 

Fairmount Park Art Association. 

Field Museum of Natural History. 

Fitchburg, City of. 

Fitchburg Public Library. 

Fitchburg Sentinel. 

Forbes Library, Northampton. 

Georgia Historical Society. 

Georgia State Library. 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 

Hartford Courant. 

Hartford Seminary Foundation. 

Harvard Alumni Bulletin. 

Harvard College Library. 

Harvard University. 

Haverhill Public Library. 

Heye Museum. 

Hispanic Society of America. 

Historical Society of East and West Baton Rouge. 

Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. 

Holy Cross College. 

Houghton Mifllin Company. 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Illinois, University of. 

Indiana Historical Commission. 

Indiana Historical Society. 

1918.] Donors. ' 185 

Indiana State Library. 

Iowa, State Historical Society. 

Ipswich Historical Society. 

Jacksonville Public Library. 

Jersey City Library. 

John Crerar Library. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

Journal of Zodphily. 

Kansas State Agricultural College. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Kungl. Vitterhets Historic och Antik. Acad. 

Lake Mohonk Conference. 

Landlord and Tenant. 

Lewiston Evening Journal. 

Lexington Historical Society. 

Library of Congress. 

Litchfield Historical Society. 

L'Opinion Publique. 

Los Angeles Public Library. 

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Maine Historical Society. 

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Maryland Historical Society. 

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Mergenthaler Linotype Company. 

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Mexican News Bureau. 

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Michigan Historical Commission. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

186 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Minnesota, University of. 

Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 

Missouri Historical Society. 

Missouri, State Historical Society. 

Montana, Historical Society. 

Montana New Bulletin. 

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Montreal Herald. 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. 

Museo Nacional de Arqueologia. 

Nation, The. 

National City Bank of New York. 

National Society of Sons of American Revolution. 

Naval History Society. 

Nebraska State Historical Society. 

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New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

New England Society in the City of New York. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

New York Historical Society. 

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company. 

New York Public Library. 

New York Society Library. 

New York State Education Department. 

New York State Historical Association. 

New York State Library. 

New York State Waterways Association. 

New York, University of the State of. 

Newport Historical Society. 

North Carolina Historical Commission. 

North Carolina, University of. 

North Dakota, State Historical Society. 

Northwestern University. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Science. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio, Historical and Philosophical Society. 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Oklahoma Historical Society. 

Oregon Historical Society. 

Paris Chamber of Commerce. 

Park Trust Company. 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge. 

Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of. 

1918.] Donors. 187 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of. 

Pennsylvania Society in the City of New York. 

Pennsylvania, University of. 

Perkins Institution for the Blind. 

Philadelphia, Library Company of. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

Philippine Islands, Government of. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. 

Presbyterian Historical Society. 

Providence Daily Journal. 

Providence Public Library. 

Queen's University. 

Quill, The. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. 

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Rochester Historical Society. 

Rosenberg Library. 

Royal Canadian Institute. 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

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Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

Royal Society of Canada. 

Rutgers College Library. 

St. Albans Daily Messenger. 

St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. 

St. Louis Public Library. 

Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. 

Secretaria de Instruccion Publica y Bellas Artoe. 


Slav Press Bureau. 

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Societe de Geographic 

Societe Nationale des Antiquaires de France. 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 

South Carolina, Historical Commission of. 

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Swedish Colonial Society. 

Topsfield Historical Society. 

Toronto, University of. 

Troy Public Library. 

Union Pacific System. 

United States Brewers' Association. 

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1SS American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

United States Government. 

Vermont Historical Society. 

Vermont State Library. 

Villager, The. 

Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society. 

Virginia Historical Society. 

Virginia State Library. 

Warren Academy of Sciences. 

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Worcester District Medical Society. 

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Worcester Gazette. 

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Worcester Woman's Club. 

Word, The. 

World Peace Foundation. 

Wyoming Commemorative Association. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Yale University Library. 


"The white bancks and elil'lcs which ly towards the sea." Those; 
white hanks led Drake to call 1 he locality Xova Albion. The photograph 
was made from the deck of a vessel drawing about the same depth of 
water as the Golden Ilitnle and anchored near the supposed anchorage 
of Drake in June, Li)79. The original negative was destroyed in i he 
earthquake and [ire of April Is, 1000. 

';*■'< ' 

& X* 

I'iOl'KI. 'J, 

One of (he Kara lion Uocks which Drake probably rounded on .July 
24, 1579. 

1918.1 Nova Albion, 1570. 189 



Pkefatory Note 

It was my good fortune to know well the late Professor George David- 
son, a high official of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and for many years 
Professor of Geography in the University of California. 

While in command of the Survey brig Fauntlero.y, he began the prepara- 
tion of the Coast Pilot; and followed with much detail the voyages of 
early explorers. To Cook and Vancouver he gave special attention and 
indeed verified their positions. Nor did he withhold his admiration for 
the indomitable courage and perseverance of the early Spanish navigators. 
His paper covering the period from 1539 to 1Q03 is a classic. 1 

' In addition to Cook and Vancouver, there was another son of Albion 
who came a-roving to the Pacific coast when Spain was at the zenith of 
her power. lie cast anchor in an open roadstead thirty miles west 
northwest of where the greatest city of the West Coast lies "serene, 
indifferent to Fate." 

As a citizen of this metropolis it was natural that George Davidson 
should become intensely interested in the identification of the anchorage 
made by Francis Drake in 1570. He proved, I think, beyond question 

1. Drake did not reach the latitude of 48 degrees north, as claimed'by 
many English writers and repeated in the last edition of the Britannica; 

2. The most northern latitude reached by Drake was 43 degrees; 

3. The Gulden Hlnde never sailed into the Bay of San Francisco, nor 
did Drake see the entrance to the Bay nor surmise that such a body of 
water existed in the vicinity of his anchorage. School textbooks arc 
prone to state that Drake discovered the Bay. 

4. In all probability, Drake cast anchor under the lee of Point Reyes; 
and this is the locality which he named Nova Albion, or New England, 
from a fancied resemblance of the white cliffs to those of his native shire. 

•U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Appendix No. 7. An Examination of dome of the 
Early Voyages of Discovery and Exploration on the Northwest Coast of America from 
1539 to 1603. Also Francis Drake on the Northwest Coast of America, Trans. Geog. 
Soc. of the Pacific, Vol. V, Series IT, 190S. 

190 American Antiquarian Society. * [Oct., 

In company with Professor Davidson and on many a lonely trip 1 
have tried to follow Drake as he approached this anchorage; and in this 
paper bring forward and as evidence the conditions of the winds, the 
fogs, the landfalls as affected by the foga; for all these must be much the 
same as in 1579. 

When Drake and his men got back to Plymouth, 
they found that they had lost a day, even as Magellan 
had. According to their reckoning it was Sunday 
when they arrived, whereas those who had stayed at 
home, said it was Monday. It was suggested that 
perhaps the different climates which they had exper- 
ienced caused the discrepancy. Now climate, which is 
the summed-up weather of a locality, has been held 
responsible for many sins of omission and commission, 
but to make the weather responsible for the loss of a 
day in the circumnavigation of the globe from east to 
west is calculated to arouse the ire of the most placid 

It is however undeniable that weather was responsi- 
ble both directly and indirectly for many of the 
episodes of the voyage. Certainly it played an import- 
ant part in determining the courses; and it may 
therefore be well worth while to examine critically 
the weather conditions as recorded, in the light of our 
modern knowledge of the fogs, winds, currents and 
temperatures along the coast of California. If we 
can prove the constancy of certain climatic factors, 
we may use these to great advantage in interpreting 
the narrative of the voyage. Indeed, they become 
extremely valuable evidence in identifying the courses 
and the various anchorages. It is therefore from the 
standpoint of 'the aerographer rather than historian 
that the writer approaches this subject. 

First, we must prove the constancy of the great air 
currents; the fog formations and other characteristic 
physical features of the air circulation in these parts. 
Let us begin with the winds. 

The winds have long been used as fitting symbol for 
things inconstant. Yet in many localities the wind 



"c u 

o -5 


5 £ 


^ -3 H 

2 +a T3 

5 S (t 






FlGUllE 4 

lieltef map of California. A indicates Drake's anchorage B indicate 
San Francisco. 

1918.] Nova Albion, 1579. -191 

systems are more to be relied upon in running a course 
than the compass readings. I give below a note on 
the courses of the Paramour Pink under Edmund 
Halley and the non-magnetic ships of the Carnegie 
Institution. 2 I have no doubt that a course could be 
sailed today along the coast of California following the 
wind directions as given in "The World Encompassed" 
which would be much nearer the one taken by Drake 
than if we attempted to use the compass bearings. 

The log or daily journal of this voyage has never 
been published, and perhaps was not kept. The 
instrument used for determining latitude was pro- 
bably not reliable within a degree, and positions in 
longitude are guesses. We know that on April 16, 
1579, Drake left Guatulco. The narrative based upon 
the notes made by Francis Fletcher says : 

"setting our course directly into the sea, whereon we sayled 
500 leagues in longitude, to get a winde; and betweene that 
and June 3, 1400 leagues in all, till we came into 42 deg. of 
North, latitude, where in the night following we found such 
alternation of heat into extreame and nipping cold, that our 
men in generall did grievously complaine thereof, some of 
them feeling their healths much impaired thereby, neither 
was it that this chanced in the night alone, but the day follow- 
ing carried with it not onely the marks but the stings and force 
of the night going before to the great admiration of us all; 
for besides that the pinching and biting air was nothing altered, 
the very roapcs of our ship were stiffe, and the raine which fell 
was an unnatural congealed and frozen substance so that we 
seemed rather to be in the frozen Zone than in any way neere 
unto the sun or these hotter climates though sea- 
men lack not good stomachs yet it seemed a question to many 
amongst us whether their hands should feed their mouthes, 
or rather keep themselves within their converts from the 

'Doctor Bauer in charge of the magnetic work of the Carnegie Institution, in the fourtli 
Halley Lecture, delivered at Oxford, May 22, 1913, says: "Two sailing ships cruising 
in the Atlantic Ocean from port to port, the one in 1700 and the other in 1910, were forced 
by the prevailing winds to follow very closely identical courses. If however these two 
vessels had been directed to follow certain definite magnetic courses and if we may suppose 
that they had such motive power as to render them independent of the winds, then their 

respective paths would have diverged considerably In brief while the sailing 

directions as governed by the winds over the Atlantic are the same now as they were during 
Utility's lime the magnetic directions or bearings of the compass that a vessel must follow 
to reach a given port have greatly altered." 

192 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

pinching cold that did bcnumme them The 5 day 

of June we were forced by contrary winds to runne in with 
the shoare which we then first descried and to cast anchor in a 
bad bay, the best roade which we could for the present meete 
with where we were not without some danger by many of the 
extreame gusts and flawes that beate upon us, whic if they 
ceased and were still at any time, immediately upon their 
intermission there followed most vile, thick and stinking 
fogges, against which the sun prevailed nothing till the gusts 
again removed them which brought with them such extremity 
and violence when they came that there was no dealing or 
resisting against them." 
"In 38 deg. 30 minutes we fell in with a convenient and fit 

harborough ... In this bay we ankered the seventeenth 

of June, Our Generall called this country Nova 

Albion and that for two causes; the one in respect of the white 

banks and cliffes which ly towards the sea th other 

that it might haue some affinite euen in name also with our 
own countrie which was sometime so called." 

The World Encompassed 
by Sir Francis Drake, nephew of the navigator, 

London 1682, p. 132. 

Professor Davidson has identified Chetko Cove as 
the place of this first anchorage. 

"In this place was no abiding for us and the winds directly 
bent against us, having once gotten under sayle againe com- 
manded us to the southward whether we would or no." 

It is here that mention of 48 degrees is made; but 
it would seem plain from the context that 43 was 
intended. There has been much argument over this. 
An error may have been made in the original entry or 
in the transcription. Certainly the figure 3 as general- 
ly written is not unlike an 8. It must be remembered 
too, that in any narrative compiled after the cruise 
the fact that the party remained for a period of 37 
days in a locality whose latitude was 38 N. might have 
led to a slip of this character. Wherever the figure 
is written out, it is "fortie-three degrees toward the 
pole Articke." 

A good reason for discrediting 48 is the time, 11 
days, required to make the distance, for they hove to 
each night and probably did not average 50 nautical 

l^IGUKE 5 

Drake's probable course and the prevailing winds, ocean currents, and 
air temperatures for June off the California Coast. 

1918.] Nova Albion, 1579, * 193 

miles a day. Furthermore they were in the Davidson 
current, an inshore eddy return current which would 
carry them north. The Golden Hi rule was somewhere 
between 100 and 120 tons burden and drew about 13 
feet of water. There was not much spread of canvas 
and she was a poor traveller because her bottom was 
foul from long stay in southern waters, also she was 
heavily laden with stolen silver, had a crew of GO 
souls, carried cannon and cannon balls and above all 
was leaking. The narrative says that they diligently 
searched the shore. Had they made 48 and diligently 
searched the shore, they could hardly have passed 
unnoticed Cape Flattery and the Straits of Fuca. And 
farther south, Gray's Harbor, Shoal water Bay, Cape 
Disappointment and the mouth of the Columbia 

It must be remembered that the prime object of all 
this northing was to discover the big river or passage 
through which they could sail from the South Sea 
into their "owne" ocean, the Atlantic. They dared 
not go south and retrace their course, for they feared 
the Spaniard now on the alert. To have found this 
short way home, to have outwitted the greatest sea- 
power of the day, to have discovered and traversed 
the Anian Arcticus, why this would have eclipsed the 
glory of all previous explorers! 

This conclusion is strengthened if we recall that 
some thirteen years later, the Greek pilot Apostolos 
Valerianos, or to give him his sailor name, Juan de 
Fuca, claimed that he did pick up the entrance to the 
Strait and actually entered it. There are many 
romantic incidents connected with early Spanish 
exploration of the Pacific coast; but it is doubtful if 
any surpasses the adventure of this sixteenth century 
Ulysses. Captain George Vancouver, entering the 
passage two centuries later, did well to name it after 
the old pilot. 

Drake and his men then, according to the best 
evidence, turned southward, somewhere near the 

194 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

43d parallel. The latitude was determined with an 
astrolabe and there was a probable error of a whole 
degree, perhaps even more in the reading. As they 
sailed south within sight of land, after leaving Chetko 
Bay, they saw or thought they saw snoiv covered hills. 
There are no peaks visible from the sea high enough to 
have a snow line at this time of the year, and there is 
no special evidence of an abnormal season. Drake's 
men made the not unnatural error of thinking that 
the dense white fog on the hilltops was snow. It is a 
common occurrence today for tourists on coasting 
vessels to call attention to what they think is snow on 
the mountains. It may be said that seamen like the 
crew of the Golden Hinde who had gone half-way round 
the world would surely recognize fog; but the fog 
formations in this section differ greatly from sea fogs 
elsewhere. In several technical papers, the writer 
has discussed the fogs of the Pacific Coast 3 . 

Still working southward the little company worn out 
with the fierce and biting northwest wind, rounded 
the headland which we now know as Point Reyes, 
named by Vizcaino, on Epiphany day, twent}r-four 
years later, la punta de los tres Reyes, after the three 
wise men. 

The locality then in which we would place the an- 
chorage is what is now quite appropriately known as 
Drake's Bay. On June 17, 1579, he landed and took 
possession in the name of his sovereign Elizabeth. 
After making proper military disposition of his force, 
which included the landing of the cannon, Drake 
hauled the Golden Hinde ashore, careened ship and 
then cleaned and caulked her bottom. Completing 
this he launched her again and took aboard supplies of 
fresh water and wood. He sailed thence on July 23 
after a stay of thirty-seven days. He passed the 
North Farallon and farther south the Southeast 
Farallon, which he called the Islands of St James. 

^he Rainfall of California, Univ. of Cal. Publications, 1913. 

1918.] Nova Albion, 1579. 195 

Both of these are shown in the accompanying photo- 

In the photograph herewith may be seen the white 
cliffs referred to. Along the whole section of the coast 
there is nothing which resembles the description other 
than these. They lie towards the sea, facing south 
and in plain view of the natural anchorage after round- 
ing the headland of Point Reyes and getting out of the 
stiff northwest wind and into quiet water. Further- 
more from this anchorage one can make the North 
Farallon in about four hours and the Southeast Faral- 
lon in three hours more; and this is just what Drake 
did. The Golden Hinde, after cleaning and caulking 
could make with the northwest wind about four nauti- 
cal miles in an hour. Sailing southwest on what is 
now called 225 degrees, and making the Farallon 
rocks, Drake passed by the entrance to the Bay of 
San Francisco about twenty miles out. He would not 
discern the entrance. One must go over the course to 
fully appreciate the conditions. The writer has done 
this many times and tried to pick up the entrance, and 
especially at the time of the year when Drake was 
there. Knowing exactly the location of the Golden 
Gate, he was never able to pick it up with the unaided 
eye. The landfall is deceptive and seems like a con- 
tinuous horizon line. The crest of Tamalpais, the 
Sausalito hills, Angel Island, Alcatraz and the Berke- 
ley Hills with Diablo in the background blend into 
one sky line. 

Furthermore, in the summer months there is a valid 
reason why the entrance can not be seen, even when 
one is only a few miles outside. This is the fog which 
comes in with the regularity of clockwork on summer 
afternoons. I have described the character of this 
fog in several papers. 4 It is not necessary to go into 
details here but it may be said that even if Drake had 
been close to the entrance he probably would have 

'Bulletin I. Climatology of California, U. S. Weather Bureau, 1903; The Clouds and 
Foge of San Franscieco, 1912. 

196 American Antiquarian Society-. [Oct., 

missed it. About the only time when the entrance 
can be picked up from outside is in winter after a 
southeaster, when the visibility is remarkably good. 5 
Drake left his anchorage on July 23 (old style) 
having remained 37 days. He passed the North 
Farallon rock and some hours later the Southeast 
Farallon sending a boat's crew ashore to get seal meat. 
The seals (or rather their descendants) are still there ; 
and a little cove just under the big pinnacle rock known 
as Maintop is the spot where I think the crew must 
have landed, as it is the only place where a landing 
could be safely made from a small boat even in a 
smooth sea, and the sea is seldom smooth. Drake 
called these rocks "The Islands of St. James ,, and 
from here steered boldly west by south on the longest 
leg of his journey round the world. He knew that in 
time he would reach the Ladrones, the Philippines and 
Moluccas; and passing round the Cape of Good Hope 
come into the Atlantic. He had captured some 
Spanish "sea cards'' from Don Francisco Xarate; 
and in fact was following the return route of the 
galleons to Spain. These charts also gave the Pacific 
Coast north as far as 43 degrees, a matter which must 
not be overlooked. Of course the possession of these 
cards robs the voyage of much of its glory. It is 
interesting to note that certain English historians, 
"sing small," as the Scotch say, about these cards. 
The very name, California, was on the charts previous 
to Drake's visit. [I may digress for a moment to refer 
to the fact not generally known that a former member 
of this Society, Dr. Edward Everett Hale, has credit 
for discovering the origin of the word California. 6 
But I regret to add that the good Doctor inclined to 
the belief that Drake anchored in San Francisco Bay.] 

One peculiarity of the fog in summer months is the clear zone from sea-level to a height 
of about 30 metres. At such times the seaman does not clearly realize the true conditions. 
The upper level of the fog is about 500 metres (1010 feet) and when viewed from a dis- 
tance resembles a white blanket. The temperature at sea level in Juno is approximately 
11 C. (55 F.) while at the top of the fog it is 27 C. (81 l<\) or very much warmer and this 
means a heavy water vapor content and a density that results in the whitish aspect. 
6 Proc. Am. Antiquarian Soc., April, 1862. 

.: rUEOCO 

1918.] Nova Albion, 1579. 197 

It now remains for us to attempt to fix the location 
of the Portus Novae Albion by a closer study of the 
weather conditions for that period of the year when 
Drake was there. This is the more necessary since 
the anchorage has been challenged on the ground of 
climatic conditions. 

In the Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XV, 
p. 431. under the heading Sir Francis Drake it is 

"The one doubtful point is the account of the climate, which is 
described with much detail as excessively cold and foggy, 
(Vaux, pp. 133-118). This is now said to be an exaggeration; 
but to speak of the climate near San Francisco or anywhere 
on that coast in July in these terms is not exaggeration but a 
positive and evidently wilful falsehood credulously inserted 
by the original compiler of 'The World Encompassed'." 

On the contrary the description fits the facts. In 
1902 I made an abstract of the weather records at 
Point Reyes for the 37 days corresponding to those 
spent by Drake under the lee of this headland. 7 It 
is plain that the fog and wind conditions are remark- 
able and in accord with the experience of Drake's 
party. Professor Davidson surveying there in 1859 
noted in his journal that the fog hung over the pro- 
montory of Point Reyes for 39 consecutive days and 
nights. The sun was invisible for the first nine days 
and on shore it was visible only at mid-day for the 
next thirty days. 8 How well that description tallies 
with the narrative where it says "neither could we at 
any time in the whole fourteen days together find the 
aire so clear to be able to take the height of sunne or 

We give on a Meteorological Chart of the North 
Pacific for June the probable course of the Golden 

7 Taking a five year period or 185 days in all, there were 07 days of fog. With regard 
to wind we note that on May IS, 1902 the average velocity wjw 32 metres per second 
(72 miles an hour). For a given day the average velocity was 35 metres per second. 
The greatest wind for one hour was 104 kilometres (102 miles) while in a period of seventy- 
two hours the wind blew 75G5 kilometres or 4701 miles, that is, it would go around the 
world in sixteen days if continuous. I had personal experience of these high winds in 
different years both afloat and ashore. 

8 Coast Tilot, 1889, p. 232. 

198 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Hinde. Appended are copies of the map of Hondius, 
1595, in the British Museum, and the Port of New 
Albion, both taken from Davidson's- earlier paper 
on the Identification of Drake's Anchorage, read 
before the California Historical Society in May, 1891. 



ft ^ N 1' 



i ? 

1 1 

4 Pj 

p h3 

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1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather ■ 199 



Sage is the advice to young people to begin life by 
providing themselves with ancestors reputable, and if 
possible distinguished. It is highly convenient in 
communities like ours, which not only know their own 
great-grandfathers, but on equal terms recognize the 
great-grandfathers of their neighbors; or in case of 
extreme need recognize that some of the neighbors may 
be admitted to intimacy who have never had great- 

We are not all so fortunate in that respect as the 
Chinese gentleman, one of the literati, whom excellent 
Bishop Roots visited a few 3^ears ago. His cere- 
monious host found common ground in an ancestor, 
who though not a Roots nor a bishop, was a Christian, 
being in fact presumably that veritable Duke Koh 
Tszi who recorded himself upon the famous Nestorian 
Stone as a magistrate in the year A. D. 781. He not 
only protected Christians, but was himself a member 
of their sect, which had been transplanted from farthest 
west to farthest east of Asia. The visitor expressed 
pleasure and amazement in this relationship, where- 
upon the Chinese brought from another apartment 
his genealogical record in volumes sufficient to make a 
monument as high as a table, and was able to prove on 
the spot that his Christian ancestor was after all a 
novus homo inasmuch as the family record went back 
a little matter of two thousand seven hundred years. 

Less than twenty-seven centuries is enough to 
arouse the pride of most Americans. I should be 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

gratified if I could count among my forebears Rever- 
end Thomas Thacher, son of the Rector of St. 
Edmunds, Salisbury, and Reverend Peter Thacher 
the elder (Harvard, 1671), and Reverend Peter 
Thacher the younger (1706), together with John 
Oxenbridge, and Reverend John Prince of Boston, 
and Reverend Ralph Partridge of Duxbury, known to 
history for his trial for ill-using a slave woman, and 
Reverend Nils Hornell, sometime preacher at the 
Old Swedes Church at Philadelphia, and Stephen 
Hart, freeman of Massachusetts Bay Colony, and one 
of the founders of Connecticut, and Bushnells beyond 
computation, to say nothing of close relationship with 
John Hart, first graduate of Yale College. 

Yet even if I could brag with the best of them as to 
qualifications for membership in the various organiza- 
tions of Sons of the Past, I should forbear in these 
quarters, where colonial quarterings are so plenty; 
and why should any man exhibit his great-grandfather 
in a political community where even quite recent 
arrivals share in the privileges of voters, and their 
children go to Harvard College, and their grand- 
children are in the army, and their great-grandchildren 
w r ill be put up for the Somerset Club? 

Not for indulgence in such pride of inheritance am 
I here today, but rather to sound a note of warning 
against a too indiscriminate and partial admiration 
for our ancestors; or rather to point out how inade- 
quate, how incomplete, is a worship of the past in 
which we place our ancestors upon frosty pedestals 
content to observe their virtues rather than to repeat 
them. Nor shall the theme be wholly of the Colonials 
whom Isaiah Thomas and the Greens and the Bancrofts 
and the Lincolns had in mind when this worshipful 
society was founded. For we are not altogether sons 
of our fathers and mothers in the direct line; our 
ancestors are all those who were forerunners of our 
civilization, contributors to our religious beliefs, our 
language, our literature, our philosophy, our art, our 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. - 201 

military system, our law, our international relations, 
our morals, and our standards. Out of the many 
strands that have combined to make up the great 
cable which holds us suspended from a viewless past, 
there are five which we particularly acknowledge, 
cherish and yet incompletely understand. In our 
church we are descendants of Israel; in our art and 
literature of Greece; in our statecraft of Rome; 
in our governmental traditions of the Teutons; in 
immediate race, traditions and ways of doing things, 
of our immediate Anglo-Saxon-American forefathers. 
How far do we really revere and follow any or all of 
these lines of intellectual ancestry? 

I. Israel 

All adherents of the Christian faith, whether Roman 
Catholic, Greek Catholic or Protestant, have bor- 
rowed much of their theology, and some of their formal 
observances from that tough and passionate Jewish 
race which was thrown out of its own land centuries 
ago. It has all that time incurred the hostility of 
those Christians who drew upon it for sacred books, 
religious principles, and even the holy places of 

Asia, during the last few centuries has bowed the 
knee to western armies and western administrators; 
but Asia has notwithstanding conquered a large part 
of the world with its religions. Where are those 
western Druids, those Gods of the Walhalla? Where 
are the marble divinities whose shrines were once 
manifold in the groves and the headlands of Greece? 
Where the Roman Emperor-Gods so majestic, so 
scornful? Where the idols of the Arabs, and the 
king-gods of Egypt? They have all fled before one 
or the other of the great Asiatic religions. Buddha, 
Christ and Mahomet were all Asiatics: their religions 
are Oriental in their thought, their lofty diction, and 
their setting. We may well feel reverence for our 

202 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

High Priest Melchisidec, for our grand old kinsman 
Abraham, for our shepherd King David; they were 
great-grandfathers of the founder of Christianity, 
though it was the Roman Cross of His Passion which 
has become the emblem of the Faith. While every 
one of the eleven venerated apostles, whose statues 
stand in thousands of chapels, was an Asiatic Jew. 

Our own direct race ancestors had a wondrous 
liking for the Jewish heroes of the old dispensation, 
and made it manifest in the names of their children. 
Not everyone has had a living great-uncle Gad and a 
great-uncle Abiah; nor can every colonial family 
boast a succession like that of the Cape Cod Shear- 
jashub Bournes. But Mordecais and Michaiahs, 
Mishmas, Zerihiahs, Kophas, Jepthas, Antiphas, and 
Abimelechs, can be found in many genealogies, — to say 
nothing of the milder Miriams, and Hadassahs, and 
Abigails and Tirzahs. Even the choice of names 
from the New Testament worthies was subject to a 
kind of fashion — there were plenty of Colonial Andrews 
and Johns and James and Thomases and Peters; yet 
what notable was called Philip, or Mark or Paul? 

The Old Testament was after all a sacred book of 
the Christians, only because the founders of Christ- 
tianity referred to it with love and veneration; its 
acceptance as a rule of faith and practice is one of the 
mysteries of the Protestant Reformation, and brought 
with it the singular belief that everybody mentioned 
in the Old Testament, unless with express terms of 
disapproval, was a saint. I learned my letters on the 
quarto family Bible, the one with the births and 
deaths in it, in which about two-thirds of the way 
along, a steel engraving caused wonderment to my 
youthful mind. It showed three men in outlandish 
garb, bending before a child in a cradle; but what was 
that other strange person who stood erect, higher than 
them all, with a haughty expression? I guessed it to 
be God, though I never ventured to ask anybody; 
and it was years later that a larger knowledge of 


1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. 203 

natural history made it possible to identify this occult 
being as a camel. 

I have read the Bible through from cover to cover 
in my time, and I do not remember that I allowed my- 
self the satisfaction of believing that Jacob was a 
person whom one would not wish to see a member of 
his club, or a partner in business. On the other hand 
I have always felt that Saul had not a fair show— so 
kingly and so grand, except for that unfortunate love 
of hitting people. On the face of it Jehu was ungener- 
ous in his dislike of the seventy sons of Ahab, when he 
wrote to the ''great men of the city which brought 
them up" to "take ye the heads of the men your 
master's sons." Then he stood up in the assembly 
and said to his tools "Ye be righteous. Behold I 
conspired against my master, and slew him: but who 
slew all these ... so Jehu slew ... all his great 
men, and his kinfolks, and his priests, until he left 
him none remaining." There is an element of in- 
justice in this transaction, it reminds one too much of 
the German Governor General Bissing of Belgium 1 . 

One sympathizes with the old lady who remarked 
one day, "I have just been readin' the Old Testament; 
and, my, how they did act!" The truth is that 
neither our ancestors nor ourselves really worship the 
Old Testament worthies. Our New England for- 
bears in their troubles with savage enemies and Antino- 
mians were comforted by these massacres and acts of 
perfidy toward the heathen; but I have never got over 
the shock of learning some years ago that my pet 
great-great-great-grandfather was one of the Con- 
necticut soldiery that destroyed the Pequots, root and 

Our Moslem brethren who have adopted some of 
the Old Testament's great-grandfathers are less scru- 
pulous. They do not hesitate, for instance, to dwell 
upon the softer and more intimate side of the character 
of King Solomon. To this day probably they relate 
to the visitor at the Great Wall of Baalbec their ex- 

204 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

planation of how those three monster stones, sixty- 
four feet long, could be placed there. Their account 
is that when the time came to lay the wall, King 
Solomon one day assembled all the workmen and 
artificers of the kingdom, who began at dawn and 
strained and struggled till at dusk the first stone had 
been slid along into its proper bed. The next day the 
problem was more serious, for the second stone had to 
be lifted and placed upon the other. When the work- 
men could not budge it, King Solomon called upon all 
the soldiers of all his armies; they worked and stewed 
and pushed, and that evening their job was completed : 
the wall was two stones high. The third day the lift 
was doubled. Workmen and soldiers combined, la- 
bored and sweat without avail; evening approached 
with all the horror of a task incomplete, and a great 
king powerless, — when a happy thought occurred to 
Solomon, who summoned all his wives. They gathered 
about the mighty stone, crooked their little fingers 
under it, and presto, it soared into its place. 

At some later time this incident will be questioned 
as an example of a lack of caution in accumulating 
historic data. It is stated as I heard it more than 
fifty years ago from a man who had been at Baalbec. 
Some clergymen nowadays venture to criticise Jacob, 
although it brings upon them the censure due to a 
man who questions the Scriptures. As the young 
theologue put it, in a sermon, "Cain was a bad man. 
Cain was a Bible critic, and he became an atrocious 

There are some heroes of proof both in the Old 
Testament and the New. Gideon, forerunner of the 
three hundred at Thermopylae and of the Dutch at 
Leyden; patient Ezrah and Neheiniah, rebuilders of 
the commonwealth, and David's soldier who risked 
his life to bring water to his chieftain. David himself 
is the most human character in the whole Old Testa- 
ment, by turns good, fair to middling, and bad; but 
"a man after God's own heart." with all his deficien- 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. 205 

cies. To the modern mind, however, the noblest 
Biblical hero is Saul that was called Paul, the itinerant 
minister and evangelist, who went through all the 
harsh experiences of the frontier in the midst of the 
highest civilization of the times. An undaunted soul 
who well might say "I have finished the fight. I have 
kept the faith." Saul, the modern, fond of meta- 
physics, anxious to fit together a theological system, 
like Jonathan Edwards and Doctor Park and Dr. 
Ionian Abbott — is a human and a humane man, whom 
nevertheless, our godly ancestors used chiefly as a 
foundation on which to build impossible theories of 
the relation between God and His creatures. < 

II. The Greeks 

Time was when the students of Harvard College 
all studied Hebrew in order that they might better 
understand the scriptures which so many of our ances- 
tors were to expound from the pulpit. Those were the 
good old eighteenth-century days when Judah Monis, 
the proselyte from Hebraism, taught Hebrew to the 
students and owned a negro slave, — doubtless as a 
mark of dignity. None of them, however, followed 
in the footsteps of President Stiles of Yale with his 
intimate studies of the Targuin. Nevertheless they 
all knew Greek, — or rather studied Greek and knew 
no more of it than most of their classically educated 

Now in Greece there is something positive to wor- 
ship, because we do not take our moral standard from 
that source; we may admire Pericles without approving 
the salon of Aspasia. How many years ago was it 
that I crossed from Brindisi to Corfu and so to Patras, 
along with a nephew of the greatest protagonist of 
Greek culture in the United States? As the steamer 
approached the strait between Epirus and Corfu my 
young friend looked about him dazed and asked, 
"How high is this above the sea?" Who that has 
approached those dramatic shores, has failed to catch 

206 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

that thrill? There is nothing more beautiful than the 
most beautiful. When one has seen the blue moun- 
tains rising beyond blue waters against a blue horizon, 
or has watched the golden sky as it encloses the faint 
green outline of distant islands, the time has arrived 
to worship Greek great-grandfathers. The Harvard 
students of my earliest experience did so as a matter 
of conscience. 

In those distant ages, forty years ago, there was 
nothing so admirable in American life, nothing so 
thrilling in its intellectual uplift, nothing so pedagogi- 
cally exquisite as to be a professor of Greek, in an 
American college. The range of possible scholarship 
then was small, and it was a vast thing to corner the 
most spacious area of the human mind. The figure 
is mixed and so was the sensation ! Take our venerated 
Professor William Watson Goodwin, for example, an 
excellent and genial character, whose personal friend- 
ship I greatly prized. He was professor of Greek, he 
had written an intolerable,— I mean an invaluable — 
book upon Greek Moods and Tenses, a work of learn- 
ing and discrimination which justly brought him the 
laurel of a Cambridge doctorate and red gown. He 
was immersed in Greek — not in the Greek thoughts, 
which to the men of his time were looked upon rather 
as poles upon which to hang deductions as to the 
difference between the negative in ou and the negative 
in me. But his learning was the possession of the 
University and the Commonwealth, and he never 
grudged it' to a fellow delver. 

Professor Goodwin had a tale which I cannot for- 
bear recording, for it deals with one medium of our 
approach to our intellectual Greek great-grandfathers. 
A friend, then, called one day and remarked, "Well, 
Goodwin, I am sorry to see that you are so down in 
the world that you have been obliged to sell your 
books." The Grecian looked about his library, as 
much as to intimate that some were left. "You must 
be selling off your books, because here is a Byzantine 

1918.] Worship, of Great-Grandfather. - 207 

Greek lexicon which I picked up at Bartlett's the 
other day." "How do you know it is mine?" 
" Because it has your name on the flyleaf written in 
your own hand." "That is not possible; but if it 
were really mine it would have my name also on the 
hundred and first page." Examination showed that 
he had written his name with his own hand on that 
page. There were divers other marginal notes un- 
mistakably made by him. "That is singular, " said 
the sage slowly, "because about six months ago I 
lent that book to a divinity student who said he could 
find no copy in the library. I hesitated, for it is a 
book that I might not use for a year and might want 
tomorrow; but the young man was very pressing, and 
I let him have it; and it has never been returned." 
"Well, that's clear enough, you had better send for 
the police, and see what is the general state of the book 
market." "No I can't do that, there may be some- 
thing that we do not understand. Wait while I send 
a messenger with a note asking the immediate return 
of my lexicon." Forth goes the messenger, and 
presently returns with the lexicon— and due apologies. 
Confusion, doubt, dismay. The professor sets his 
mnenomic apparatus at work, and slowly the story 
comes back to him. He had a lexicon which he 
bought at the University Book Store; he put his name 
on the flyleaf and with a signed manual at page 101; 
he made notes in it; then he discovered that there was 
a signature missing in the book. He took it back and 
Sever gave him a fresh copy, into which he transcribed 
his annotations and recked not what became of copy 
number one. Men have been hanged on less conclu- 
sive evidence. 

The Greek professors worshipped the classic writers; 
and Greek would be in a very different condition in the 
educational world today if they had also worshipped 
the glorious ideas found in those pages. The true 
Grecian of the generation now passing by was Charles 
Eliot Norton, who though he had never been so happy 

208 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

as to set foot in the country, made a fane of the Par- 
thenon, and beloved friends of the columns and the 
statues and the vases. Who can help worshipping 
that glorious Hermes of Olympia, with the little chap 
perched upon his arm, at whom he looks as King 
Alkinoos looked upon his daughter Nausicaa, "And 
her father smiled, for he knows everything." Yet 
that is a cold god; give me rather the burial stelae in 
the Keramikos gateway of Athens, or the nearby 
Museum, where friend humanly stretches hand to 
friend, wife to husband, father to son, and even the 
dog shares in the universal grief; they all tell the same 
mournful tale; "Goodbye companion, goodbye wife, 
goodbye son, goodbye master, you are going the 
longest journey and I am left behind." 

That illustrates the theme of this discussion; we 
all worship the stately dignity of the temples of Athens 
and of Paestum and Girgenti; we are all reverent 
before the sculptures of the Parthenon and the glorious 
lady of Melos. We all preach the doctrine of balance, 
of majesty. Our Greek grandfathers liked that, but 
they also liked the grand and the terrible. Witness 
the terrific marbles of the altar of Pergamon. It is a 
figment that all the best Greek sculpture is in repose! 

A fiddlestick for repose in art or in literature, if it 
deprive us of the human view! I worship the Greeks 
who sat in the theater by the hour and were roused to 
passion by Aeschulus or Sophocles. I like to think of 
them hearing the sublime tragedy, the Persians, 
when the messenger reports that "everything that has 
oars puts to sea," while the eager gaze of the auditors 
is stretching down past the Piraeus to the very strait 
where the Persian galleys and their allies dug their 
oars into the water to get away from Salamis. I like 
to think of them too as roaring over the farces of 
Aristophanes, and as listening spellbound to Homer, 
great-grandfather of all mankind. 

My limited study of Greek did give me an exquisite 
pleasure in the Odyssey, that delightful combination 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. . 209 

of Sinbad the Sailor, Sir Francis Drake and Conrad's 
sea tales. I worship the freedom, the life, the courage, 
the experience, the loves and hates of men; and every- 
body who can think burns incense to the Greeks who 
in Thermopylae and Marathon showed that small 
states have their place alongside great empires; and 
that the most crushing and overweening power may be 
brought low. In these days of might and aggregation, 
when the world cannot be saved short of the sacrifice 
of ten million good lives, I love to think of the power of 
the few. 

It is not necessary here to go into the discussion of 
how far one must puzzle over Greek sentences and in- 
voke the lexicon in order to penetrate the ideas of 
these ancients. What modern German philosopher 
was it who was reputed to read Kant's Critique of 
Pure Reason in a French translation? That road is 
open to all who venerate Greek literature. The 
Greeks themselves know no such thing as a Greek 
grammar, nor did they think a man of learning must 
potter about in Egyptian hieroglyphics or Assyrian 

The battle for the Greek language as a pabulum for 
school boys and girls is over. Greek has almost dis- 
appeared out of the American high schools, and in 
course of time will be read in colleges as Russian and 
Arabic may be read, as Anglo-Saxon and Provencal 
are read, as bases of a critical study of language. The 
American school boy was not taught to worship the 
real Greek, the statesman, the merchant, the adven- 
turer, the civilizer. What American boy here present 
realizes that the heyday of Greek culture came long 
after the classic period; that the Greeks who made the 
world over were disciples of Alexander and not of 
Pericles; that the Greek language and the Greek 
spirit lingered in Constantinople till the successive 
strata of unspeakable Turks and Tartars broke up the 
Byzantine empire? As a practical, living, immediate, 
vital force, in the world of which it was a part, the city 

210 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

state of Athens operated for a shorter time than the 
official existence of the United States of America down 
to the present year. 

It is an amazing thing that Greeks of kindred cul- 
ture could not be persuaded to act together by prodi- 
gious Aristotle, the Colossus among great thinkers; 
and William- James-like Plato, full of humanity; and 
healthful Socrates, the New York Nation of his day, 
and wily Themistocles, and Alcibiades, the political 
man-about-town of the age. The Greeks would 
rather be Persians than be portions of a powerful 
Greek state that could make head against Rome, that 
ancient Chicago rising in the west on the Tiber. Of 
what use to their race all this worshipful power of 
statement, this balance, this perfection of finish, this 
ease in doing great things, this clear insight into the 
woes of other nations? When the pinch came, intel- 
lectual Athens, and Teuton-like Sparta both failed, 
and it was left to the group of allied cities of the 
Achaean League to make a belated and unsuccessful 
attempt to combine against the Romans. 

The gift of these great-grandfathers to mankind is 
immeasurable. The world without them would be 
like the Anglo-Saxon people without Shakespeare. 
They had not the genius of state building. The con- 
fusion and failure of the political world, the world of 
affairs, with the Greeks, is sufficiently illustrated by 
the present inability of the Balkan peoples to come to 
a common understanding. The Serbians took the 
birthplace of Alexander on their road to Constanti- 
nople; but the modern Greeks like their ancient fore- 
bears, think not solely of imperial things. 

III. Rome 

Another group of our worshipful masters is to be 
found in Rome, and they are much more great-grand- 
fatherly than the Greeks; they have had a larger 
share in forming our language, and a much greater 
influence on the political thinking of the modern world. 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. 211 

Rome, the city, is an inspiration to the late time Amer- 
icans.' One of my friends from Wisconsin told me 
once that he found himself in a Roman pension sitting 
side by side with a compatriot from a similar longitude, 
who intimated that he meant to do Rome thoroughly 
while he was there. This was at dinner. The next 
forenoon the wayfarer was found dragging his own 
trunk across the passage, and when asked if he were 
changing his room replied, "Changing my room, no 
sirree, I'm leaving. Me and my friend started out 
early this morning in a hack. We've driven around 
this city and seen every darned building that has a 
roof on it, and as for those that haint any roofs, 1 say 
let bygones be bygones. We are going to take the 
two o'clock train for Paris!" For most visitors it is 
not so easy to throw off the magic of our Roman great- 
grandfathers. It is an unending pleasure to circum- 
navigate the walls, to wander about the Gampagna 
among the wild cattle and the foundations of the 
former arches of the aqueducts. Athens is after all 
only a ruin; Rome is a ruined city, which is a different 
thing! The more you know the city, however, the 
stranger it seems that the world should have received 
such an impression of the Roman Republic as to have 
ail but dominated France and tinged our own Revolu- 

Here again we worship great-grandfather, not so 
much for the splendid things he did as because we 
have read about him in our schoolbooks. We are all 
completely aware that there was a Roman Republic 
which existed for centuries, and was directed by 
marvels of Republican virtue, which slowly succumbed 
to the tyrant Julius Caesar and was transformed by 
Augustus into an arbitrary empire. It must have 
been a Republic because we read of elections, debates 
in the senate, public meetings, and funeral orations, 
till we get the impression that the Pincian was only 
another Beacon Hill in which the only thing lacking 
was a Constitutional Convention. 

212 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


This admiration of ancient republicanism is not due 
to our reading of history, because it is only very re- 
cently that men like Ferrero have ventured to treat 
Roman history from the point of view that the Romans 
were human beings, animated by much the same 
principles of state policy as the Republic of the United 
States today. We worship great-grandfather Cin- 
cinnatus and Scipio Africanus and Brutus and Cicero, 
chiefly because of Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome, 
combined in due proportion with Caesar's Gallic War 
and Smith's History of Rome, than which a more 
juiceless book was never dealt out to candidates for 
entrance to Harvard College! It seems impossible 
for us to compare Caesar with, say, Napoleon, both of 
whom had great notions of creating an empire that 
would stay put. Cicero is to us like Demosthenes — 
a megaphone for lofty sentiments; whereas Cicero was 
the Disraeli of his time; an opportunist, a declaimer, 
a shrewd politician, yet withal a genuine lover of his 
country. - 

Why multiply parallels? The main thing about the 
worship of Rome is that the story of the Republic is a 
glorious story, which seems as we look back upon it 
to be studded with great men as a bag pudding is with 
plums. All the Romans, good or bad, seem magnifi- 
cent, from Pompey the Great, down to Catiline — that 
Roman Aaron Burr; and still further down to Clodius 
and his Tammany associates. Yet only a handful 
of those great ones have survived in our own popular 
apprehension. Two thousand years hence people 
will look back upon these three centuries of American 
history as crammed with greatness, but they will all 
stand on the same footing: John Winthrop, John 
Paul Jones, George Washington, Andrew Jackson, 
Abraham Lincoln, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roose- 
velt, General Grant, Miles Standish — all thrown upon 
one background. The truth is — a happy phrase for 
the critic— that Rome was really about as republican 
as Austria-Hungary was down to 1918. The real 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. 213 

government being a small group of self-ehosen families 
who had a form of national government, but really the 
decisions were all made within a single city. The 
Emperor Charles and his associates were singularly 
like the republican government of Rome in its last 
days, with outlying provinces practically governed 
from headquarters. 

Even among the small number of persons who had 
the right to vote in Rome and thus to make decisions 
for the Republic, there were .masterpieces of sharp 
practice; the graffiti on the walls of Pompeii bear 
curious evidence to the methods of calling attention 
to nominees for office, under the accumulation of 
political influences which we should term "combines" 
and "bosses," with a dash of the labor union. 
' The Roman Republic really owes a great part of its 
extraordinary hold on the imaginations of twenty 
later centuries to its casual connection with literature 
— Cicero against Verres, Livy's so-called History, 
Plutarch's Lives, and Caesar's Commentaries, were not 
written as school books, and quite artificially became 
vehicles of the Latin tongue to unwilling boys. The 
formal study of ancient history in this country came in 
quite as an adjunct to the classics; would it not be a 
good thing on the whole for a boy who was studying 
Latin to have something more than the accidental 
contact with the passages for the day, and to study a 
consecutive narrative of Roman history, which how- 
ever was not obtained from the textbooks of forty 
years ago? The closer study of the classics in Europe 
led to a splendid tradition of the Republic, best exem- 
plified by the pseudo-classicism of the French Revolu- 
tion, in which Citizen Robespierre proscribed Citizen 
Danton as General Sulla in his time proscribed General 
Marius. Even in our Constitutional Convention of 
1787 there was some loose talk about the virtues of the 
Roman Republic. 

What was the Rome that remade the world, that 
feebly blazed up in the Holy Roman Empire, the Rome 

214 American Antiquarian Society ., [Oct., 

continued in tradition at Byzantium, the Rome whose 
example of world dominion has caused the Germans to 
put themselves forward as the modern Romans? 
Their lack of the Roman qualities of understanding of 
other races, of justice between man and man, of obli- 
gation to the dependencies, has caused their edifice 
to crash together before it was completed. 

No wonder men still worship the Rome — the Empire 
— whose tremendous benefits to mankind are obscured 
by the yellow press headlines of the time of Nero and 
Caligula and Heliogabalus, who were accidental ships 
on the current; indeed Nero rendered a service to man- 
kind by giving an opportunity for the German author's 
comparison between the Roman emperor and the late 
German emperor, for the fun of writing which the term 
of imprisonment was a light expense. 

Of course the modern Roman empire is the British 
empire with its small home country, its imperial 
decisions made by the fifteen million or so constituents 
of the House of Commons, the British Empire imposing 
its Pax Britannica on immense areas of Asia, Oceania, 
and Africa — a power with a truly Roman sense of 
holding the provinces together by mutual attraction. 

Indeed Britain might have revolutionized the world 
but for the insuperable British objection to "marrying 
a nigger" — even though the elite black is a beautiful 
brown princess, descended from a dynasty of Indian 
kings. Not so Anthony, who became intimately 
acquainted with an Egyptian queen; not so the 
Roman soldiers, who took to themselves wives of the 
daughters of Heth wherever they were stationed and 
thus founded the composite populations of Italy, 
Switzerland, France, and Spain. England though 
once half Romanized has nothing to show of Roman 
blood and almost nothing of Roman institutions. 

The most solid and stable erection of the Romans, 
more complete than the Coliseum, more enduring than 
the Pantheon, more lofty than the Pont du Gard, is 
the Roman law, which all the world knows was codified 

1918.] Worship of Great Grandfather. 215 

by the Byzantines after Rome, the parent, was a 
desolation. Part of it is lodged in the common law 
which has helped to preserve the universal sense of 
Rome; but the Roman law has spread far beyond the 
ancient bonds of the Roman empire; is at the basis 
not only of the Latin powers, including more than half 
the two Americas, but of German jurisprudence. It 
is easy to worship Augustus or Hadrian, but Justinian 
is the great-grandfather whose work is most enduring. 
Roman history is essential for the modern world, inas- 
much as the fibers of Roman thought and organization 
have penetrated into every Western language and into 
all our forms of government. Election is a Roman 
word, and so are candidate, representative, president, 
kaiser, primary, initiative, referendum, justice, exe- 
cutive, governor, senator, congress, — most of our 
political dictionary. Only let us study and let us 
teach our children the Rome that counts, the Rome 
that was, the Rome that fell because it attempted the 
impossible task of absorbing all European civilization 
and dealing it out to the barbarians who fringed the 
Empire. After all perhaps the greatest lesson of 
Rome is that universal dominion is impossible, that the 
world must be carried on by understandings, associa- 
tions, leagues, world organization. The world has 
outlived the Roman system of government from above 

IV. The Teutons 

The fourth series of great-grandfathers is a ticklish 
subject in these times, when we have learned to know 
the character and aims of the German great-grand- 
children of our Teutonic ancestors. A western school 
board has thrown out a textbook which spoke favor- 
ably of the ancient Germans. It is even unsafe to own 
to a knowledge of the German language, lest it pervert 
our minds with the fallacious maxims of a Treitschke, 
or the materialistic views of Nietzsche. I own that I 
value the privilege of testing my ability to resist the 

216 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

worse reason put for the better in the original crabbed 

These efforts to prevent the publication of German 
ideas, even to give them opportunity to refute them- 
selves, puts me in mind of an old gentleman who 
listened with impatience to a lecturer who was trying 
to set forth the truth that ancient Rome was not made 
up of the men and women whom one meets strolling 
through the pages of Martial and Juvenal; that there 
were honest fathers and affectionate mothers and 
beautiful children among the ancient folk. At last 
the good old gentleman rose, shaking with indignation, 
and interposed "Sir, I protest at this barefaced ag- 
tempt to deprive us of the vices of 'the ancient Ro- 
mans' !" I protest also at being deprived of the op- 
portunity to swear at the Kaiser in his own language. 

As for the great-grandfathers, we may stand on 
safe ground if we recognize that f'\ Germans are 
Teutons, but all Teutons are not Germans — we among 
the rest. I like to recall our Teutonic ancestor who 
hurled stones and epithets across the Rhine at the 
Roman legions; who came as Anglo-Saxon pirates to 
carry their outlook on life and their name to England; 
who as Norman earls crossed with William the Con- 
queror. We Americans run closer to ancestral form 
than the people who are now trying to arrogate to 
themselves the essence of the Teutonic spirit. We are 
good Teutons — the Germans are bad Teutons. 

Our true and distant Teutonic great-grandfathers 
deserve our respect and gratitude, first for the reasons 
which made Kipling admire " Fuzzy-wuz >J — "For ye 
bruk a British square." Who was it that smashed 
the Roman Empire, as the Allies are now smashing 
the German Empire? Who sacked the Eternal City, 
founded royal dynasties in Sicily, in Spain, in Northern 
Africa? Who settled Britain and laid the foundations 
for Danes and others to complete the job? Who es- 
stablished the enlightened countries of Sweden, Nor- 
way, Denmark, Holland, Switzerland? Who were the 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. '217 

first Europeans to reach the shores of America? 
Teutons of various degrees. Those times when all 
Europe was frontier have passed by; the Teutons 
have separated into many branches. One of them 
still imagines the world to be the booty of the free- 
booter who has lost conscience The present war is in 
a way an attempt to revive those plundering voyages, 
those descents of swift ships on the enemy's coast, 
those harryings of the land, those drives on the towns, 
that murder and rapine, that burning of bridges, that 
enslavement of captives from which the rest of western 
Europe has painfully emerged. 

We must not forget that the trouble with the 
Germans is that they consider themselves the most 
modern and highly cultured nation on earth, while 
thinking the thoughts and practicing the deeds of two 
thousand years ag\ They have gone back to Thor, 
the hammerer, and the people have been systematical- 
ly taug* , from babes in the kindergarten up, that 
virtuous nations were those which have the biggest 
and most effective armies; that Germany is a very 
virtuous nation; then, that it is so virtuous that it may 
dispense with the restraints of Scripture, the church, 
international law, and civilization. Therefore the 
whole land was kept waiting till Authority, should 
unchain the big dogs of war to rush upon and destroy 
the enemy. Then Germany was to fix up the world 
on the principle of the gospel according to Attila. 

What we thank our Teutonic ancestors for is not 
the fathering this barbaric branch of the great race 
but for several direct services to mankind in none of 
which the Germans have shared. Tacitus was not 
particularly fond of the Germans, yet he gave them 
credit for an unextinguishable love of personal free- 
dom, which the present Germans have ignored. The 
seaboard Teutons were magnificent seamen. It took 
skill and pluck for the Angles and Danes and Nor- 
wegians to cross the seas and to occupy Britain, a task 
too great for modern Germans. The great fleet, in 

218 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

building for twenty years, has once ventured off 
soundings, and did not venture to repeat the exper- 
ience. The Teutons had a national assembly — 
progenitor of Parliament and Congress; the German 
Reichstag is like the little man who foretells the 
weather by smiling appearance when there is nothing 
doing, by disappearance whenever a storm is expected. 
The notion of even representation of large commun- 
ities, unknown to the ancients, is a Teutonic idea, 
which the Germans have steadfastly refused to carry 
to its logical conclusion of "one man one vote. " What 
the Germans lack is an admixture of tempering blood 
with their too-rank Teutonism. Other Teutonic races 
have learned that brotherhood of races and common 
humanity is stronger than Blood and Iron. 

The Germans have revised an ancient Teutonic 
worship, from which more favored branches of the 
great race are free. They have returned to* heathen- 
ism, and have set up for their ideal a Moloch of a 
creature which they call the Good Old German God. 
The Libre Beige, that fiery sheet which somehow finds 
its way into the bedroom of the German Governor 
General, and which dares to satirize the All Highest, 
in one of its issues relates an incident which has re- 
cently happened in Paradise. The German Chancellor, 
it appears, presented himself at the gate, and an- 
nounced that he had come to call on God, "I am very 
sorry," said Peter, "but I don't think you can see 
him." "Why not, you do not understand that I 
come from the All Highest. " "That's just the trouble 
God isn't very well today. We are afraid that — well, 
he goes about Heaven muttering to himself and saying 
'I am the kaiser, I am the kaiser' — you understand." 
"Oh, is it as bad as that? Well, I'll leave a message 
which perhaps will lessen the strain upon the poor 
soul. Tell him that I was commissioned by the 
emperor to bestow upon him the initial rank of German 
nobility, so that from henceforth he may be known as 
'the Baron von Gott'." 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. 219 

V. The Americans 

In our private minds we hold that we have inherited 
all the good and permanent and laudable things from 
our nearest great-grandfathers by blood; we do not 
stop to ask where they gained the wealth of institu- 
tions which they transmitted to us. I have tried to 
show the powerful sources from which they drank. 
Our great grandfathers are really almost the only 
ancient thing in the United States. We cherish few 
old buildings, little in colonial furniture and gear, few 
manuscripts, scanty portraits. John Vassal of Cam- 
bridge bequeathed his rich suits of clothes to his son — 
most of us have received only precepts, principles and 

We worship Great-Grandfather for worshipping God 
according to the dictates of his own conscience. We 
thank him for religious toleration — but he never would 
have thanked us for admitting Baptists and Episco- 
palians and possibly theists into the American Anti- 
quarian Society. It was a noble thing for Great - 
Grandfather to exile himself in pursuit of religious 
liberty — but why put so many stumbling blocks in the 
way of other people intent on worshipping God ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own consciences? 
John Winthrop and Cotton Mather and Jonathan 
Edwards served their day and generation — but put 
alongside them Roger Williams, William Penn and 
John Wesley — which did most for the happiness and 
ultimate salvation of men and women by providing a 
genuine and general religious liberty? 

May we worship Great-Grandfather for his course 
of life, his private conduct? Doubtless the standards 
of the community were high, but every reader of 
colonial letters, diaries and journals knows that the 
cord was stretched too taut. Goodly men not only 
called themselves miserable sinners, but occasional^ 
made it true. What means the judge's record of his 
call upon a lady at 9 p. m.? What is the Yankee 
Bundling against which Edwards preached? What 

220 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

was that Scarlet A that Hawthorne resurrected? The 
Colonial Puritan was a delightful man for a Great, 
Grandfather, but not for a household companion. 
There was a vein of cruelty in him. Even Whitefield 
found it a necessary road to godliness to whip the 
little boy aboard ship that could not say his prayers; 
and Jonathan Edwards wrote his daughter that he 
would rather see her dead than unconverted. 

Let us be truthful even about our ancestors. They 
were men and women of vigor, earnest and passionate, 
not very different in temperament from reputable 
folk nowadays. As for the submerged tenth, they had 
their population of roisterers and criminals, their vile 
sons of godly fathers. Doubtless there were ameliora- 
tions, witticisms, familiar sayings, feastings and 
laughter; Reverend John Davenport was celebrated 
for his love of a joke, and Reverend Mather Byles 
was the Doctor Holmes of his time — with his quip on 
the British troops in Boston — "Now all our wrongs 
will be red-dressed. " Nevertheless the atmosphere 
of godly colonial life was chill. 

We have great reason to be grateful to Great- 
Grandfather for his rugged virtues of thrift and 
honesty and perseverance, for his effort to gain the 
high values of living, and for his political sagacity. 
Perhaps he was not always above the tricks of the boss. 
When the Boston Town Meeting was voting upon 
adding to the Granary Burying ground "John Pigeon 
was seen to put in ten votes with the word 'yea' 
written on every one of em" — but John Pigeon was 
forthwith fined ten shillings — the machinery of the 
corrupt practices act worked quickly. 

Great-Gran dfather is also entitled to all praise for 
his success in popular government. The town meet- 
ings and colonial legislative bodies were as near 
democratic bodies, debating and voting for the public 
good, as the limited suffrage allowed. This political 
sense made the Revolution succeed, the times produced 
a surprising number of active minds which worked 
together, to build a commonwealth. 

1918.] Worship of Great-Grandfather. * 221 

In no respect its worship of the bygone more reason- 
able than for the constructive political skill of that 
epoch. "In those days there were giants," — starting 
from the clumsy and imperfect charters and practices 
of the colonies, they arrived at successful state govern- 
ments, and the crowning triumph of a national 
government. All honor for that service! But we 
must remember that they were successful because 
they were experiments. We cannot worship them 
without recognizing what a departure it was from 
previous experience. They were bold in tackling new 
problems; they had a genius for documents; they 
instilled respect for the fundamental law — but nowa- 
days the Fathers of the Constitution would be classed 
as dangerous theorists who were the firebrands of the 
time; the image breakers, the fanatics, those who as 
Confucius said, "Will still be doing in these imprac- 
ticable times." James Otis, Oxenbridge Thacher, 
John Adams, Sain Adams, John Dickinson, John 
Rutledge, Peyton Randolph, Patrick Henry, Ceorge 
Washington. Those were the radicals of their time, 
the demanders of change, the Apostles of Revolution. 
The staid and gentlemanly Tories looked upon them 
as we look upon the I. W. W.! 

From worship of the Constitution makers we have 
become worshippers of the work of their hands; we 
bow down to the wood and stone of the forms of 
government which they established on the ruins of 
their old institutions. I have of late heard many 
voices urging people not to disturb the sacred phrases 
of a constitution 130 years old. I do what they did, 
I claim the right to start afresh, to readjust the ma- 
chinery of government to the necessities of the times. 

The rules of this honorable society forbid the dis- 
cussions of questions more recent than the Civil War. 
I yield to that edict; but to discuss the present Consti- 
tutional position of Massachusetts and other weakly 
governed communities is no more than to appeal to 
Great-Grandfather, who taught the world the salutary 

222 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

lesson of making your political machinery agree with 
your needs. The Fathers of the Constitution threw 
over their old governments, introduced new political 
methods, expanded the suffrage, put off the shackles 
of the governors, and put them on the legislatures, 
set up new courts and a novel system of legislation, 
made the referendum a part of their legal process. A 
good job, worthy of admiration — must we stop there? 

What will Great-Grandsire say about the apathy of 
this day and generation — when the world is on fire? 
Will he not upbraid us for lauding his character and 
ignoring his example? Will he not set us down as 
weaklings who cannot do what he did — make our 
state governments adequate for the times? 

In the midst of a myriad of vexing details, there is 
but one problem of government that stares us in the 
face. Forms are only man made, no portion of any 
government is sacred. The one essential of govern- 
ment is that it should act. If inherited forms restrict, 
they must give way. The one essential, mature 
governmental force, is the will of the people concerned. 
We are precluded from venerating the Declaration of 
Independence and then shirking from its conclusion. 
I have heard in the last two years dozens of arguments 
of which the pith was that the people of this Common- 
wealth were too weak and too ignorant and too unfair 
to be trusted with government. But somebody must 
govern. If not the people, then a part of the people, 
and a self-designated part at that! 

No, Great-Grandfather, we shall not throw over- 
board your splendid principles of human liberty — we 
are carefully giving Europe time to adapt them. We 
shall not overthrow the main portions of your inten- 
tion. But we shall somehow make it fit for our times 
— for our cities — laborers, business, social welfare, 
order, defenses. What the states refuse to do will be 
done for them by the nation at large. The federal 
government is teaching us the truth of Napoleon's 
maxim: " What is possible is already done. What is 
impossible must be done. " 

1918.] Worship of Great Grandfather. 223 

The American people is a Samson, sometimes 
wavering, sometimes beguiled, but a creature of vast 
ultimate power. Samson may permit himself to be 
bound with green withes — but he breaks them when 
he will. Even if you put out his eyes, he will still be 
strong enough to pull down your Republic over your 
heads unless you give scope for his vast strength to 
build up the community. 

224 American Antiquarian Society: [Oct., 

By William L. Clements 

The scene of the occurrences narrated in this Journal 
was at Fort Michillimackinac, located at the entrance 
of Lake Michigan and at the Western terminus of the 
Strait connecting Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. 
The meaning of the word in the Algonquin tongue is 
''Place of the big lame person." The word has been 
abbreviated into Mackinac and is pronounced Macki- 
naw. 1 The present Fort Mackinac, on Mackinac 
Island, is the successor of the original fort located on 
the mainland, built in 1712 by the French for the 
protection of their trade; and during the so-called 
French and Indian War (1755-1761), was surrendered 
to the British. The Treaty of Paris (1783) ceded this 
fort and district to the United States. This mainland 
fort was the scene of many conferences during the 
French regime with Indians and Traders, and it was 
the scene during English occupation in 1763, of the 
massacre beginning Pontiac's War. Several miles 
west of the present Mackinaw City a tourist today is 
shown what is supposed to be the location of the 
original fort. In 1781 the mainland fort was aban- 
doned by the English and a new and stronger fortress 
was erected on the Island of Mackinac, which remains 
today, and is maintained in a Michigan State Reserva- 

The district of Mackinac, or Michillimackinac, in early 
history included all of the region in the vicinity of the 

»The spelling has been made phonetic with Old Mackinaw and Mackinaw City. We 
speak of Mackinac Island, l'ort. Mackinac and the Straits of Mackinac, but of Mackinaw 
City and Old Mackinaw. 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 225 

Island. The Point Saint Ignace Mission 2 and stations 
located on the north side of the Strait were in this dis- 
trict. It is needless to say there was no boundary. 

There is some ground for belief that the mainland 
fort was in two locations not far apart at different 
times; the earlier one on Lake Michigan, a short dis- 
tance beyond the Straits, and the later located as we 
have described it. 

The Fort Michillimackinac of this Journal undoubt- 
edly is on the later mainland location and in the 
accompanying drawing the fort and location are shown 
taken from the Crown Collection of Maps in the 
British Museum. 

It is only by a great stretch of the imagination that 
we can call such a structure as is here shown a fort — a 
few posts of wood embedded in the ground and in- 
tended to withstand arrows and gun shot, and the 
whole settlement and fort including a commandant 
and a few soldiers within the enclosure, and without it 
the bourgeois, the voyageurs, the coureurs de bois and 
the French habitants— the last, the most indolent 
men imaginable. To all of the above we must add 
the robed and sombre Jesuit priests and many Indains. 
These Indians were Algonquins, or Indians of the 
Algic tongue. They included the Ottawas, Ojibwas 
or Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Sacs and Foxes. All 
the above were related by kindred speech to the 
Micmacs, Abenakis and Delawares in the East and the 
Illinois, Shawnees in the South and the Crees and 
"Blackfeet" in the North and West. Such was Fort 
Michillimackinac in 1766, the date of the beginning of 
Rogers's Journal. 

Major Robert Rogers wrote and published two 
books of considerable historical value; "A Concise 
Account of North America," and his " Journals," 
both appearing simultaneously in London in 1765, and 
during his first visit to England. His other published 

: \ mission was established there as early as 1670 and abandoned in 1701. 

226 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

writing "Ponteach" was probably written at about 
this time, for the imprint bears the date 1766. It now 
appears without a doubt that Rogers was the author 
of this tragedy, one of the earliest productions in the 
field of the American dramatic art. His Journal pub- 
lished in 1765 will always be considered one of the 
source books of the French and Indian War. It 
recites "his experiences in a modest way and the im- 
portant part he played in this war. The truth of the 
narrative has never been questioned. 

If the career of Rogers had ended in 1765, or after 
the production of his Journal, he would have come 
down to us as a hero whose deeds were unsurpassed in 
bravery by any soldier serving in the trying Colonial 
times from 1755 to 1761. Rogers was a very brave 
man and did much to win the war for the English. 

The daring adventurer, however, even though this 
bravery evidenced itself very early in his career in the 
defence of his native settlement, never seemed to have 
inspired his neighbors and associates with a degree of 
confidence that might be expected under such circum- 
stances, for his actions as a civilian were quite in con- 
trast to his bravery as a director of a scout expedition 
or the defender of a precarious position. His lack of 
a proper sense of honesty, his frequent indiscretions 
and sometimes his utter disregard for the opinions and 
orders of his superiors, led him to be regarded by his 
military associates with distrust, although by all his 
daring and bravery were unquestioned. 

In 1765, when Rogers appeared in England and pro- 
duced his Journal, he was hailed as a writer and a 
warrior, to whom too little credit had been given for 
the successful culmination of the late war, and it is not 
surprising that among his many activities, therefore, 
that his solicitations for advancement in the services of 
the Government and subsidiary trading companies 
should have been received and considered. It is not 
surprising, either, even with formal statements and 
objections from his associates in America, including 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 227 

Sir William Johnson, of his unfitness for high official 
positions of trust, that even such reports should be to a 
large extent ignored and that he was given, through in- 
fluence of the Earl of Hillsborough, President of the 
English Board of Trade, the position of Commandant 
of Michillimackinac with certain other duties to per- 
form incident to the occupation of the newly acquired 
territory. He was now in fact the Commandant and 
Executive Officer of trade at Michillimackinac. 

With such commissions conferred upon him, to the 
consternation of his former associates, he appeared in 
America in the spring of 1766 and reported unwillingly 
to his senior Executive, the Indian Commissioner, Sir 
William Johnson at Johnson Hall, for duty. 

That Johnson had many reasons for mistrusting in 
all capacities Rogers, there is no doubt; that he and 
his superior, General Gage, had misgivings as to what 
would be the result of his work at Michillimackinac 
there is no doubt; but it appears, too, that even with 
the subdued antagonism of Rogers toward Johnson, 
that there was not a better effort made by Johnson, a 
sincere effort, to turn to some use Rogers's experience, 
for it must be remembered that Rogers had performed 
the service several years before of taking possession of 
the forts about Lake Erie, and of receiving from the 
French the important fort at Detroit, and no event in 
Rogers's career shows him to greater advantage than 
his tactful negotiations with Pontiac and his people 
near Detroit, the peaceful occupation of the fort, and 
the peaceful submission of the Indian tribes there- 

From the date of Rogers's commission and his ap- 
pearance at Johnson Hall for duty, it appears that 
Johnson's fixed purpose was to oppose all activities of 
Rogers, and to circumscribe his authority to the 
greatest extent within his power. 

We are not here interested more than is necessary 
in the quarrels between Johnson and Rogers. I doubt 
not that whatever action, even for good, that Rogers 

228 American Antiquarian Society. - [Oct., 

might have taken in the administration of affairs at 
Michillimackinac, would have been opposed by 
Johnson, and in his letter to General Gage in which 
Johnson stated "that he (Rogers) should be tied up in 
such a manner as shall best prevent him doing mis- 
chief ," forever discounted any kind of effort with 
important initiative by Rogers. 

We must consider, however, all of these matters in 
connection with the " Micliillimackinac Journal," be- 
cause this Journal records the transactions of Rogers 
which led to charges by Johnson of dishonesty, never 
completely confirmed, and of treason after matters 
had reached such a stage that Rogers's authority at 
Michillimackinac was completely set aside, and Rogers 
in desperation, with his drafts for purchases of supplies 
and Indian gifts unpaid, associated himself with such 
enterprises that his recall was undoubtedly justified, 
and, as a climax to his Michillimackinac career, he was 
brought in chains to Montreal for trial. It should be 
stated that Rogers was never convicted of treason. 

The conflict between the crafty Irishman, Sir 
William Johnson, and Rogers, ending in the complete 
vindication of the Johnson methods in the conduct of 
Indian affairs of the time, left Rogers with few friends 
and but a remainder of his reputation of 1700, but his 
administration at Michillimackinac, with its extrava- 
gance in seeking Indian trade and friendships, leads 
us to the principal interest and value of this Journal. 
Without Rogers and his extravagance, there would be 
no report of half-civilized and uncivilized life at 
Michillimackinac and vicinity during this period. 
Through him and his methods there were congregated 
at Michillimackinac and held for a period of nearly 
two years the largest number of Indians that history 
records; and we become acquainted through this 
Journal with the deplorable conditions of the Chippe- 
was, Ottawas, and other tribes of the xVlgonquin ex- 
traction, and the fierce competition between the 
French and English for trade with the tribes not only 

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XOJITII 'A'mmkh a 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal ,229 

of this region but even with those tribes roaming 
farther West. 

This Journal will always be a source chapter in 
Northwest history which gives a true picture of 
Indian trade and methods, more vividly given than 
Carver's narratives and showing that in 1767, after 
about one hundred years of French missionary effort 
and French and English trade influences, the Algon- 
quin Indians had resisted the absorption of what had 
been presented to them of good, but they had been apt 
pupils of the French and English traders with their 
European vices. 

Parkman estimated that in the congregation of 
Indian tribes called by Rogers to the vicinity of 
Michillimackinac during the summer of 17G7, the 
number of Indians exceeded 7,000, and there were 
representatives from every far West tribe including 
the Sioux — all brought together that Rogers might im- 
press upon them the importance of English trade and 
friendship, but above all, with the expectation of 
receiving presents, valuable in the eyes of the Indians, 
the most important of which was rum. The picture 
of Indian trading, with cajoling, flattery, threats, 
lying by French and English, distributed throughout 
the Journal, has a value in depicting the early history 
of the Northwest. 

The principal historical value of this Journal has 
been stated, but it is of interest to review conditions 
then existing and consider the Journal from other 
points of view. It might be stated with a fair degree 
of justice that at this time more might have been 
made of Rogers. It might be said, at least from a 
point of view of today, that his plan for meetings year- 
ly of the chiefs of the great tribes of the Northwest at 
Michillimackinac, in the interest of peace between the 
tribes, the adjustment of differences between them, 
and the fostering of trade between the English traders 
and the Indians, was in all respects a plan which would 
lead toward general peace and good trade relations. 

230 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Sir William Johnson advocated such a plan, but he 
seems to have resisted such an effort on the part of 
Rogers, who, it might be stated in justice to Johnson, 
in extravagance and magnitude far exceeded any effort 
in this direction that Johnson ever made. Neverthe- 
less, there is good ground for belief that had there been 
any harmony between Johnson and Rogers, and had 
both continued in the service, a different history might 
be written of the Indians of the Northwest. 

Rogers's plan for setting apart the Michillimackinac 
Post and establishing a combined civil and military 
Government, with the plain inference that he should 
be the head of both, as is quite minutely given in this 
Journal, was never presented to the English Board of 
Trade as far as any record shows, and this is fortunate, 
for it was a selfish motive that led him to propose it 
for himself. His scheme, as proposed to the Board of 
Trade for an appropriation of an immense sum of 
money for the development of trade with the Indians 
of the great Northwest, was a wild one for the condi- 
tions and times, and both his Government and trade 
plans were creations of a disordered brain, devised 
and mostly written in the Journal in his own hand- 
writing, just before the climax of his quarrel with 
Johnson and his removal in chains to Montreal. 

From this time on, what little was left of Rogers's 
reputation went from bad to worse. He could not be 
severely criticised for being a Tory at the outbreak of 
the Revolution, but he must be condemned for his 
attestations of loyalty to the Patriots. We leave him 
in England, in disgrace in America, where without 
particular notice he died in 1796. 

To our knowledge this Journal was the last historical 
writing of any extent written by Rogers, although in a 
postscript to his first Journal published in 1705 he 
states: "It is proposed to continue this Journal in a 
second volume containing an account of my travels, 
etc, " This Michillimackinac Journal he evidently in- 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal - 231 

tended to publish, and doubtless it was written to 
follow his Journal of 17G5. 

One cannot investigate Rogers's life without a con- 
cluding feeling of pity, that such abilities, for he had 
abilities, and such weakness should be combined in 
one man. We feel that the mistrust from the begin- 
ning, and the predetermined thwarting of all Rogers's 
plans by Johnson and Gage, when he was assigned to 
Michillimackinac, notwithstanding their distrust, were 
not justified and probably completed the ruins of a 
weak moral character, which under different treatment 
might have been strengthened, in which event he 
would have fulfilled services to his Government equal 
to those performed during the early part of his life. 


A Journal of Major Robert Roger's proceedings with the 
Indians in y e district of Michillimackinac Commencing the 
21 st of Septt 1766 & ending Feb. l Bt 1767 and Continued from 
thence till the 23 d May— from the 29 May till July the 3 d . 

The Ottawas having repeatedly requested from the first of 
my arrival at this place, to pay them a visit at their Village at 
Abacroch, 4 having given Belts to press my going — The 21 st 
of Septemb in the morning I set out & at two of Clock in the 
afternoon arriv'd at their Village, having left the Command of 
the Garrison with Cap tn Lieut. Spicemaker 5 till my return. 
The Savages of that Village being all assembled immediately 
on my arrival made the following speech. Viz 

3 The capitalization, spelling, abbreviations, repetitious, insertions, and incorrect 
sentences are all reproduced here as in the Journal. It is to be noted that in the latter 
part of this Journal omissions of parts of sentences are frequent and figures of cost have 
not been inserted. Rogers's writing at this time was frequently interrupted. 

The first part of the Journal was in all probability written by his old Secretary, Potter, 
the middle and latter part by Rogers himself. 

4 The village of Abacroch or La Arbor Croche was located on the East Coast of Lake 
Michigan, midway between Little Traverse Bay and the Straits of Mackinac. It was the 
largest settlement of the Ottawas. It occupied the site of the present Cross Village. 

* F. C. Spiesmacher was Cap't 2nd, 2nd Batt'n GOth Reg. and was always a firm friend, 
during all his troubles, of Rogers. Potter, Rogers's Secretary, frequently misspells his 
name as he does many other words, it must be noted. 

232 American Antiquarian n :y., [Oct.. 


We The Chiefs of the Ottawa* in the presence of our 
young Warriors now acquaint you, that we shall be stii. 
a ever continue as fast freinds to the English, but have heard 
a are certain that there is bad bird- : ing from the West side 
of the Missisipi to this part of the World, a some of them are 
alreadj' from the Potowatomafl St. Joseph. This Man 
present pointing to an Indian has seen nine E i inches 
pum sent to that place by Monsieur de Ange 5 , or the officier 
that commands the uppermost Post on the West side of the 
Missisipi, which strings of Wampum imports that two thou- 
sand French have arrived at the mouth of that River, a in the 

Spring are to come th. >s - they take the English 

Fort at the Illinois, a reduce Michiilimaekinae a then to pro- 
ceed to Detroit, from thence down to Niagara, till they meet 

a large Army, that th I is to land at New York 

reduce the Country, this the French our old Fat- ra - - 
they can do with grea: a the English people are divided 

in America, a more than one half of them will join the French. 
This Father we had a desire to tell this 10 you at oui 
Village, where there are not any French that car. . s peak, 

A for that reason, we desired you to come ... fc bring an 

English Interpreter with you. which we sec e done, a 

we now, desire you to tell in the Truth, whether there is audi 
an Army coming or not, a to acquaint S r . William Johnson and 

the General of what we have a - you have lately 

from the other side the great Lake and tell us you receive your 
orders from S r . William Johnson of every thing that may con- 
cern us a at Michiilimackinac, the other day \ou told m 
from yon we might expect to hear the truth. Kpw tell us the 
truth that we may know it early, if it is as i. the 

Ottawas to one Man; will Join against the French, a are all 
ready to go when ever we are called to keep back that Party 
if its coming. 

Major Roger's Answer with giving two Ratteen Coats 
two shirts to the Two Principal Chiefs, a 
Rum to the whole Village. Brothers You greatly asi 

our Speech, is it possible that such romantick foolish 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 233 

stories as those can enter into the Brain of an Ottawa, & give 
credit to it! Whose studiness have been so long known & 
whom I have lately recommended for it to S r . William Johnson 

Giving A Belt 

I tell you now, that the French have not one inch of 
Ground on the West side of the Misisipi, for they have some 
some time ago chang'd thier Lands that they had at that 
Place, with the Spaniards, which is a set of people, that you 
well know are mortal Enemies to Indians in general. Look 
Back? have not your Fathers told you & have you not heard, 
from your Old men, what those people did to your Country- 
men when they first came to America, to those of you who 
liv'd towards the hottest part of the day, & the coolest Climate 
of the Evening; their Gold & Silver they pour'd when melted 
like water, by hot fire down thier Throats; think of this deceit, 
you cannot sure believe, afterwards, what such people will say 
to you, for the stories you have told of are all false. Send some 
of your young men to Misisipi, this Winter & you'l find what 
I say is Truth; there can be no Troops landed in America 
amongst our settlements, Our ships are much superior to the 
French & Spaniards shou'd they both join together & on the 
other hand all the English in America and The french in 
Canada are subjects to the Great King of England Your 

Delivered another Belt to the Chiefs 

This Belt is to desire you, when on Your Winters hunt 
to find out those nine Strings of Wampum you mentioned, & 
bring them to me in the Spring, that I may acquaint S r . Willia- 
liam Johnson who will let the great King of England your 
Father, know all your Proceedings 

A String of Wampum 

Be strong & wise behave like men & dont fall like a foolish 
Child into the fire, I now bid Adieu to you, till I shall see you 
in the Spring at Michillimackinac, by that time you will be 
convinced from your Young Men, that you are to send to the 
Misisipi, that there's no such thing as your French Fathers, 
ever coming up the Misisipi with Troops while Water runs in 
that River. 

234 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The same evening I arrived at Michillimackinac, from thier 
Village at ten O'Clock. 

Sept r . the 26 th . 

This day assembled a party of the Ctiippawas under the 
great Chief of the Island, The Grand Sable 

Made the following speech. 
Father we are all glad & Rejoice at the fire of friendship, that 
was kindled here some Years ago by the English and Bright- 
en'd, the other day at this place, when we met you last. We 
all tell you, that we are desirous, that the Chain of Friendship 
may kept bright between us, & the English, but there is bad 
birds flying about, & one of them has left this Belt in our Vil- 
lage, Showing a Belt, came from the Indians to the West side 
of Lake Michigan to us last fall, to be ready to strike; the 
English, when they call'd on us & we have had ever since But 
not finding that the English are men that speak that speak the 
truth. We believe that others have told lies, We give this 
belt up & beg that you will acquaint our Father S r . William 
Johnson of what we have done & that though we were foolish 
some time ago; we have now come to our Senses, hope the 
great Master of Sight, will keep our hearts, & the hearts of our 
young Men in good Humour, with our Fathers the English 

A Small String of Wampum 

Father We are told by the Indians, from the Westward 
that the French are coming next Spring from the Misisipi to 
take this Fort, some of our Young Men is gone to see if it be 
truth, but you no doubt can tell us the the truth of this: This 
is all we have to say, only beg that we may not be despised, 
while other Nations are carressd And we are poor & beg 

Major Roger's Answer 

My Brothers. By giving up this bad Belt amongst you, 
may be some means of recommending you, to your Great 
Father the King op England & S r . William Johnson the 
General, for the great injuries you did him, when you cut of 
this Fort & Murderd the Kings Subjects, without any reason 
or provocation; nothing but a steady behavoir from you, with 
fast Attachments to the English; will now recommend you, 
so that That blot will be clean wip'd away; You have been 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 235 

fools, but now if you turn out wise men, so that I can recom- 
mend you, for Your good Behavior, no dobt but you'l be again 
look on with an Eye of Pity & Compassion by, Your great 
Father the King of England and S r . William Johnson, I will 
acquaint him of your Behavoir as early as I can in the spring 
and your happiness depends entirely on your future Conduct. 

As to what you have heard of French Fathers coming up 
the Misissipe, is only contrived to make you guidy headed, by 
some French Villians, which always told you lies, I wonder you 
have not more sense, than to believe a peple that has always 
deceiv'd you: the French had, three or four Years ago; some 
lands at the West side the Misissipi, but it was chang'd away 
by your Old Fathers to a people calPd the Spaniards employed 
some of them in their service, knowing that they understood 
the Indian language, & were fit Instrumets to make You always 
uneasey & it's from that these very Officers, that you have all 
those stories told you. The Spaniards are the people, that 
murdied so many Indians to the South West, of where you live, 
& now they want to desire you, & get you in thier Power All 
this youl find to be true, when your Young men returns that 
are gone to the Misissipe 

A String of Wampum 

Behave like men & return in the Spring to this Place, & 
let me hear all that passes. Nothing can recommend you more 
than to make your Reports to me. 

That I may have it in power to recommend you, if you 
behave well. 

Wound up the discourse, & giving three Ratteens Coats, 
three Callimance Gowns, four Shirts, six pounds of Powder, 
twenty pounds of Shott, & Ball, twenty four pounds of Tob- 
bacco, & sixteen gallons of Rum, immediately this Party went 
off, satisfied, to their hunting Ground. 

At Michillimackinac the 10 th . of October 1766 

At ten ° in the morning Arrived one of Minchewabas & 
fourteen Chiefs of the Ottawas, Assembled with above one 
hundred Men from the Grand River, mad the Following 
Speech. Viz: 

Giving a Beaver Blanket, Father. This is given you to 
set upon, without fear; And we are all of one mind & that 

236 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

nothing 'suffer'd to enter our Hearts to disturb your ease, while 
you stay at this Post. 

Major Rogers's Answer, Brothers, I thank you for this 
Visit, and for the Bed you have given me, to set easy upon, I 
shall preserve it, & keep it, as witness to what You have said 
to me, Giving a Belt, Your Great Father he has sent me 

Giving a Belt. Your Great Father, has sent me to Com- 
mand, this Fort and from Sir Will m Johnson; I recieve all my 
Orders, & beg that you would behave like men & not mind idle 
stories, & while you continue, to be wise, You Avill always be 
esteem'd, &, protected by the English, & I always will communi- 
cate, every thing to You, that I know of, that may concern 
You. And expect, that you will let me hear, every thing, that 
passes amongst you. that it may be communicated to him as 
soon as possible. I desire You to consider, & think, what news 
you have to tell in the afternoon, & then come & let me, know 

At two OClock in the afternoon, The Indians & Chiefs 
above mention'd assemble' d & Spoke as follows: Viz 

Father. We are now tell You, what news we have heard, 
Open your Ear, & hear it. 

There is nine Strings of Wampum from the west side of 
the Misissipe that are sent by our Old Fathers, the French, & 
tell us the following news, Viz 

Answer. Brothers. Keep to your words, & the trust 
that I at present, immagine you to be sincere : And you will be 
a Happy people, As the French King, has at last, waked out 
of his deep sleep, with Eyes sparking, like a Tygar, & has taken 
a Resolution, to tread the English, under his feet, & for that 
purpose, has sent a large Fleet, to Quebec, & that two thousand 
Men have alreay landed, at the mouth of the Misissipe: And 
early in the Spring, will take the English Fort, at the Illinois 
And from thence are coming with Cannon, to take Michil- 
limackinac, they have Desire'd us, to be ready & assist them. 

This Father is what have heard, & we are now going to our 
hunting for the Winter, & in the Spring we shall return. We 
have heard what you have told us today, & shall remember it, 
& will take the Advise Our Father & S r . William Johnson; 
but we are poor & hope you will take pity on us. we are in 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 237 

great want of Powder & Shott, & have nothing to Cover us, 
from the Cold, have pity on us & open Your Heart, for we 
are happy to warm ourselves at your fire. This day all Our 
Warriors rejoices, as well as Women & Children to find fair 
weather; & beg Charity 

We leave you tomorrow morning, & desire that anything 
you have to say may immediately finish'd. 

Major Rogers's Answer, with the following Presents — 
Eight stroud Blankets, eight pair of Leggins, eight breech 
Clouts, twelve ratteen Coats, twelve Callimanco Gowns, four- 
teen Shirts, sixty Pounds of Powder, one hundred and fifty 
pounds of Shott, four hundred Gun flints, seventy eight 
pounds of Tobacco, three pounds of Vermillion, twenty-four 
Gallons of Rum, & fourteen lac'd Hats. 

Brothers, There is a present for you, mention'g the 
Articles. The Powder will be sufficient for your present Use, 
& as there is a number of traders, gone out to winter before I 
arrivd at this post, you cannot miss of having plenty of sup- 
plies, during the Winter, those people you must use like 
Brothers, & not let them home in the Spring, with tears in 
thier Eyes, if any of them use You ill, report them to me in 
the Spring, & any wrong done You, shall be Redress't. 

When I think of what you say about your Old Fathers, I 
cannot help laughing; & am sorry at the same time to see you. 
foolish, as to mind any such lies as passing among the French, 
for they have not any Land at all on the West side of the 
Misissipe, what they formerly had, they have chang'd away to 
the Spaniards And the Spaniards have sent a Gov. there. 
The people do still remain, but they are by no means the 
Subjects of Your Old Father, the French King. 

Send some of your young men, this Winter, to the Illinois 
& when you return, You will Then know from them, that I 
have told You the truth; & at this Place, you may always 
expect to hear it : Take up them Strings of Wampum if possible, 
you can this Winter and let me have them in the Spring, that 
I may report them to S r . William Johnson. And anything 
that may concern You, will always be communicated to you, 
by S r . William Johnson, that may be necessary for you to 

238 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

know & you may depend on hearing the truth But your Old 
French Fathers you are not to mind for the future. 
& doth not own one foot of Land on this Continent, they can- 
not land Troops at Quebec as our ships are many more than 
theirs & we could burn & take all thier ships at sea, were they 
to be such fools to think of sending Troops in them to America 
I am well assur'd they never Attempt. 

October the 15 th . 76. The Speech of two Chiefs of the 
Chippawas assembled at Michillimackinac and eighty men 
all bound to the Bay, their Wintering place. 

Father. We are come this day to smoke a pipe with you & 
give you hands, listen & hear us 

Giving a string of Wampum, This String is to bind our 
hands to Yours, so fast, that nothing can untiey them. 

We are poor people, but our hearts are sincere & no guile in 
them, we beg Charity & hope you will give us something to 
Cover our Women & Children & as it is first time that we ever 
see you, beg that you will give us a little Milk, to drink for 
we are both hungry & Poor, & have not any Powder or Shott, 
we hope you will have pity on us & give Charity, eight of our 
Young people have lately died, & we hope you will give us 
something to wipe away our Tears from our Eyes, we also beg 
for Charity. 

Major Rogers's Answer attending it with the following 
Speech Viz. Presents, eight blankets of strouds, six Coats, 
twelve Shirts, ten Pounds of Gunpowder, twenty pounds of 
Ball, one pound of Vermillion, five Gallons of Rum & And two 
laced Hatts. 

Major Rogers's Answer attending with the before men- 
tiond Presents. Brothers I have hear'd what you have said, 
& am glad that your Hearts are right, & hope you will keep 
them so & your Father S r . William Johnson from whom 1 
receive all my orders concerning you, has desir'd me to tell 
you to behave like men & assures you, he wishes you all well 
& hopes that you'l be strong, & not mind idle stories, or bad 
Birds, that may at any time pass your Village, or at your 
Winter hunting places, & While you behave well, S r . William 
Johnson will communicate anything to you that may Concern 
You, & at this place you may be assur'd, that the truth will 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 239 

always be told you there is something for you, pointing to the 
Presents. There is something for you, to bury your dead & 
wipe away the tears, & some powder & shott, to assist you till 
you reach your hunting Ground, when you will find traders 
plenty, that were gone there, before my Arrival, from whom 
you'l purchase anything you may have Occassion for, with 
your Skins, I desire & so doth 3'our father S r . William Johnson 
that you will not send the traders away with tears in their 
Eyes, but use them well in every respect, if any of them are 
foolish & use you ill let me know of it in the Spring, you may be 
very certain that I will see your grieviances lledresst. 

Their Answer we thank you for the Charity you have shown 
us and are greatly oblig'd to you, for covering the dead bodies 
of our relations, we will mind everything that you. have told 
us, & lay it up in our Hearts. No traders that are gone away 
before you came Amongst us, shall meet with any hurt from 
us, but we cannot be answerable only for ourselves, We will 
return in the Spring & all bad birds that pases us you shall 
know in the Spring, so fare well. 

Octob 1 ". 25 th Afternoon the Ottawas of the Islands of 
Beaver in Lake Michigan assembled at Michillimackinac & 
bound to thier hunting at Green Bay made the following 
speech, Viz Father We are now come to let you know 

we are going to our hunting Grounds, & every thing is quiet 
amongst us, & beg Charity, we have niether Powder or Shott, 
& beg that you wou'd have Compassion on us 

Major Rogers's Answer 

Brothers I am sorry that I have heard You Ottawa's 
of the Island are not a good sett of people it was own Nation 
that acquainted me of your ill intentions to take the Goods 
from the traders at the expence of every Indian on the Islands. 
Your own nation & the Chippiwas both will join me, in it, I am 
a Man that come out of the middle of the Ground, & if you do 
the least hurt either to french or English, that is gone from this 
Fort, before I came to it, with their goods, the first sight you 
shall have of me, will be surrounding your Cabbins with a 
Bloody Hatchet, & all the Indians in this part of Country at 
my side. 

240 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Indians hung their heads for some time, & at last, made 

the following speech Viz. 

Father we acknowledge that we had an intention to take 
some of the traders goods this winter, without leave, & it is 
the french that lives in this fort that told ns to do it, we are 
sorry that ever such thoughts shoud ever enter our hearts, & 
hopes you will forgive us, as we have not done anything to 
them, nether will we hurt them, the french told us that they 
ran away & it was no harm to take their goods, more fools to 
mind them, & are glad that you spoke to us & put wisdom in 
our heads, we were fools and beg you will forgive us. 

Major Rogers's Reply who are the frenchmen, that told 
you to take the Traders goods. 

Ottawa's Answer, some that are here and others that have 
gone to La Bay with thier families, who said they would help 
us to take away their goods &. that they should have part of it, 
we beg you will forgive us as it is not our faults 

We are very poor & have neither Powder or Ball to carry us 
to our hunting Ground, forgive us, & have pity on us, that we 
may live & be happy & we will always do as you desire us for 
the future, take Compassion us 

Major Rogers's Answ'er 

You scarcely deserve the least Pity, but as you have so 
solemnly promised to behave better for the future, if you will 
bring me in those frenchmen to this Fort in the Spring that 
told you to plunder the Boats that went from here, unhurt 
with out taking anything from them to this Place: I then will 
think of your miserable Situation, which your own folly has 
brought upon yourselves. 

Ottawas of the Islands Speech Viz The men you mention, 
shall be brought to you in the spring unhurt, & not any of thier 
goods, shall be taken from them, we are ashamed to speak 
to you, for we have been fools, but we'll do better for the future 
& take your advice at all times, beg you'l forgive us & have 
Charity, for we are poor & have no Powder or Shott 
Major Rogers's Answer Viz 

I will trust you for this time only, but remember what I now 
tell you, if ever you do any mischief for the future, it will be 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal - 241 

hard terms for you, I will write to S r . William Johnson about 

it may be : that he will forgive you you but that depends en- 
tirely on your future Conduct, he has order'd me to tell you 
that all the Indians he wishes well. And desires them to be 
wise & not to listen to foolish stories. Whiles' t you continue 
to do that he will always Esteem & desire peace all over the 
world. I give you here a little Powder & Ball, though hardly 
deserve anything at all but as you'd promised to be for the 
future & bring the french to me. I give you eight Blankets of 
Stouds, two shirts, nineteen pounds of Gun Powder thirty- 
eight pounds of Ball, one pound of Vermillion, eight Gallons 
of rum & one Laced Hatt. 

Ottawas Went of directly with expressing one further that 
thier Intentions were good & that their future Conduct shoud 
be better. 

November the 5 : 1766 Two Chiefs of St. Marys with thirty 
of thier men calld at this post on thier way to their wintering 
Place & spoke as follows Viz 

Father We have come to see you this day to tell you that 
we ree'd your speech by Cadetts & thank you & S r . William 
Johnson for your good Advice, we will behave like men for 
we have not any sick people amongst us, neither do we mind 
bad birds, we are English in our hearts & have call'd to see 
You this day to give you our hands & beg Charity we are poor 
& going to our hunting 

Major Rogers's Answer Viz with following Presents 
Eight blankets of strouds, one pair of Leggins, one coat, one 
Gown, one breech Clout one Callimanco Gown, six shirts, six 
pounds of Gun powder, twelve pounds of Shott, one pound of 
Vermillion, six Gallons of Rum & one Lac'd Hatt. 

Brothers I am glad to hear that everything is clear & 
smooth mind & Keep it so & you will always be happy: I wish 
you a happy winter & shall acquaint S r . William Johnson of 
your good Intentions, So farewell. 

Novemb': the 10 th . 1766 A Chief of the Misisagas arriv'd 
at Michillimackinac with twenty Indians who reported his 
Expedition as follows Viz. 

242 American Antiquarian Society: [Oct., 

Father We are just return'd from an expedition against the 
Sioux, we set out last Summer with the Party you now see 
here, & pass'd S*. Marys, from thence to Point Chigemegan, 
we then went to the West end of Lake Superior, where we left 
our Canoes & travelled Westward till we cross'd the Misisipi 
from thence towards the Sunsetting, till at last we heard a 
Gun, which we immagin'd to be the Sioux, which we intended 
to attack, vye sent out spies in the Evening & found that they 
were a large Body & much superior to us & for fear we should be 
discovered before morning we retreated that night, & made all 
the haste we possibly cou'd, till we came to the west end of 
Lake Superior where we embarked in our Cannoes & returned 
to this Place & we are now bound to our hunting Ground for 
the Winter & have Call'd to see you & hope you will have Pity 
on us, for we are greatly fatigued 

Major Rogers's Answer 

Giving The following Presents Viz. Eight blankets of 
stroud, two pair of Leggins, two Coats, one Gown for the Wife 
of the Chief, two shirts, one pound of Vermillion, six Gallons 
of Rum to the whole Party & one lac'd Hatt to the Chief. 

Brothers this present I give although, you have done wrong 
& acted like fools by fighting against your Brothers the Seoux 
A Belt of three hundred Wampum. 

By this belt I now tell you, that I am sent to this Place by 
your Great Father the King of England & S r . William John- 
son & have orders from him to tell You, that he has a genneral 
Esteem for you all, desires that you would behave like men and 
be wise & that while you do that you may be certainly be as- 
sur'd of His friendship. 

Look at the Belt, when you strike the Seoux you strike the 
English also, for have given them our hands & they trade with 
us, therefore for the future, You must never go to war against 
those people without letting S r . William Johnson know your 
designs & he will always tell you if he approves of it, or if you 
tell me, as I am order'd to make all reports to him, I shall 
write to him on the subject, when I get his Answer you shall 
be inform'd of his Sentiments. 

1918.] Rogers 7 s Michillimackinac Journal . 243 

Go to your hunting ground & in the spring, I woud recom- 
mend it to you, to go to your Village & plant your Corn, for 
the next & it is the desire of the great King & S r . W 

Johnson that all the world of Indians shou'd live in peace with 
with the English. I cannot but think you are men of more 
sense than think for the future of any attempt of Hostilities, 
against the Seox, as they are brothers to us & by this Belt I 
stop the road 

AnsW. We will observe it, & thank you for your advice, 
for the future we will not go to War without leave & will be 
always ready when you order us, or when we receive orders 
from S r . W m . Johnson, we thank you for your present, &, are 
joyfull that you have taken Pity on us, Adieu. 

Decemb: The 12: A Misissaga Chief arriv'd from La 
Baye & reported as follows Viz 

Last fall I went to the Misissipe & was at the English fort 
at the Illinois but did not arrive till after Mr Croghan, that 
speaks truth to the Indians had gone to Philidephia, but I 
heard many Lies & am sorry for it, the French told me that I 
shou'd have a flag from them, but I got none, I was angry & 
went up the Misissipe in a Cannoe, & a few days after Lewis 
Constant, in a another Cannoe followed me & landed there 
& the people in the Cannoe told me that two thousang french 
had arriv'd at New Orleans & in the spring was to cut of that 
Fort, there, which belongs to the English & early next Spring 
woud attack Michillimackinac with Cannon. 

Major Rogers's Answer Viz. 

Brothers You do very well to tell me what news you have 
heard, for they have chang'd away their Land they had to to 
the Spaniards, & have not any Ground, on the West side of 
Misissipi. You tell me the news I suppose with a design to 
Get some rum. I give you this charge at the same time, & 
tell you I think it a bad way to get drink; by telling french 
stories for I know that what they have told you is Lies 

Giving him & his Party a pair of Leggins, a breech Clout, 
one Coat, two linnen Shirts, three Gallons of rum, & a lacd 

Desiring him to go to his winter hunting & to behave like 
men & never think of listening stories for the future. 

244 American Antiquarian Society. ■ [Oct., 

January the 22 d . 1767. A poor Savage of the Ottawaa 
came from the Mission being left behind sick with a token from 
the Otawa Chiefs of the Village at abacroach begging assis- 

Gave him the following Articles Viz. 

Two shirts, two pounds of Powder, six pounds of Shott, & 
one gallon of Rum, to carry to his Family. 

Proceeding of Major Roger's with the Indians from the 
2 d of Feby to y e 23 d of May 1767. 

The 11 th . of March 76 Sent by M r . Henry a flag for the 
Indians Village at S*. Marys, he deliver'd me a french flag that 
had been in thier possession ever since the french had posses'd 
this Country. 

22 d . of March, Deliver'd to the Chief of S*. Mary's & a party 
of his men that came with fresh provisions for the use of the 
Troops — two pounds of Gun powder, six pounds of Shott, 
two pounds of Tobbacco & two Gallons of rum 

This Chief brought no news, but came intentionally to to 
sever the Garrission, he enquir'd very strictly what had pass'd, 
in the winter, with the Ottawa's, & what news came from S r . 
William Johnson since Cadot 7 had left this Garrission, that he 
had Recc'd the message that was sent by him, & that himself 
& all his young men wou'd observe what had been told them 

Answer. I told them that every thing was Quiet down the 
Country, that I had no news from the Ottawas, & that I did 
not expect to hear from them till the Lake was was open that 
might come in thier Cannoes, but when he returned the next 
Spring, I did not doubt that I sbou'd have news to tell him & 
recommended it to him & his Party to behave well, & that 
every thing which might concern them they shou'd know the 

next time they came. Next morning this Indian and his 

Party left the Garrission. 

March 23 d The double look'd Indian came from the grand 
river, with some fresh provisions on a slay, which was sent for 
the Troops in the Garrisson, he said he but little news and that 
the Chiefs to whom he belong'd had not sent my young men 

T Cadot was a French Canadian and trader. Ho had erected for himself a fort upon 
land owned by him near Sault Ste. Marie. He was not disturbed nftcr the English occu- 
pation of Fort Michillimackinac. 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 245 

from thier hunting during the winter, but at the time they left 
the Fort last fall they had detatch'd four of thier young War- 
riors to the Illinois to hear the News that was going there. 
Gave him three gallons of Rum & the next morning, he set out 
on his return to the Great Chief at the Grand Sable Island 
the Party which he belong'd to. 

March 30 th Comisiiimegan a Chief of the Chippewas 
came from Cheboigan and one In a dean with his wife and son 
from Thunder Bay, and brought a Quantity of fresh meat for 
the use of the Garrisson, but no news as they had not seen any 
Indians during the winter 

Gave them two pound of Tobbacco & three Gallons of rum. 
Next morning they set out for thier hunting houses telling me 
they woud soon return with more meat. 

March 30 th In the evening Arriv'd a Chief of the Misis- 
sagas from Thunder Bay with fresh meat for the Garrisson & 
next deliver'd a slay load of Moose & Elk, Gave him one bed 
gown two shirts, two pounds of Powder & two Gallons of Hum 
the second day of April he went away. 

April 6 th An Indian with friendship came from Comish- 
isemagan at Chebeoigan with news that his Chief & two others 
was very sick & not able to hunt & beg'd for a little Rum to 
cure them, & as they were all to come on very soon, he beg'd 
for a little vermillion to paint themselves & has they had 
brought in a great deal of fresh meat during the spring, hoped 
that they might not be denied, & that they had some news, but 
thier Chiefs desir'd Them not to tell it till they came them- 

Gave them one pound of Gun Powder three pound of Shott, 
one pound of Vermillion, two pound of Tobbacco, & two 
Gallons of Rum; this Indian return'd the same day. 

April 13 th . Sent M". Cardin a frenchwoman to Abacroach 
to find out what the Indians were about, as I hear'd that a 
number of them, had assembled & it had been represented to 
me that there bad intentions amongst them. I gave her three 
gallons of rum to talk privately with them, & find out thier 
designs - 

M ra . Cardin return'd a few days afterwards, & inform'd me 
that the Indians was not ill dispos'd against the English, but 

246 American Antiquarian Society. , [Oct., 

had an intention of going to war against the Seaux, & that by 
arguing them persuaded them from it, till thier Chiefs arriv'd 
& shoud speak to thier Father concerning the meaning of thier 

The same day Comishimegan arrived, with his party & a 
string of wampum from his Brother Petowiskcom another 
Chief of the Chippiwas, and inform'd me that La Force or 
Sasowaket, had taken a belt sent him by the French, from the 
other side the Misissipe by Mon r . S*. Onge, & they were de- 
sir'd to hold themselves in readiness to strike the English, as 
soon as thier old Father the French shoud give them notice, 
to declare a War, & denied, that he knew if there was any 
likelihood of a War between the french & English I Gave 
them this Answer, their is no such thing at present as any War 
between the french & English & I have often told you that the 
french cou'd not get into North America, as they had given all 
thier Lands in Canada to the English & the french where now 
the Subjects of the Great King of England, & that land which 
they posses'd on the west side of the Misissipi, was Chang'd 
away with the Spaniards for an Island a great distance from 
this Country : If any bad belts was sent as you have inform'd 
me, they must have been given by some Renegade Frenchman, 
who have no right to speak to Indians about publick affairs, & 
if the Ottawas has taken belts I am certain it with nu other 
view, than to give them to me as soon as they arrive here, as 
they themselves will laugh at such folly for they know better 
than to believe such idle reports. 

Gave them the following present, part being for Petowisham 
One linnen shirt, two pounds of gun Powder, four pounds of 
Shott, two pounds of Tobbacco, two gallons & a half of Rum. 
Desiring them to go back to thier hunting at Chebiogan & 
make themselves easy till the Ottawa's arriv'd, when they 
shoud hear more about the belt which they were told off, & 
that I should let them know every thing that Passd between 
me & the Chippiwas concerning it. 

In the morning these Indians went away well satisfied, that 
the french woud not bring troops to this Country. 

In the evening Michecoweek a Misissaga Indian Chief, & 
his party arrivd at this Fort without any news or provisions 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 247 

his main purpose was to beg, & stayd till the 27 th .; during 
which time I gave him & his party two pounds of tobbacco & 
two gallons of rum. Michecoweek on his return from 
Michillimackinac met Kecowaskin & came back with him next 
day. Kecowaskin brought about thirty Indians with him 
they all stay'd here till the l 3t of May, From him I had the 
following Speech Viz 

Listen & hear what I am going to say. 

I have had a melancholly winter, one of my sons is dead & 
all my Family are in tears for his loss, I hope you will give me 
something to wipe away the tears from eyes & something to 
bury the dead, Shewing his Cartiscock, or Commission, that 
he had for his firm Attatchment to the English & said when 
that was shewn he was always to have what ever he ask'd for 

Gave him a stroud Blanket & one linnen Shirt to bury his 
Son & between the time of his Arrival & the fourth of May, 
Eleven gallons of rum, & when they were going away one 
pound of Paint, by which I got rid of this beggarly tribe 

May the 5 th An Indian left sick at the Mission arrivd, poor 
hungry, & Naked, I gave him gave him one half gallon of Rum, 
one pound of tobbacco, with some victuals 

The 8 th A Band of Chippiwas, arrivd from hunting thirty 
in number, gave them half a Pound of paint & one gallon & a 
half of rum, on which they went to thier Village on the Island 
of Michillimackinac to wait the Arrival of thier Chiefs & the 
remainder of thier Village, the Indians differed mentioning 
news till thier Chiefs arrivd. 

8 lh to y e 11 th . M ra Garden & M* Seely were employ'd as 
spies on a party of Indians at Sheboigan, who were assembled 
there, about a hundred in number & as I was informd with no 
good intent. These people return'd on the 11 th with an 
Account that these Indians had no bad intentions against the 
English, but were going to war against the Soux, & they had 
stopp'd there till all thier Chiefs shoud come in & Acquaint 
me of thier Intentions, for provisions & thier expences, I paid 
them twelve pounds eighteen shillings. 

May 13 th Sasawaket or La force the Chief of the Ottawas 
at Abercroach, sent three of his young men to let me know that 
he was arrivd at his Village, & that he had a medal & bill from 

248 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct,. 

S r . William Johnson as a token, for a four gallon Keg of rum 
& some tobbaeco,'that he might taste a little of his fathers 
Milk to clear the brains of his young Warriors, with that, 
& the smoke of some tobbacco so that thier hearts & Actions 
might be just & right. 

I gave the Messenger four gallons & five pounds of tobbacco. 

15 th The Chief of Lacloch rcturn'd with his band from his 
winter's hunting on his wa} r to his Village and Spoke as follows 
Viz Father we have call'd to see you on our way to our Village 
& to let you know what has pass'd during the winter on the 
side of the Puans Bay 

The foxes & fallivines are gone to war with the Illinois 
Indians, & are joind by some of the Puans, they were to set 
out about the time we came from thence we hear that the 
Chippiwas at Point Chigomegan & some of the Christinos, & 
Ashinoboins have joined in a body to go to war against the 
Soux This is all the news we have worth your notice We 
have calld to day to tell you what we have heard, & hope as we 
are just passing, you, that you will have Charity & five us a 
little milk to drink & some Tobbacco : 

I thank'd the Indians for thier intelligence & ask'd some 
other Questions, about the traders They told me that were 
all well & safe on that side of the Country. 1 gave them one 
gallon of Rum, & three Pounds of Tobbacco, on which the 
Party went of to thier Village well satisfied. 

A Band of the island Chippiwas arrivd at this Place with one 
of thier Chiefs but gave no intelligence, as thier whole Village 
had not come in, I gave them on gallon of Rum, four Pounds 
of Tobbacco, five pounds of Powder & four pounds of Shott to 
kill me some Geese & Ducks, which they promised to bring me. 

May 10 th Sosawaket. or Laforce arrivd at this Fort with 
about two hundred of the Ottawa's and spoke as follows Viz 

Father I am at length got back after having a difficult 
winters hunting. I have brought those strings of Wampum 
you spoke to me about last fall here is five of them delivering 
the strings to you. These strings of Wampum came from the 
West side of the Misissipe, inviting all the Indians to go there 
with thier furs & Peltry to trade with thier old fathers, they 
likewise desir'd as not to strike the English at present nor hurt 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 249 

any whatever of the traders, but to be ready when calld upon. 

These are all I coud get of these strings, the other four are 
gone to La Bay. I have sent Shawanes to find them & bring 
them to you, but we are all dry, & all my young men are 
thirsty & as you saluted us with Cannon when we Arriv'd, we 
expect now to be saluted with the Bottle On which I gave 
them a dram a piece 

Sosawaket or La force I have not much news to tell you, 
all is that the Chippiwas & Crees are gone to War against the 
Seoux from the west End & north side of Lake Superior, & 
the Foxes & Malomones & Puans are gone to War with the 
Uinois, the Potowatamies, are at difference among themselves, 
two Villages of them have done one another some mischief, 
four men have been killd, this is all the news I have the 
Ottawa's that we sent to the Illinois last fall are not yet re- 
turn'd, when they come in you shall have all the news that we 
receive by them. We will always take the advice of the 
English & observe what you have told us last fall. You see 
that the traders that was with us are all return'd safe there has 
not been one of them wrong'd, & every man of them has had 
plenty of meat to live on, all winter they were not hungry 
while in our Country they have had all thier Credit paid ask 
them, we have brought them in with on purpose to tell you 
this before your face 

The Traders which winter'd with the Ottawa's confirmed 
what they said We are now come to see you & desire that you 
will not disapoint us, we are very dry for some of your milk, 
two large Barrels is not more than sufficient to give us a taste, 
therefore, we all ask that, & as we have always behaved well, 
we hope that you will not refuse us. Some of our people are 
dead & we desire something to cover them that we may return 
to Village & not weep for we are not come this time to stay with 
you, but shall go back this very day. Therefore what we ask 
for we desire to have Immediately that we may return. When 
we see S r . W m . Johnson last & settled Peace with him at 
Niagara he told us that when we shew this great belt we never 
refus'd anything we demanded by that that token for reason, 
& as what we have asked for at present, is but little, therefore 
we hope you will not deney us of it: this is all we have to say. 


250 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Answer I will give you something to cover the Bodies of 
your dead & you have behav'd well in taking & bringing in to 
me those strings of Wampum. You shall also have a little 
rum to drink after you have done Crying for your deceasd 
Relations, but I have not so much as you ask for therefore you 
must be contented Contented with life Gave them four 
stroud Blankets, three pair of Leggins, two breech Clouts, one 
Coat, four shirts, & Eleven pounds of Tobbacco, this cloathing 
is to cover your dead, & the Tobbacco to smoke over them & 
here is one pound of Vermillion & twenty nine gallons of Rum 
that you may take with you, this is to wipe away your tears & 
dress your faces, & make you joyfull & glad: when your mourn- 
is finish'd I will write to S r . W m . Johnson, who will acquaint 
the Great King of England your father, on the other side of 
the Great Lake of your good behaviour, it gives me pleasure 
that I can write to S r . William that you behaved well to the 
traders And have paid them those Credits 

The Ottawas Answer Viz 

We thank you Father, we thank S r . W m . Johnson we thank 
the Good & the Great King of England for having taking 
notice of us, we are always ready to assist the English when 
ever they call on us we are now going to our Village & shall 
wait there till our young men Return from the Illinois which 
we expect in a few days, when we will return & tell you any 
thing father, that we may know, & hopes you will consider our 
Old men & Women & our little Children, that cannot hunt & 
give them something to cover them from the Cold, & that the 
Chiefs of the Village of Ottawa's may be cloath'd, as they take 
most of thier time in serving the English, & keeping peace, 
among all the Nations, as they cannot so much as they other- 
wise would, therefore we hope when we return again that you 
will cloath them all, which will make us think that you have a 
regard for us, this is all we have to say at present, our hearts 
are clean & white as Snow farewell 

May 21 8t Minetawaba from the grand River arrived with 
about one hundred men & Spoke as follows Viz 

We are come to see you this spring & have brought the 
traders with us in safety, that was along with us, we now 

1918.] Rogers' s Michillimackinac Journal 251 

deliver them & thier Peltry to you, there has been none of them 
hurt, the goods they sold us are all paid for, all the strings of 
Wampum that came to us we have deliver'd to Laforce, or 
Sasawaket who came before us, & he told us as we pass'd the 
Village of Abacroach that he had given them to you, so we 
will never throw a stumbling block in the smooth ways that 
are open'd for us by the English, all bad birds that passes us 
shall be beat to death, I have brought three Old men with me, 
who was once chiefs in our nation, they are not able to hunt for 
cloths to cover thier Bodies, I beg that you will give them some 
Cloaths & something for our young men to drink & a little 
Tobbacco, that we may go to our Brothers at Abacroach were 
we intend to stay till our young men return from the Illinois 
& then come altogether to see you, I hope you will have Charity 
on us 

Gave them two Blankets of strouds, two pair of Leggins, 
three Breech Clouts, three linnon shirts, three pounds of Gun 
Powder & eight pounds of Shott for thier Old men, ten pounds 
of Tobbacco, two pound of Vermillion & thirty gallons of rum 
for thier Party, telling them that I woud write to S r . W m . 
Johnson as soon as possible & tell him of thier good intentions 
& that the great King of England wou'd always hear of thier 
good Actions when ever they did any 

May 23 d Arrivd Minetewaba & his band at Michilli- 
mackinac from the grand River & spoke as follows Viz 

1 have brought my young men with me to smoke a pipe with 
you & to assure you that everything Quiet on our side of the 
Country. I beg as I have a great number of my young men 
with me, that you will give me a Cannot loaded with rum to 
carry back to Abocroach where we are going to hold a a 
Councill with our Brothers the Ottawa's & something to cover 
our Old men & Womens. I gave him two stroud Blankets, 
two pair of Leggins, three breech Clouts, the linnen shirts, 
three pounds & a half of Gun Powder, eight pound of Shott, 
& one half pound of Tobbacco, one pound of Vermillion with 
two eight Gallon Kegs of rum, Withe the following Answer 

I Have heard what you have said & approve of your going 
to Abocroach to speak to your Brothers to hear what has pass'd 

252 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

during the Winter, & what news your young men brings in 
from any of the Forts, they have visited, I woud be glad that 
the Chiefs of both the Villages wou'd come here, & you may 
send your Young men home, or leave them at Abocroach till 
after the Council is over, as the Chiefs can communicate any 
thing Material to the young men & after you tell me all you 
have hear'd during the Winter, I will speak to you & if I get 
any news from S r . W m . Johnson that concerns you, it shall 
then be told you. 

Minetewaba's Answer 

We thank you for the trifle you have given our old men & 
Women to cover them from the Cold, & for the paint, tobbaco 
& Rum, that we may light our pipes with it, but the rum is 
not half enough for one taste a piece, all my young men are 
Joyfull today, & I expected rum enough to make them merry 
& I beg you will not make them asham'd, but let us have at 
least a Cannoe load that we may drink heartily of our Fathers 
milk Showing his medals & certificate that he had from S r . 
W m . Johnson & other officers when this medal was given me, 
I was told whenever I shew it, that nothing wou'd be denied : 
and now in the name of all my young Warriors, I ask for a 
Cannoe load of Rum 

I told them that S r , W m . Johnson had a great regard for 
them, but that he never expected that they would ask any 
thing unreasonable, when they show'd thier medals as it was 
never intended any persons shou'd have presents, but when 
they deserv'd it by their good behaviowr & that I thought the 
Rum they had was full sufficient 

Minetewaba's Answer Do not my Father let us be 
asham'd, I told all my young men to come here & speak to 
thier father, & told them that they might be assur'd of at least 
a Canoe load of rum, therefore let us have it & don't make us 

Gave them two more kegs of rum & spoke as follows Viz 

This is all that you shall have of me, & had I more as I have 
but little rum I wou'd not give it you. go with this to Abo- 
croach & make yourselves Joyfull & take care that you behave 
properly till I see you again, On which Minetewaba & his 
Party went off. 

1918.] Rogers's MichilUmackinac Journal ' 253 

May 23 d Four Chiefs of the Chippiwa's arriv'd with about 
one hundred men of their people, some of them belong'd 
to the Island & others, dispers'd up & down on Lake Superior, 
& the Lake Huron; they had little to say & had hear'd no 
material news, but beg'd that I woud show them Charity as 
they were very poor, & had bad success in hunting. They 
desir'd something to cover them & some Hum; Gave them 
two breech clouts, one linnen shirt one Coat, two pound of 
Tobbaco, thirteen gallons of Rum, & one pound & a half of 
Paint on which they departed, to begin thier trade with the 
Merchants; & left thier rum in Charge till they were going 

May 23 d Gave M r . Henry Morch & dekyser, six Gallons 
of Rum, & five pounds of Tobbacco, to set up the Flag at the 
Indian Village at S*. Marys. 

Do 23 d Laforce, or Sosowaket with five principal Chiefs 
of their Village, arriv'd with some dry'd meat, which they made 
a present of to the soldiers, in return 1 gave thier young men 
two pounds of Powder, & sixty pounds of Ball, five coats to 
the five Principall Chiefs on which the Indians returnd to 
thier Village. 

(From this part, of the Journal to the end, the handwriting ie, in all probability, 

N 8 A Journal of Major Rogers's Proceedings with the 
Indians at the garrison of Michillimackinac from May the 
24 th to July 23 d 1767, viz 

May 26 th The Ottawas of the grand River Came in and 
Next arrived also all the Ottawas from Abacroach as did those 
of the Island 

By June 10 th Arrived at different Times, the Potowataw- 
men from St. Joseph, The Chippewas from La Bay, from the 
Island & those who live near Lake Huron as did Their Chiefs 
of different Bands from Lake Superior and the Saganongs and 

June 15 th All the Chiefs of the above Indians being As- 
sembled a grand Council was held the outside the Fort — 
Minetewaba and La Force and Kegiweskow opened the As- 
sembly and spoke as follows, viz 

254 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

My Father — We well remember what you told us last Fall, 
your Words have been laid up in our Hearts and not one of 
them is lost, and we come now to assure you that we have 
minded no idle Reports & listened to no Fools who endeavoured 
to put bad thoughts in our Heads Since we left you. — We have 
dissuaded our young Men from joining the Chippewas in any 
Hostile Measures and have kept this part of the Country 
Peaceable and Silent And we have not been wanting in our 
endeavour to keep things so to the Westward between our 
Brothers the Chippewas Fallivines, Soux and other Nations 
to whom the Chippewas have given Several Sly Blows 

But we are now ready with all our Hearts to assist you in 
healing those Wounds — The Menomines, Sakes, Puans, 
Renairds, Winebegos and Soux are all coming to see you & 
ask your Advice upon this Occasion — And you now need only 
tell us how to act & what to do in the Affair & we will obey 
your Orders & keep your Words 

The Chiefs of the other nations and Bands above mentioned 
Spake much to the same Purpose 

I Replyed That I was no Stranger to the unhappy differ- 
ences between the Chippewas and Western Indians and to the 
Attempts that had been made to draw others into the Quarrel, 
which I had endeavoured to prevent — That I had by Season- 
able Belts, and Presents Kept Several Bands of young Warriors 
in particular one under the direction of the Grand Sable and a 
Party of Ottawas from joining in those Hostile Measures 
entered upon by the Chippewas — I then urged them to be of 
a peaceable and amicable Disposition towards the Several 
nations of Western Indians To exert themselves in bringing 
about a Friendly Accomodation between the Chippewas and 
them and not to entertain the least thought of War or Blood- 
shed — That they were all equally the Children of the Great 
King my Master who desired they might all live in peace like 
Brethren & would certainly be displeased if they did not — I 
recommended it to them to tarry till those from the Bay & 
Lake Superior arrived that we might See each others Faces 
all together & write as one in Clearing the Path & Brightening 
the Chain of Peace that might extend through all the Nations 
& Tribes of Indians from the Rising to the Seting Sun — I then 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal - 255 

gave a Belt to the Grand Sable a Chippewa Chief of the Island 
to meet the Chippewas from Lake Superior with at St. Marys, 
and let them know that that the Soux Puans & Western In- 
dians whom they had Struck & wounded were coming to this 
Fort to visit their Father and that I expected they would 
behave peaceably towards them and be of a Temper when 
they arrived to bury all enmity & Settle all past differences 

I Then distributed Presents to them in the manner Set 
Forth in my Account from May 24 th to June 23 d — Upon which 
some of the Ottawas departed to their Villages, Others went 
to meet the Soux & Western Nations to protect them from any 
Attacks of the Chippewas on their way hither, and the Grand 
Sable went to St. Marys to Treat with & Advise the Indians 
coming from Lake Superior 

Proceedings with the Indians from June 24 th to July 3 d 1767 

June 25 th The Western Indians Soux, Sakes, Falavines, 
Renards and Puans being Assembled outside the Fort, Raga- 
gumach Spoke for all as follows 

Father — We have been encouraged to make you this visit 
by the .... last Fall that the Road from us to you was 
clear & open and we now rejoice to find your Words true and 
are glad to see you whom we look upon to be our Father next 
to the King the great Father of us all — All us that are here 
present are as one, and he that Strikes one Strikes all of us — 
We are Situate at the greatest distance from you of any of your 
Children, but we hope that we are not the less loved and 
cared for by you for that, we know you have taken pains to 
keep us from being Hurt — And we are Sorry that notwith- 
standing we have been Struck and wounded by some of your 
other Children the Chippewas who have lately Stained our 
Country with the Blood of some of our People and given us 
great provokation to lift up the Hatchet against them, but 
we have as yet forborn and came to begg that you our father 
will have pity upon us. See our past Injuries redressed & that 
we suffer the like no more, otherwise we must defend ourselves 
& repell Force by Force Our young Warriors have long been 
ready & eager to return the blows we have received, but be- 

256 American Antiquarian Society. ' [Oct., 

cause of your Words by Goddard and DeRevier we have re- 
strained them. 

I replyed That I was no Stranger to the Hostile Disposition 
& attempts of the Chippewas towards them; that I had taken 
great pains to prevent any mischief being done in their Country 
and was grieved that they had any Cause of Complaint being 
greatly desirous that they •& their Brothers the Chippewas and 
all other Tribes and Nations under the protection of the King 
my Master should live in Peace & Amity, and that I should 
still endeavour for this all in my power,— I desired them not 
to think of war but Peace and I would make the Chippewas 
& others do the same, that they should at present be protected 
and need fear no Harm from any one, — I then dismissed them 
after a distribution of some Refreshments till such Time as a 
Grand and General Council should be Held with all the In- 
dians together some being not yet arrived that were expected 
Several Conferences passed between this and the 2 d of July 
with the Chiefs and warriors of different Tribes and Nations 
Separately, in which I could not but observe a pretty general 
Hostile Temper to prevail & most of them upon the Point of 
an open war & rupture to the Westward, there had been In- 
juries Provocations and Bloodshed on both sides which joined 
to y e natural inclination of those Savages to frequent Wars, 
and the perfidious Conduct of the French and Spanish Traders 
from the other side of the Misissipi by instilling false notions 
into their Minds and Stiring them up to war among themselves 
and into a bad opinion of us and our Traders made matters 
look very unfavorable to our Trade in that part of the Country 
at present. — I therefore urged it Strongly upon the western 
Tribes and nations not to listen to or hold any Commerce or 
converse with the French beyond the Misissipi as a thing Dis- 
pleasing to the King to Sir William Johnson to me and to all 
Englishmen and that must in the End be very dangerous and 
Hurtfull to them to their wives and Children by cutting off 
necessary Supplies from their Country and introducing 
Poverty Famine and Miseries of every kind 

To all which they weemed to listen and agree promising to 
be true and faithfull and to Act wisely for the Future 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 257 

I strongly recommended the same to the Chippewas and 
other Tribes & Nations and received the same Assurances 
from them which gave great Hopes that matters would be 
finally Accommodated and brought to an happy Conclusion 
among them to the full Satisfaction of all Parties — A grand 

. . . Council was Held outside the Fort at this were present 
the Chiefs of the Bay the Fallavines Puans Sakes Renards 
Soux, Chippewas Ottawas Messissagas 

The Matters of Complaint on either side & the Grand affair 
of Peace and War were briefly touched upon and Canvassed 
and after many Short Speeches Replys and Rejoinders of no 
great Consequence it appeared that there was a general dis- 
position to peace and Amity prevailing among them which I 
had before recommended to them Separately — I lighted the 
Calumet or Pipe of Peace which was smoaked with the For- 
mality usual on such occasions by the Chiefs of all the Tribes 
and Nations, who gave one another the Strongest assurances 
of Friendship and Love, Promised to forgive and forget all 
past Injuries and Affronts, to keep down and restrain the Fire 
of their, young Warriors and use their utmost endeavours to 
prevent mischief on all sides for the future and to live in 
Harmony Concord & good Agreement like Brethren and Child- 
ren of the same Father, begging that they might all be Treated 
as Children in Common, have Traders sent amongst them and 
be Supplyed with necessary goods in their Several distant 
Villages and Hunting grounds which I assured them should 
be done — Some Refreshments were distributed and the Coun- 
cil concluded to the mutual Satisfaction of all Parties and the 
next day viz 

July 3 d A Distribution was made of Presents to the Several 
Tribes Bands and Nations as is Specifyed and Set forth largely 
and particularly in my Certifyed Accounts of this Date 8 . . 

8 The Statement of Account by Rogers for gifts to the Indians and chiefs during this 
memorable convocation held during the period from June 2i to July 3 is here given in 
full from a copy of Unoriginal in the British Treasury Papers. 

Almost without exception, bills of this kind when presented to Johnson were not al- 
lowed, he claiming that such bills were unnecessary and not contracted with his authority. 
At the termination of Rogers's Michillimackinac career the amount of such unpaid and 
unauthorized bills amounted to many thousand pounds, and the correspondence relative 
to such claims, for which Rogers had become responsible to the traders, between him, 
Sir William Johnson and General Gage, is extensive enough to fill a volume. Appeal 

258 American Antiquarian Society. - [Oct., 

and over and above a considerable Guantity of good 

was Delivered the Indians that was given by the merchant 

and it in my hand to be delivered 

To sett this matter in as clear & Just a light as I possibly 
can, I shall point out the several outposts of Michillimakinac, 
the number of Canoes & Quantity of Goods annually Required 
to supply the Savages which resort to them, The prime cost 
of those Goods in Quebec & Albany, the Expence of Importing 

after appeal was made by him for a settlement of these bills, but without success, he even 
went to England to press his case. 

An Account of Goods given To The several Indian Nations in the district of Michilima- 
canack by Robert Rogers Esq. Commandan between tho 21th Juno and 3d July 1767 
which he purchas'd of William bruce and Company- 

"£ i 
c o 




M 1 





g i 






ej ro 

r n ° 

a "-x 

TS \ 

a "V. 



To Whom Delivered 




0) O 







*** CO 






The Foxes 










- 3-4 

ditto St. Marys 












ditto Menomeneys 











ditto Kawmeenipte geau 5 











ditto Wood Lake 











ditto La Point 










- 0-8 

ditto Saucks 











ditto Pewans 











- 4-0 

ditto Rain Lake 










- 4-0 

ditto Nippygong 










- 2-8 

ditto Winnypeek 










- 1-4 

ditto Minneewake 












ditto Souex 











I do hereby certify that the Above Account is Just and True as witnes my hand Mich- 
ilrnacanack 6th July 1767- 

Wm Bruce & Co. 
We the Subscribers do hereby Certify that the distributions of Goods were Actualy 
made by Major Rogers To tho different Nations of Indians as specify'd in the within 
account, and are Confident that tho within and other presents by him given to the 
Indians which we have this day Certify'd were absolutely Necessary and well Timed 
Otherwise an Indian War must have taken place in this Country Instead of a peace which 
he has with Great pains, care, and fatigue to himself settled amongst all the different 
Nations that Resort this post greatly to the advantage of His Majesty's Interest and to 
those of his Subjects Trading to this Country who must have been Totally Ruined by a 
Given under our hand at Michilmacanack the 6 July 1767 T Spiesmacher Capt 2nd 
Rob't Rogers Cornm* Alec Jnt. Scote— Lieut of Artillery 2d Bait. 60 Regr' 
T. Meadows Ens. 2d Batt. 60th Regim. Win Maxwell— 
D. Commissary of Stores 4 Provisions 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal ,259 

them from thence to Michilimakinac, And the quantity that 
it will take provided the Trade is extended free & open to said 

In the next place the Number of Canoes and quantity of 
Goods that will be Sufficient to Supply the post of Michili- 
makinac provided the trade is confined to that, And no 
Traders suffered to make sale of their Goods at the out posts. 
Lists of Posts & the Canoes necessary to supply them, and 
also a list of the furs and peltery that was exported from 
Michilimakinac the summer of 1767 all of which was caught 
the forgoing winter by the Indians. 

In Lake Huron — 
Saguinay Bay -------3 canoes 

Machidash & Riviere auSable 3 

In Lake Michigan 
La Grand Riviere, and a few small posts 1 - 6 

depending on it / 
Saint Josephs & its dependancies 8 

Milwayte -------- 2 

La Bay & its dependancies 36 

In Lake Superior 1 
On the South Side J 
Saint Marys -------2 

La Point Chagouamigan, Including j 

S 4 . Ance, La fond du lac, la Riviere > 8 

Serpent & petite Ouninipique - J 

On the North Side 
Michipicotton -------60 

Brougth over ------ 69 canoes 

Changuina, Caministigua or three Rivers 3 

Alempigan & its Dependancies one large 1 4 

Canoe & five small ones which is equal to J 

In the Interior parts of the Country 
to the West & Northwest of Lake Superior 
Lake Leplus, Six small canoes equal to - 3 

Lake du Bois, two small D°. equal to - - 1 
Riviere du Beuf & La Riviere Ounipique) - V/i 

three small canoes equal to - / 

Fort LaReine, five small D°. equal to - - 2J^ 

260 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

La Biche, three small D". equal to - - V/i 

Fort Dauphin three small D°. equal to - l}/> 

Dupais five small D°. equal to - - - - 2J/£ 

La prairie five small D°. equal to 2^ 

To the Souis -------- 2 

If the foregoing posts are all Supplyed Agreeable^ 
to the Above plan I am well Informed that no I 
more than about Six Canoes would be Annually [ 

consumed at Michilimakinac - - - J 

Large canoes 100 
One Hundred Canoes will not be more than Sufficient for 
the Annual Consumption, if this Trade be extended under 
proper regulations to the outposts. The Load for one of which 
when made up in Montreal into Bales of about Ninety pounds 
French weight for the Convieniency of Carrying them round 
the Falls & Rapids on the Awawa or North River on the Rout 
to Michilimakinac is as follows. 

Eighteen Bales consisting of Strouds, Blankets, frize Coates, 
Callimancoe Bed Gowns, coarse Callicoe, linnen Shirts, Leg- 
gins, Ribbans, beads, Virmillion, gartering and many other 
such Articles. And the following pieces of about the same 

Nine Kegs of Gun powder 
One Keg of Flint, Steels & gun Screws 
Ten Kegs of British Brandy 
four cases of Ironwork & Cutleryware 
Two cases of Guns 
Two Bales of brass Kettles 
Two cases of Looking Glasses & combs 
five Bales of Manufactured carrot Tobacco 
Twelve Bags of Shott & Ball 
One Box of Silverwork & wampum 
Which goods at the lowest value at Quebec 
Amount to 450 Steal : pr Canoe, prime cost £45000 

of 100 Canoes ----- 


Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 


To which I maj r also add the price of the] 
Canoes, together with the wages of upwards | 
of 1000 Men, which are annually employ'd in \ 
this Trade between spring & Harvest to Navi- 
gate said canoes 95 10 for each canoe 

Wages of Clerks, or Commis employ'd\ 
in Said Trade computed at about / 

Carried over - 
Brought over ------ 

I may also allow for money annually paid 
to Mechanicks, such as blacksmiths, Carpen- 
ters, Coopers & Taylors to make up Cloathes, 
Shirts & other things necessary for this Trade. 
Together with the charges of Carrying the > 
said goods from Montreal to Lachine three 
Leagues from Montreal, And on the other 
side to Schinactady five Leagues from Albany : 
in order to be Embarked, About - 

Provisions such as Beef, Pork 
Biscuit & pease - - about 



£58438 00 



Prime cost & to tall expense of 100 canoes to 
Michillimakinac ----- £60898.00.0 

So that the Totall Amount of the Merchandize, with the 
outfitt & Expences Arises to Sixty Thousand Eight Hundred 
& Ninety eight pounds, in case the Trade be open and free to 
the Different out postes: And these regulated properly by the 
Commandant or Governour of Michillimakinac, so that the 
whole may be equally divided, as in the time of the French, 
which I have reason to think is not Exaggerated. 

On the other hand if trade is to be Confined to this Fort 
only, And the Traders not Allowed to go beyond it: Ten canoes 
will be Sufficient, Which without making any Difference in 
the prime cost of Goods and 

The Expences, will Amount to - - - £6089 . 16 . 

from which it appears that the real 
Difference from the first outfill by con- 
fining the Trade to this Fort, and having 


American Antiquarian Society. 


54000.4 — 


it extended & carried on in the Indian 
Country as it was formerly done by the 
French is Fifty four Thousand Eight 
Hundred & eight Pounds four shillings 
of which Sum Great Britain will loss 
Annually about Forty Thousand five 
Hundred Pounds, And the remainder will 
Intirely fall on the most usefull and 
Industrious part of his Majesties Sub- 
jects in the province of Quebec: par- 
ticularly within the District of Mon- 
treal, who chiefly Depend on this branch 
of Commerce for their Support. 

A List of the fur and peltery that was Exported from 
Michilimakinac y e Summer of 1767 

price Current 
at New York 
Beaver Skins worth per pound 

Each worth 

Each worth 




worth Each 

Each worth 


price curant 
at New York 

total amount 
So that at Michilimakinac The gains anualy of the fur traid 
is over and above paying all thier first cost and after Expence 
ammount to £000 6d 

The Estimate perhaps may seem partial to some, but as I 
am confident it is very near the Truth, so I am persuaded it 
will be approved of by such as are tollerably acquainted 
with the Situation of Michilimakinac with regard to the out 
Posts above mentioned, and to the Several Nations, Tribes 
and Bands of Indians Trading to them — 

In the first place it should be observed that if the Trade be 
confined to Michilimakinac, few if any Indians from the West 

1918.] Rogers's Michillirnackinac Journal 263 

of Lake Michigan or from the South and west of Lake Superior 
would ever visit that Post at all, some because they are at such 
a distance that they cannot possibly do it, and others because 
they can be Supplied at Home with every Article they stand in 
need of, for it is more then probable, it is certain that if we do 
not send a Supply to those Indians the Spaniards will, who 
have already began to Trade in the Country of the Soux & at 
some Posts on the Lake Superior and Michigan so that we 
should wholly Loose the Trade of near thirty Thousand In- 
dians which we may now Leave if it be extended to the out 
Posts & these properly Supplyed, This loss would be of the 
outmost moment but it is not all we should also loose their 
Friendship; and their attachment to the French and Spaniards 
would become stronger so that we should have them for our 
most dangerous and implacable Enemies 

Secondly we not only wholly Loose the Trade of such num- 
bers of Savages by a confinement of Trade to Michilimakanac, 
but those nations Tribes and Bands that will continue to Sup- 
ply themselves from that Post will not Trade near so largely, 
perhaps not more than to two thirds of the value annully, 
that they would do were Traders allowed to visit and Supply 
them at their Hunting Grounds or winter Quarters, — 

The reason of this is plain: The presence of the Trader 
with a Supply of such Articles as the Savage wants, excites 
and encourages Him to greater Industry and Assiduity in 
Hunting, it animates Men Women and Children to exert 
themselves to the utmost for the procureing of what they can 
upon the Spot immediately Barter for such things as will be 
usefull or ornamental to them. — 

Besides, as the Savages are mostly poor they are not able to 
supply themselves with large Stores of such things as are abso- 
lutely necessary not only to their Hunting but even their 
Subsisting with any Comfort, so that in case of any emergency 
or Accident they must often Suffer great inconveniences if 
Traders are not among them or near at Hand to Supply them 
afresh, for Instance the Loosing or or breaking of a Hatchet 
or two or three Knives & the like may lay a Whole Family 
under great inconveniences for six or eight Months together, 
the Spoiling of a Small quantity of Gunpowder, the breaking 

264 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

a Spring of a gunLock &c may be the means of destroying a 
whole Seasons Hunt and of distressing and Starving a numer- 
ous Family, whence tis easy to infer that confining Trade to 
the Post of Michilimakanac will greatly diminish our Trade 
even with Those Savages that will Still depend upon it for 
their Supplies for the Savage can Trade only in proportion to 
His Industry Skill & Success in Hunting, — 

Nor is it difficult to collect farmer bad Tendencys such a 
confinement of Trade must have to exasperateing & procureing 
the ill will of those Savages who have been accustomed / & 
their Fathers before them / annually to expect Traders with 
Supplies of such articles as they wanted at their Hunting 
grounds or winter Quarters, will not the necessitous distressed 
& hungry Savage conclude that his hurt & ruin is connected 
with if not intended by such an innovation? will he not be 
provoked to retalliate in some way or other? 

It may here be added that it is utterly impossible for many 
of those Savages, who are within the Limits that would be 
dependent on Michilimaka / were the Trade confined to that 
only / to carry their Furs and Peltery there — First Many of 
them have not & cannot have Conveyanses — Secondly many 
others must leave their Wives & Children to Starve and perish 
in the Absence, and lastly the Situation & Circumstances of 
Some nations and Tribes are such, that were they obliged to 
carry to the Single Market of Michilimakanac the Produce of 
their years Hunt or any Part of it, they must leave their 
Wives and Children not only in a distressed and Starving Con- 
dition but liable every day and Hour to become Slaves and 
their whole Country and Substance be left a prey to neigh- 
bouring Savages. 

The different nations & Tribes are now often at war with 
each other, and it is very certain these animosi 3 would increase 
greatly when they come to have different different Connexions, 
Separate Channells of Trade and as it were opposite Interests 

I cannot but think what has been said is Sufficient to con- 
vince any one that the above estimate of the odds between 
confining the Trade to the Post of Michilimakanac only & 
extending it free and open to the Out Posts at present depend- 
ent upon it, is neither partial nor improbable, & that such a 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackmac Journal 265 

Limitation and confinement of Trade would not only greatly 
curtail & lessen our Trade but would otherwise be greatly 
Injurious & detrimental to the Brittish Interest in this Coun- 
try, by opening a Doar for neighboring enemies to enter & 
encroach upon our Territories, by cooling the Friendship of 
many Savages and by exciting the Enmity rage and brutal 
Revenge of many more against His Majestys Subjects in this 
Part of the world, for it is well known that the revenge of a 
Savage is not Governed by reason or Justice but falls at ran- 
dom upon the first object he meets with anyways related to or 
connected with those from whom he has received a real or 
Suposed Injury 

It should also be considered that the Sum of Forty Thousand 
five hundred pounds in Trade is not the whole Loss that Great 
Briton must Surfer by Such a Restriction For whatever Les- 
sens British Manufacturers or puts a Stop to those Employ- 
ments by which British Subjects may decently Subsist and 
increase their Substance may be justly estimated a public 
injury or national Loss, — now according to the above estimate 
Such a restriction of Trade will Annually hinder the Sale of 
Forty five Thousand pounds worth prime Cost in Qubec of 
Goods chiefly of British Manufactury and as it must Hinder 
the Sale of them there it will also hinder the importing them 
from London to Quebec & thence to Michilimakanac and in 
that proportion effect our Shipping or Naval Interest — and in 
America it must immediately turn out of employment at lest 
1000 Subjects who Act as Servants, Canoe Men & in carrying 
on the Trade who not only decently Subsist by such Employ- 
ment but many of them greatly increase their Substance and 
consequently add to the Riches of the Nation. 

So that upon the whole, the clear Profits of Trade Lost by 
such a Restriction of Trade ought not to be estimated more 
than one half of the real Loss it must be to the nation it should 
be observed that the profits of this Trade does not come to 
british Subjects in Cash but what is much better in fur and 
Peltcry, all which are to be manufactured and turned perhaps 
to ten times their original value before they come to the 
highest Market. 

266 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

For notwithstanding I have here fixed the Price at which 
goods are Sold to the Savages at four times their prime Cost 
in London allowing one fourth for the expence of importing 
to Michillimakanac, and two fourths for the Traders clear 
profits, yet it should be observed that many of those goods 
when carried to the out Posts are Sold at Six or eight hundred 
& a thousand per cent in proportion to the distance to which 
they are canyed, which great Advance after leaving upon an 
average, goes to defray the expences of exporting & carrying 
from one place to another the payment of Batteaumen, Cariers, 
Clerks Interpreters and the Like. 9 

I cannot but think what has been said is abundantly Suffi- 
cient to convince every one that it is greatly for the Interest 
of Great Brittain not to restrict the Indian Trade to the Post 
of Michillimakanac but to extend it open & free with all rea- 
sonable encouragement to the Several Out Posts that have 
heretofore been looked upon dependent upon it & that have for 
many years Since been Annually Supplied from it, and even 
to extend it further if possible into the Interior Country to 
Tribes and nations of Savages at present unknown I will 
here only Subjoin that some national advantages may arise 
and those not inconsiderable from having a number of Subjects 
Annually Employed & for the most part resident four Six and 
eight Hundred Leagues and some further, west, Northwest and 
Southwest of Michilimakanac — who can say what valuable 
Discoveries may one Time or other be made by this Means? — 
and at any Rate this would prevent any other European 
Nation from Secretly gaining any considerable footing in those 
remote regions that might be detrimental to us — it would bring 
a great number of British Subjects acquainted with the Rivers 
Mountains, Plains and Capes of the Country in a good Degree 
who would Serve for Guides and Conductors in case of any 
immergency — it would give us an opportunity of knowing in 
some good Measure the Temper and Resolutions of the 
Savages with regard to us from Time to Time, — in fine it would 
be as was hinted before a probable means of conciliation and 
attaching great numbers of them to the British Interest, who 

» This paragraph in the original Journal is crossed through in the lines, with the iutcn- 
tion of striking it out. 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 267 

upon any Occasion would prove our Stedfast Friends and 
faithfull Allies 

Now the Case with Regard to the other principal Posts 
below Michilimakanac is very different and no one reason 
offered here for extending the Trade to the out Posts can with 
any Strength or Propriety be urged for either of them 
To begin with Oswego. 

There are no Savages dependent upon that Post for a Supply 
of necessaries or whose Furs & Peltery comes to that Market 
but what at almost any Season may easily repair to it in two or 
three days Time, or if they do not Chuse to go there, they may 
with equal ease repair to the English Settlements and be 
Supplyed with whatever they have occasion for. And indeed 
the Trade with the Indians at Oswego is now very inconsider- 
able and if divided into three or four Branches it would not be 
worth a Trader's while to go after either of them, so that no 
ill consequences can follow from a Restriction of Trade to this 

Nor is the case of Niagara widely different from that of 
Oswego, the Trade with the Indians indeed is Larger, but there 
are no Savages who are originally Supplyed from that Post or 
that make it their usual Market, but what may repair to it at 
all Seasons of the year in a very Short time and return again 
to their Hunting grounds or places of residence, or in case of 
any emergency may send a band of their young Warriors and 
be quickly Supplyed with whatever they have occasion for — 
Indeed there is no out Post belonging to Niagara so consider- 
able that any Trader would Chuse regularly to attend and 

Supply it were he permitted or desired to do it. 

As therefore no great disadvantage to the Traders or Incon- 
venience to the Savages if any at all can arise from a restriction 
of Trade to this Post there can I think be no Solid objection 
why such Rextriction should not take place there 

And as to Detroit the Case differs very little from that of 
Oswego and Niagara, the Trade there with the Savages, Tis 
true is much larger than at both the- other Posts, But it is 
chiefly with Savages that have an easy and quick recourse 
there, who at any time can in a few days be Supplyed from 
thence with whatever they have Occasion for: 

268 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

As to those Indians who live at a greater distance upon the 
Southwesterly Banks of Lake Erie in Spite of any orders or 
regulations to y e Contrary they will not fail to stop such a 
number of Pack Horses with their Drivers passing that way 
from Philadelphia to Detroit Loaded with goods, as will be 
Sufficient to Supply them — Nor can we reasonably Suppose 
but that the Trader will easily submit to such a Constraint, as 
he is saved from forfiting his Bonds given to the Commissary 
at Fort Pitt and has a prospect of making a quick & advan- 
tageous Market of His goods — . The very Same is the Case 
at the Mamee where Ponteac has taken up His Residence for 
two Winters part. He certainly will make no Scruple of Stop- 
ing Such a number of Canoes passing between Detroit and the 
Illinois as are Sufficient to Supply His band 

This being the Case no material Injury or Inconveniency 
can arise to the Trader, the Savage or the State by restricting 
Indian Trade to Detroit 

And to avoid Repetitions upon this Subject, very much the 
same holds True of Fort Pitt and the Post at the Illinois: 
The Savages dependent upon those Posts for Supplies of goods 
are either so near to them that they can easily repair thither 
upon any urgent Occasion & in a Short Space of time so as not 
to distress their Families or neglect their Hunting, or else are 
so Situate as to Supply themselves from Traders passing from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburg, from Pittsburg to Detroit and from 
both those Posts to the Illinois, or from Fort Pitt to Fort 
Chartres, a Trade is also carried on from Fort Pitt by Boat 
down the Ohio by which many Savages may be Supplyed &c 

It need not surely be repeated that the Case of Michili- 
makanac is very different — This is the outside or Frontier 
British Post in America — It is or ought to be a Barier to all 
that may come Westerly Northwesterly or Southwesterly to 
the Pacific Ocean — It is or ought to be a Beacon from which a 
most Extensive and as yet unknown Territory is Watched and 
observed — It is or ought to be a Store House frought with all 
manner of necessaries for the Constant Supply of almost in- 
numerable Bands Tribes and nations of Savages — Savages 
removed from it five, Six & eight Hundred and some a thousand 
Leagues who cannot Annually nor ever in their Lives visit it 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 269 

as a Market — They must loose one years Hunt to make Sale 
of another— They must leave their Families distressed and 
Starving — Their Country and Substance naked & exposed to 
Enemies, and perhaps perish themselves with Hunger and 
want on their way — Savages long accustomed to expect 
Traders Annually with Supplies in their respective Countries 

Tis true some principal person from some of these distant 
Tribes and nations, generally visit this Garrison once in two or 
three years But it is their year's employment when they come 
They bring nothing with them except some Triffling Present, 
or some Small matter to exchange for necessaries to carry them 
back again, they do not come to Market — Their Buisiness is 
to renew and brighten the Chain or Path of Friendship and 
make Solemn Declaration of their peaceable disposition and 
Amicable Intentions towards us — , And their principal Re- 
quest of the Commandant is that Traders may come into their 
respective Countries, That their Wives, Children, Old Men 
Friends and Countrymen may be Supplied with such things as 
/ having been long accustomed to the use of / they cannot 
comfortably and patiently Subsist without— 

But I forbear — Any one of the least Sensibility may imagin 
somthing of the Pain and Chagrin that a Commandant must 
feel when he finds Himself obliged to Answer, that he cannot 
permit any Trader to come nearer to them than this Garrison, 
and if they want goods they must come hither for them — 

And what must be the Consternation, the uneasiness dis- 
pleasure and Resentment of those Tribes and Nations when 
their Chiefs Return with this unexpected Melancholy but 
possitive Answer who can Answer for the Measures they may 
take in these Circumstances — 

And will not a neighbouring Ambitious enemy make all 
possible advantages of this unhappy Posture of Alfairs — Will 
they not construe, Aggravate and Turn such proceedings as 
much to the Injury of Britton and British Subjects as possible 
— Will they not hence take occasion to make inroads and in- 
croachments and to create fresh Troubles to his Brittannic 
Majesties Subjects? They already have done it and are doing 
it daily as has been Hinted before 

270 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

But I will add no more upon this Head The Point is so clear 
and obvious that it need not be enlarged or insisted upon 

I shall conclude the whole I have to say with the following 
Queries, in the Speedy Indicision and wise Dicision of which 
I think the British Interest materially Concerned viz 

Quer 1 Is it the Interest of great Britain to keep the Terri- 
tories and Possessions in North America Ceded to Her by the 
last Treaty or to give up or neglect a part of them and Suffer 
a neighbouring Nation to become possessed of and fortifyed 
in the Same? 

Quer. 2 Is it the Interest of Great Britain to Secure and if. 
possible increase Her Trade of Furr and Peltery with the 
Savages, or to Suffer that Branch of Trade to be curtailed, to 
dwindle and fall into the Hands of Her Enemies? . . . 

Quer 3 Is not the largest Channal of the Furr and Peltery 
Trade in North America so circumstanced and Situated, that 
the Security and increase of it greatly depends upon the due 
Regulation & wise managment of Indian Affairs at the Post of 

Quer 4 Ought not the Government to pay a particular 
Attention to that Post upon which the Security of an immense 
Teritory and a most profitable Trade so greatly depends? 

Quer 5 Would it not greatly contribute to the Security and 
increase of Trade in these boundless Regions to erect Michili- 
makanac into a Civil Government independ*. of any other 
Post with a proper Subordination of Legislative and Executive 
Officers for the forming of proper Regulations from time to 
time and the due Administration of Justice? .... 

Quer 6 Would it not contribute to the Same valuable pur- 
pose not only to keep the Post of Michilimakanac Garrisoned 
with a Suitable number of brave well disciplined Troops, but 
to send into and Station in this Country some Companies of 
light Troops, who might March upon any immcrgency to its 
Out Posts or be employed in exploring the Country, Awing the 
Savages and making fresh Discoveries? .... 

Quer 7 Since it is in fact true / and can be reported By a 
Multitude of Witnesses / that the French at Michilimakanac, 
St. Josephs the Green Bay, St. Mary's and other places in this 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 271 

Country where they are lurking & walking up and down, are 
an Indolent Slothfull Set of vagabonds, ill disposed to the 
English and having great influence over the Savages are con- 
tinualy exciting their Jealosys, and Stiring up their hatred and 
Revenge against us, Ought they not therefore as Speedily as 
possible to be removed out of this Country for the better 
Security of British Subjects and British Trade? 

Qucr 8 Since Our Neighbours the French & Spaniards have 
in Fact begun a Settlement on our Side or the East Side of the 
Mississipi, upon the River Luis Constance where it joins at a 
place called the Dog Plain, a thourough fare formerly for great 
numbers of Indians to Michilimakanac and now intended by 
them to prevent their Trading to that Post for the future, 
Since they already have and daily are Sending out Traders to 
Posts on the Lakes Superior and Michigan and into the 
Country of the Soux &c which Acts are manifest encroachm u 
upon the Territories and Trade of Great Britian 

Ought not the Government to pay a Serious & Speedy At- 
tention to these Encroachments and enter upon some effectual 
Measures to prevent them? 

If y e above Queries be answered in the affirmative, as they 
surely must, the following Plan, seems absolutely necessary to 
gain the great, & Valueable Ends, hinted at, & propos'd by 
them. Viz 

Which is, humbly submitted, to the better Judgement, of 
his Majesty . & the Government of Great Brittain who at all 
times, have consulted the Interest of his Majestys Subjects, 
but more especially at this Glorious period, of the Brittish 
Annals Viz 

That Michillimackinac & its dependencies, shoud be erected 
into a Civil Goverment; with a Governer, Lieutenant Gover- 
nor, & a Council, of twelve; chose out of the Principal Mer- 
chants, that carry on this valueable branch of Trade with 
Power to enact, such Laws, as may be necessary & these to be 
transmitted, to the King: & for Approbation: That the Gov- 
erner, shoud be Agent for the Indians, & Commandant of the 
troops, that may be order'd to Garisson, the Fort who must 
not see a divided power, which the Savages laugh at & Conte- 
mon: and have Authority to leave the Lieut. Gov, his Deputy, 

272 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

when the service may, require him, to Visit the Indians at a 
distance; in order to prevent, Quarrels and Wars among the 
Savages; which at all times is disadvantageous, to the publick, 
& to Trade, or in order to remove incroachments of the French 
& Spaniards, or other greiviencies, that may occur at the out 
posts, & Frontiers 

For the further preventing of which, as likewise the inten- 
tions, of French, & Spaniards, of drawing the Indians, from 
between the Lakes Superior & Michigan & the River Misis- 
sippe, to trade with them & build thier Villages, or settle thier 
Habitations on thier side the said River, which they Actually 
are attempting at this time: by sending Belts & Messages 
amongst the Indians: to that purpose, with large presents to 
induce them to it which is to my certain knowledge, having 
clear proofs & Attestations thereof. I say for further prevent- 
ing these & other dangerous Consequences to the well being of 
trade of this distant & critically situated part of His Majesty's 
dominions it is, or it seems absolutely neccessary, that a Body 
of light Troops, or rangers, well diciplin'd, be iix'd in this 
district, under the Command of the Gov 1 "., Two three, or more 
Companies, as shall seem necessary, with power to detatch 
them, to any Post where it may be needfull, or to station a part 
of them on those parts of the frontiers most expos' d, to the 
incroachments mentiond above, at proper seasons of the Year, 
such as the mouth of Ousconsins, where it joins the Mississippi, 
& where the said encroachments, are notorious, or other such 

That the Gov & his Council shoud report in all civil matters, 
or in Affairs relating to the Indians to the King, & Council. 
And that a fix'd sum shoud be allow'd Annually, for presents, 
to the Indians, to keep them peaceable, & well dispos'd to- 
wards His Majesty's Just & mild Government such as shall be 
thought reasonable and Adequate for a Post to which more 
than one third of the Indians on the Continent resort, besides 
many other nation to the Westward, as far even as the Pacific 
Ocean, that are not now known, who may be indued to visit, 
& trade, with us, upon the Fame of so wise, & prudent, regula- 
tions, if properly carried into Execution 

The Nesessity of having a Lieu 1 . dov r . & one who is known 
to Indian Affairs, is pretty obvious from what has been said : 

1918.] Rogers's Michillimackinac Journal 273 

That the Gov r . may on. many occassions be oblig'd to be at a 
great distance from the Fort, as has been the Case since my 
Arrival, at this Garrisson, having had repeated Belts, & mes- 
sages, to visit the Indians, at great distance in thier Villages, 
& has been absolutely oblig'd, to go. At which times one may 
be oblig'd to leave the Command to one no ways known to 
Indian affairs, which makes it absolutely necessary to have a 
second well experiene'd as well with the manners of the Indians 
so, likewise with the nature of the trade of this Country, one 
who is a friend to Civil Power & to Trade, who need be no 
further expence to the Goverment, then having the second 
Company of Rangers with a moderate Allowance for Com- 
manding in the Gov", absence 

If to this Plan it shou'd be objected; that the constituting 
of small Garrissons, & Posts, to the Westward, under the Com- 
mand of regular Troops, wou'd answer all the purposes of the 
Rangers &c It is plain they cannot, from many obvious 
reasons, Regular Troops who must be often chang'd can never 
know the Woods, the Savages, their manners, thier ways of 
making War, or any of the purposes for which the Rangers are 
propos'd. so well as men who are inlisted for these purposes, 
who are pick'd out for thier knowledge & Experience in these 
things, & who are to abide by, & make them the bussiness of 
thier Lives. 

These small Garrisons, being weak & at a great distance, 
one from another & under the Command of inferior Officers, 
are liable to be surpriz'd, or taken by force at all times by 
the Savages, numbers of whom, are always dispOs'd to com- 
mit such depradations as a Savage heroism, or for plunder, 
as happen'd in the last Indian War of 1763 

The inferior Officers & Soldiers in small Posts, both from 
their circumstances & their being not immediately under the 
Eyes of their Superiors, have great temptations to yelld to 
corruption & to tyranize over the Merchants & people in 
civil Life 

Whereas by the propos'd Plan, all are under a Civil 
Power & Gov Commandant of the Troops, & Agent to the 
Indians Which wou'd cause every Branch to be counte- 
nane'd for the mutual safety of each other. 

274 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


By James Rodway 

British Guiana is a union of two Dutch Colonies, 
first Essequebo and Demerara, second Berbice, both 
captured by the British in 1796. There were govern- 
ing councils in both and the rule seems to have been 
more arbitrary than that of the mother country, for 
no one was permitted to criticise the actions of the 
Governments on pain of corporal punishment. Under 
such circumstances the colonists were perforce obliged 
to keep silent and there was no room for newspapers. 
When there were grievances they could, however, be 
ventilated in Dutch papers. 

Until 1793 there was no press in either colony and 
therefore all Government notices were written and cir- 
culated by means of colony slaves in corials, who 
passed up and down the rivers, exhibiting the docu- 
ments at each plantation. The Manager wrote 
Vertooned, Vise or Seen and signed his name, after 
which the same document was carried from one to 
another, only one copy being available for a district. 
Some of these circulars are in existence and are inter- 
esting for the names of people who otherwise would 
have been unknown. In Stabroek (now Georgetown) 
there was probably a bellman, but advertisements 
were generally written circulars or letters. 

Dutchmen are proverbially slow in the mother 
country and they were more so in the colonies. 
Englishmen in Demerara subscribed to Barbados 
newspapers and the Dutch to the " Amsterdamsche 
Courant, " where the more important official notices 
of transports, etc., were published. The want of a 
colonial newspaper was hardly felt and when the 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 275 

pioneer advertising sheet was started it failed for want 
of support. It will be well to understand that 
though Demerara was under Dutch government at 
least one-third of the planters were British ; Essequebo 
had more Dutch and Berbice hardly any foreigners. 

In 1793, Mr. J. C. de la Coste ; probably a Portu- 
guese Jew, was a partner with Amines Beaujon, as 
attornies-at-law in the town of Stabroel . Not having 
a large practice he could leave his partner to do what 
was necessary, and embark in anything else that 
pleased his fancy. We may call him a pushing fellow, 
and probably he shocked some of the slow people in 
the colony. Among his projects was one for a packet 
service with Barbados and another for a regular post 
from Demerara to Essequebo. All his schemes, how- 
ever, came to nothing and we may safely state that he 
was ahead of his time as far as the Dutch colonies were 

On July 31, 1793, Mr. J. C. de la Coste petitioned the 
Court of Policy of Demerara and Essequebo for the 
exclusive right to establish a printing office and news- 
paper, lie had been requested to do this by a large 
number of the principal inhabitants, and was inclined 
to establish a printing press, which he thought would be 
a great convenience. This, however, he could not do 
unless he was guaranteed against competition, for five 
years. He also wanted a special authorization by 
which the official publications in his paper would have 
legal force. If permission was granted he would 
publish a weekly advertising sheet in which all 
Government publications, ordinances, regulations of 
the Court and notices would be inserted free, with the 
understanding that they were duly authorized. If 
this was allowed he would be enabled to spend the 
necessary capital. 

The Prospectus was in Dutch; the following is a 
free translation: — 

276 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

prospectus of a weekly advertising sheet (advertentie 


The aforesaid paper will be printed on medium sheets and 
published every Sunday morning, and will contain the sessions 
of the respective Courts of Policy and Justice of both rivers, 
as well as the Ordinances and Regulations of the said Courts: 

The Edictal Citations and Execution Sales of both rivers: 

The deaths and births of both rivers: 

The arrivals and departures of vessels, with their cargoes 
and passengers: 

The appointments and changes of all civil and military 

Inland news of all the occurrences of the week : 

Reviews of the state of the cultivation; memoranda of the 
seasons; opening up of new land; private sales; changes 
among the planters; happy and unlucky accidents; in fact, 
whatever may be of public interest. And, the most note- 
worthy foreign political news from Europe, the West Indies 
and America, for which the printer will make the necessary 
correspondence connections to secure reliable and ample news. 

Further, the aforementioned advertising paper will contain 
publications, notices calling up creditors of boedels, departures 
of persons from the Colony, public and private sales, hiring or 
renting of goods and slaves, and all other news interesting to 
the public. 

It will also contain the names and descriptions of the runa- 
way slaves, who may be captured and brought to the fort 
during the previous week. 

Dcmerary, July 29th, 1793. J. C. do la Cosle. 

This project appears very ambitious, and it could 
hardly have been carried out; even at a much later 
date no Demerara paper was so comprehensive. 
However, the Court was favourably impressed and 
granted part of the petition but a patent or octroy 
could only be obtained from the Colonial Council in 
the Netherlands. Meanwhile they undertook to pro- 
hibit that any other printing press be established in 
the colony and agreed to recommend that the authori- 
ties at the Hague should grant the patent. 

Having gone so far Mr. de la Coste began his prep- 
arations and we find him writing again to the Court 
on the 29th of October. He had already got the press, 
but the paper was not yet issued. On receiving the 
favorable answer from the Court, he at once set to 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 277 

work to put the office on a proper footing by purchas- 
ing the necessary slaves and materials. The principal 
inhabitants supported his project and promised sub- 
scriptions; he also received much advice and many 
recommendations in regard to the way he should con- 
duct the paper. Possibly as a result of gratuitous 
advice, he now added a postal delivery in connection 
with the distribution to subscribers of the new paper. 

This was quite an innovation, for there was no postal 
system within the Colony, the mails from outside being 
delivered from the Secretary's Office on payment of 
postage and fees. It followed, therefore, that people 
living at a long distance might not know that letters 
were waiting for their messengers and were often 
hampered in many ways. We who know what a 
postal delivery means, suppose that people would be 
eager for the scheme proposed by Mr. de la Coste, who 
was prepared to give bonds for the due performance of 
the work. 

His new Prospectus differed little as far as the paper 
was concerned but the following additions were made: 

The advertising paper will be printed on a large sheet of the 
same size as the English papers. 

The Publications, etc., will be published in both the Dutch 
and English languages. 

The Advertisements and public notices, etc., will be pub- 
lished in the languages in which they are given. 

The papers will be delivered in Stabroek early on Sunday 
morning, and four messengers will be sent out at the same time 
to distribute them through the different districts of Demerara. 

The subscription for the newspaper and free postage for one 
year will be 55 guilders, of which 33 guilders must be paid in 
advance at once, and the remainder on the 1st. of May, 1794, 
for which subscribers must bind themselves by their signa- 

The Court approved of the new plan, with the 
exception of a proviso that every ship captain should 
be bound to deliver his letters to the new office and a 
reservation that it could alter or amend the regula- 
tions at any time. 

278 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A year later Mr. de la Coste again petitioned the 
Court. Having received permission he had carried 
out his plan to the best of his ability and up to the 
present had received no complaints. He could not, 
however, get the ship captains to send their letters to 
his office or to call for others. Some did so and the 
result was confusion; he therefore asked the Court to 
order that all letters be sent to him. The Governor- 
had used his influence, but in the absence of a law, 
there were no means of enforcing the recommendation. 
Owing to this difficulty, he had thought of giving up 
the Post Office, but as the inhabitants were continually 
assuring him of its value he still kept it up. For the 
first time people had somewhere to deposit their 
letters and where they could get others from outside; 
this prevented the delay of sending negroes to enquire. 
The experience of the first year, however, proved that 
there was no profit, for the cost of eighteen distribution 
offices, and a clerk, were a little over the amount of the 
returns. He therefore again petitioned that every 
ship captain be bound to bring his letters and to call 
for those which he should take away when leaving. 
If an ordinance were passed he would print it at his 
own cost, and distribute copies to the captains On their 

The Court was favorable and willing to do all they 
could, barring the ordinance, confining the matter to a 
recommendation to the Governor. 

The newspaper and post office were carried on for 
another year, but in March, 1795, we find signs of 
weakness. It appears that Mr. de la Coste had an 
attorney named Andries Beau j on as partner who did 
most of the legal business. This gentleman, however, 
died in 1795, and the work devolved on the other 
partner. He therefore applied to the Court on March 
9, 1795, for permission to transfer the management of 
his correspondence office to Nicolaas Volkerts; his 
request was granted, and we may presume that the 
business was a failure. 

280 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the arrival of a British force to which the colonies sur- 
rendered without firing a shot. 

The British authorities were not satisfied with 
written notices, and proclamations, and it therefore 
followed that on June 8, 1796, the Dutch Governor, 
who had been retained, informed the Court of Policy, 
that the Commander of H. B. M. Forces had expressed 
a desire that a printing press should be established. 
This would not only be a convenience to the Com- 
mander in sending orders to the military posts, but also 
of great benefit to the people in general. The Gover- 
nor, therefore, proposed that a press be established in 
Stabroek, the expenses to be paid jointly by the 
Colony and the Government, i. e. from the two Chests 
that then existed. A proper person should also be 
engaged, at an annual salary, to print all public papers 
for the Government, and the Courts, he being allowed 
to increase his income by printing for the inhabitants. 
If the appointment should be approved it would be 
necessary to furnish him with a press and printing 
materials, which there was now a good opportunity of 
procuring by applying to a certain Mrs. Volkerts who 
might be induced to dispose of a press in her possession. 

After deliberation it was resolved that the Governor 
be requested to inquire of Mrs. Volkerts, whether she 
would sell and if so, at what price. Further, it was 
decided to send to Barbados for a competent person on 
a salary of fifty or sixty " Joes" ($400 to $480) half to 
be paid by the Colony, and half by the Government, 
which person would be bound to print all such public 
papers as may be required by the Government and the 

Two days later the Governor stated that he had 
taken measures to secure the printing press and 
materials from Mrs. Volkerts. At first she had refused 
to sell, but shortly afterwards he had received the 
following letter: — 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 281 

"Honoured Sir, 

I request that you will ascribe the negative answer which 
I have returned to you in regard to the selling of the printing 
press, to no other cause than some scruples which weighed in 
my mind, which are now dissipated. The press with all its 
types, materials, and in short all that belongs to it, is accord- 
ingly at your service, and I humbly request that you will, 
instead of causing the same to be previously appraised, allow 
me at once for the whole a sum of 2,200 guilders, ($880). 

I believe this may a little exceed the price which my husband 
paid for it, but at the same time I think that from the expense 
of improving and amending the press, it would by this time 
have cost him the sum I now ask for it. 

I beg leave to recommend myself to your protection and 
benevolence, and have the honour to be, etc. 

Timmerman q. q. H. J. Volkerts." 

The Court resolved to purchase the press for the 
sum named, provided it be appraised and found in 
good order by the printers, who were daily expected 
from Barbados. 

Soon afterwards two printers named Ellis and Cox 
arrived and established the first Government Printing 
Office, as well as "The Royal Essequebo and Demerary 
Gazette." The salaries paid to them quarterly from 
both Chests was 704 guilders ($281.00); all other 
expenses were apparently paid by Ellis & Cox, who 
were obliged to trust to private work for labour, etc. 
Whether they bought slaves does not appear; possibly 
they may have hired one or two. 

The new paper was published on August 22, 1796, 
but as far as I know there is no copy of the first issue. 
The R. A. & C. Society has No. 5, Sept. 4th, which is a 
foolscap sheet almost filled with advertisements. 

This absence of news was characteristic of our early 
papers, which were hampered by the Government in 
many ways, and it was not until about 1819 that local 
news and correspondence became at all prominent. 
I may here state that the historical students will find 
much information in the advertisements, and that 
they are of great value for the light they throw upon 
local conditions. We may be sure that the stores of 

282 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the time imported only things that could be sold; we 
can, therefore, be certain that the people used what 
was offered for sale. The real history of the colony 
can be gathered from its newspaper notices and ad- 

The "Essequebo & Demerary Gazette" was a 
weekly, published regularly until the colonies were 
restored to the Batavian Republic, after the Peace of 
Amiens, near the end of 1802. 

Being English, it did not satisfy the new Dutch 
authorities, and therefore on the first Saturday in 1803, 
a Government paper named "Niewe C our ant van 
Essequebo en Demerary ," printed by Nicolaas Volkerts, 
Gouvernements Boekdrukker, was issued and con- 
tinued during the short occupation by the Dutch. 
What became of the late printer does not appear; 
probably he did not understand the Dutch language 
and may have gone back to Barbados. The first 
paper under the new heading contained an Official 
Notice, that by Resolution of the Colonial Council for 
the American Colonies and Possessions the privilege 
of printing such papers and documents as the Govern- 
ment or the Courts of Policy and Justice should con- 
sider proper to be published, was granted to Nicolaas 

Volkerts admitted that he did not know English and 
therefore could not conduct a paper in that language. 
A specimen of his printing is in our Museum, the 
"Publicatie" containing the Articles of Capitulation 
of Essequebo and Demerary, September 19, 1803. 

It is a broadsheet, printed on both sides, in Dutch 
and English. The surrender was made, as on the 
former occasion, without firing a shot and it is notice- 
able that the Grand Seal of the Colony of Berbice 
commemorated the fact by the motto, " Sine pulvere 

An English printer was required, but Nicolaas 
Volkerts appears to have become owner of the Govern- 
ment press, and he therefore employed Mr. E. J. 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 283 

Henery under an agreement for half profits. The old 
name was restored and the paper went on steadily 
without trouble until the first agreement lapsed and 
another became necessary. Then as Henery and 
Volkerts could not agree as to terms, the former 
carried off the press to his own house and would not 
return it until ordered to do so by the Court of Justice. 
Volkerts was now in a difficulty for want of an English 
printer and in the end had to send to England from 
whence he got two printers, Thomas Bond and Adam 
Aulert, meanwhile carrying on the paper in his own 

The difficulty occurred in 1805 and Mr. Henry sent 
to England for a press, by means of which he started 
a rival Gazette on January 6, 1806. In this new paper 
Henery gave "a short and simple but true statement 
of facts, " which Volkerts answered with his version of 
the dispute. The conclusion of the last article is as 
follows : — 

"We have to express our great obligations to the same gentle- 
man, for his very extraordinary moderation and forbearance 
in being most graciously pleased not to exclude us from offering 
ourselves as candidates for public favour. We will, with his 
leave, so mercifully vouchsafed to us, strive to deserve that 
desideratum; and, should we succeed, — should we by our 
exertions and industry be fortunate enough to attain any 
height in the public esteem, — we will not prove ungrateful, 
we will not kick down the ladder which may enable us to 
ascend, but agreeably to the old English proverb we will 
heartily wish well to the bridge that carried us safe over." 

There were now two rival Gazettes of the same name 
and we may be sure that there was no love lost between 
them. To add to the ill-feeling Volkerts obtained the 
Colonial printing, while Henery did the work for the 
Government and added " Royal" to the title of his 
paper. This, however, did not last long, for on July 
31, 1806, the Court decided that as Nicolaas Volkerts 
had sold his printing office, the privilege of printing 
all the Court's publications be given to Mr. Henery. 
On June 21 preceding, Volkerts announced that his 

284 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

paper would in future be printed by T. Bond, whose 
care and attention for some time past had given it a 
circulation hitherto unknown in these colonies. Up to 
the present there had been no real news, but now the 
opposition led to a little development. Volkerts an- 
nounced that he was making proper arrangements for 
obtaining intelligence from all quarters. This was 
followed by a few local items not altogether pleasing 
to the authorities, for the Govern or interfered by 
issuing the following order, published March 22, 1806: 
u To Mr. Volkerts, Printer: 

I am directed by the Governor to inform you that His 
Excellency has seen with much displeasure some illiberal and 
ill-natured reflections and paragraphs which have lately ap- 
peared in your weekly paper. As they can have no other 
tendency than by exciting irritation and animosity among the 
inhabitants, to disturb the tranquility of this Colony, His 
Excellency expects you will conduct your publication with 
more propriety in future and thereby prevent the necessity of 
a more severe correction. 

You are required to publish this Reprimand in your next 
paper. C. T. Tinne, Government Secretary 

King's House, Stabroek, March 21, 1800." 

I tried to find the paragraphs referred to and probably 
this is one of them:— 

"Van Braam has been appointed Grave Digger. 
From the number of applicants, which we understand 
there was for the situation, it would seem that the 
loaves and fishes are no less an object of desire than in 

The newspaper of that day was by no means free 
and we may presume that is the reason why there was 
hardly any news. The selections from British papers 
were, however, very good, and later came letters to the 
editors, some of which were scurrilous. Some corres- 
pondence in 1810 in connection with proposed churches 
for different sects led to Government interference 
which checked it for a time. 

The matter was of little importance and I can hardly 
understand why it was checked. However, a Govern- 
ment Notice was issued on July 17, stating that dis- 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 285 

cussions on Churches were " interdicted by authority." 
It appears that Nicolaas Volkerts must have dis- 
posed of his interest in the Demerara paper in 1806, 
and gone to Berbice, for we find him starting the first 
paper in that colony during this year. The paper was 
called "The Berbice Gazette," and the file we have 
from January to June, 1812, shows it as a broadsheet, 
printed on both sides but not folded. It compares 
favourably with those of Demerara, in fact, the type 
appears new and the printing very good. When 
leaving for Europe Volkerts sold this paper to William 
Schultz, who carried it on for many years; I knew him 
as an old man in the seventies, and he once offered to 
sell me a volume of the Gazette. The Subscription in 
Volkerts's time was $12, but later it was 33 guilders, 
i.e. a Joe and a half ($13.20). Two Joes was the usual 
subscription for papers coming out twice or thrice a 
week and this was kept up to recent times. Two Joes 
would be $17.60 at full exchange value but there was 
a reduction, until the subscription of the Royal 
Gazette in the seventies was $14.67. William Schultz 
added the words "and New Amsterdam Advertiser" 
to the title of Berbice Gazette and for a time called it 
"The Berbice Advertiser." 

The estimates for 1807 put down the cost of printing 
for the Colonial section at 2,500 guilders ($1,000) and 
we may presume that the Government section paid an 
equal sum. It was certainly a day of small things. 

The names of the two papers before 1814 were "The 
Essequebo and Demerary Gazette" that of Henery being 
distinguished by the addition of "Royal." In 1814 
the older press changed the name of its paper to "The 
Guiana Chronicle and Georgetown Gazette," and the 
other became first "The Demerary & Essequebo 
Royal Gazette," and afterwards "The Royal Gazette: 
Demerary & Essequebo." The Chronicle existed 
for many years, but got into difficulties through its 
correspondence columns. In 1820 it became mixed 
up in the dispute between Governor Murray and 

286 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

President Rough in connection with the fees of the 
Courts of Justice. With the favour of the Governor 
the Chronicle started a line of scurrilous abuse which 
ultimately led to its suppression, but the Royal 
Gazette came down to the eighties. 

Before 1820, and in fact for many years after there 
was an utter absence of what we may call the literary 
side of the press in British Guiana. There were no 
books or even pamphlets, beyond translations of Dutch 
legal documents. I have a Mss. which was probably 
circulated about 1811, in which the personal element 
is conspicuous as it was in England, but it could not be 
safely printed in Demerara. 

Almanacs were regularly issued from about 1802, 
either in sheets or folded; these developed into pocket 
books containing lists of officials and plantations, as 
well as translations and digests of Dutch laws and 
regulations for English readers. They were called 
Local Guides, the earlier publications being small, but 
they grew in later years to become compendiums of the 
laws in force. The earliest in our library is for 1815 
and is entitled "The Annual Miscellany or Local 
Guide." It was published at the Royal Gazette 
Office, and contained an almanac as well as abstracts 
of the laws and regulations of the colony. That for 
1820, which is also in our library, came from the same 
office and is called "The Local Guide, conducing to 
whatever is worthy of notice in the Colony of Demera- 
ry and Essequebo." 

The first notice I can find of these annuals is an 
advertisement in the Gazette, of February 22nd, 1812, 
which states that "A Pocket Almanack for 1812" was 
just published. 

In 1811 we find an advertisement of what after- 
wards became one of the features of the Local Guides: 

"Regulations for the Administration of Justice and 
the Manner of Proceedings in the Rivers -Essequebo 
and Demerary, framed by the Committee of Ten, and 
approved by their High Mightinesses, the Lords 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 287 

States General of the United Netherlands; Dated 
October 4, 1774; Translated by J. Huiberts, and 
revised by J. P. Baumgardt, Esq., First Exploitcur at 
Rio Demerary. " 

This is said to have been re-printed by Edward 
James Henery in Georgetown from the same transla- 
tion published in Berbice. In 1812 the same work 
appears to have been the main feature in "Every Man 
his own Lawyer, just published in quarto, price 11 
guilders, in Dutch and English, the Manner of Pro- 
ceedings in the Courts of Justice in these Colonies." 

The Charter of Berbice in English was on sale at the 
Berbice Gazette Office in 1812 and in 1816. "The 
Letters of Derector, the Second Fiscal" etc., at the 
Royal Gazette Office. The letters were controversial, 
mainly attacks on the missionary system, first appear- 
ing in the Gazette. 

The most important book was printed by E. J. 
Henery at the Royal Gazette Office in 1814. It is a 
thick octavo of 418 pp. beside the Appendix and 
Index, and is entitled 

"Judicial, Practical & Mercantile Guide for the use 
of Judges, Lawyers, Merchants and all those who 
desire to have a general knowledge of Laws. Trans- 
lated from the Dutch of Joannes van der Linden, LI. D., 
Counsellor at Law at Amsterdam. With an Appendix 
of some Law Terms, etc." 

The translator appears to have been L. P. Van 
Braam, but his name does not appear. There is a good 
copy in our library. 

This work was of such importance that a translation 
was proposed in 1812 and a Government Notice was 
issued offering a premium of three thousand guilders 
for a correct translation into English. 

The position of the press in Demerara and Esse- 
quebo can be seen from the following extract from a 
Ms. called "The Talisman" written in 1811; the 
author is unknown but he must have been English, 
for he abuses the Dutch laws and the lawyers who 
enforced them: — 

288 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

"The indignant feelings of an English heart will exclaim 
"why"? (i. e., Why not make their grievances known) then, 
it is because their Governor informs the inhabitants that they 
are under Dutch Law, where the liberty of the press is com- 
pletely done away; and no petition can be forwarded or 
meeting held but by the Governor's authority and control, 
which completely closes the Door against redress, and acts as 
a security against the most determined individual, so that his 
sufferings have to be borne without a murmur, and every- 
thing remains at the mercy of sordid caprice or interested 


Essequebo en Demerary Courant? 1793-5. 

Weekly, Printed and published by J. C. de la Coste, 
Stabroek. (No copy appears to exist and the title is 

The Royal Essequebo and Demerary Gazette, 1796-1802. 
Weekly. One Joe ($8.80) per annum. Printed by Ellis 

and Cox, Stabroek (now Georgetown). In 1802, 

printed by Samuel Cox. 
The Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has the 

following : — 

1796, No. 5, September 24th. 

1802. No. 319, November 6th ("Royal" left out.) 

Niewe Courant van Essequebo en Demerary, 1803, Jan. 
Weekly. Printed by Nicolaas Volkerts, Gouvernments 

(No copy known.) 

The Essequebo and Demerary Gazette, 1803 — 

Weekly. Printed and published by E. J. Henery, Sta- 
The Colonial Secretary's Office has: — 

1803. Oct. 8 to Dec. 31. Nos. 41-53. 

1804. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. Nos. 54-105 (wanting No.56.) 

1805. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. Nos. 106-157. 

1806. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. Nos. 158-209. 

(Nos. 158 to 184 printed by N. Volkerts, Nos. 185 to 
209 by T. Bond.) 

1918.] The Press in British Guiana 289 

The Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has: — 

1804. June 10. 

1805. June 22. 

The Colonial Registrar's Office has: — 
1807-8 complete, 2 vols. 
(To May 16, 1807, printed by Aulert and Bond.) 

The Esseqtjebo and Demerary Royal Gazette, 

Tuesdays and Saturdays. Printed by Edward James 

Henery, Stabroek. 
Files in Colonial Secretary's Office: — 

1810-1813, '15. Vols. V-YIII, X. Five volumes com- 
Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has: — 

1812. Feb. 15. 
June 9. 
Oct. 6. 

1814. Aug. 6 to 23, Dec. 10. 
Colonial Registrar's Office has: — 

1810. Jan. to Oct. 6. 

1811. Complete. 

The Royal Gazette: Demerary and Esseqtjebo. 

Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Printed by Wil- 
liam Baker. 

Colonial Secretary's Office has: — 
1816-20. Complete. 

Colonial Registrar's Office has:- — 
1820. Complete. 

Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has: — 

1819. April 6. 
April 10. 

May 25 to Aug. 19. 

1820. Complete. 

The Esseqtjebo and Demerary Gazette. 

Wednesdays and Saturdays. Printed by Aulert and 

Colonial Secretary's Office has: — 

1813. Complete. 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Guiana Chronicle and Georgetown Gazette, 1814 — 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Printed by Aulert 

and Stevenson or A. Stevenson. 
Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has: — 

1816. June 14. 

1817. Dec. 10. 
1819. April 23. 

June 7 and 14. 

1819. Dec. 22. 

1820. Complete. ("Bemerara" not Georgetown 

Berbice Gazette, 1806 — 

Saturdays. Printed by N. Volkerts, New Amsterdam, 

Berbice. Subscriptions $12. 

Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has: — 

1812. Jan. 4 to June 13. 

Note With the exception of the last the papers were all published in 
Georgetown, Demerara, Stabroek until 1812 when the name was 

1918.] North Carolina. 291 




The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue. In the case of common 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress " Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 

292 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations 
except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about twelve installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with a historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgement of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material 
will be held in type until after the printing of the final in- 
stallment, the compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 

1918.] North Carolina. 293 


[Edenton] Encyclopedian Instructor, 1800. 

Weekly. Established May 14, 1800, judging from the 
first and only issue located, that of May 21, 1800, vol. 1, 
no. 2, entitled "The Encyclopedian Instructor, and Far- 
mer's Gazette," printed by James Wills, and edited by 
Robert Archibald. Some of the advertisements were 
continued from an earlier paper. 
A. A. S. has: 
1800. May 21. 

Edenton Gazette, 1800. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
, numbering, of "The Post-Angel, or Universal Entertain- 
ment. " The first issue with the new title of "The Eden- 
ton Gazette" was that of Nov. 19, 1800, vol. 1, no. 10, 
published by Joseph Beasley. The last issue located is 
that of Dec. 11, 1800, vol. 1, no. 13. 

Univ. of N. C. has Nov. 19, Dec. 11, 1800. 

Edenton Gazette, 1806-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1806, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Feb. 26, 1806, vol. 1, no. 9/ 
printed by James Wills and Joseph Beasley, with the title 
of "The Edenton Gazette, and North-Carolina Adver- 
tiser." In 1807, Beasley started a newspaper at Eliza- 
beth City, and Wills became sole publisher. With the 
issue of Feb. 17, 1809, the title was shortened to "The 
Edenton Gazette," but at some time between May 25, 
1813 and July 11, 1814, it was changed to "The Edenton 
Gazette, and North-Carolina General Advertiser." The 
paper was so continued by Wills until after 1820. 

N. C. State Lib. has Sept. 17, 1807 - Apr. 20, 1813. Dr. 
Richard Dillard, Edenton, has Jan. 1819 -Dec. 1820. 

294 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A. A. S. has: 


Feb. 26. 

Oct. 29. 

Nov. 26 


Apr. 27. 

June 9. 

Oct. 20. 


June 22. 


July 11. 

Nov. 14 

1818. May 12. 

[Edenton] Herald of Freedom, 1799. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the " State Gazette of North-Carolina." 
The earliest issue located with the title of "The Herald of 
Freedom" is that of Mar. 27, 1799, vol. 14, no. 680, pub- 
lished by James Wills. The last issue located is that of 
May 1, 1799, vol. 14, no. 684, 

Harvard has Mar. 27, May 1, 1799. 

Edenton Intelligencer, 1787-1788. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 2, 1787, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of June 4, 
1788, vol. 1, no. 33, entitled "The Edenton Intelligencer," 
and printed for Maurice Murphy. 

La. State Museum has June 4, 1788. 

[Edenton] Post -Angel, 1800. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 3, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 10, 1800, vol. 
1, no. 2, entitled "The Post-Angel, or Universal Enter- 
tainment," and printed for Robert Archibald by Joseph 
Beasley. The last issue with this title was that of Nov. 
12, 1800, vol. 1, no. 9, after which the title was changed 
to "The Edenton Gazette." 

Univ. of N. C. has Sept. 10, Nov. 12, 1800. Lib. Con- 
gress has Nov. 12, 1800. 

1918.] North Carolina. 295 

[Edenton] State Gazette of North -Carolina; 1788-1799. 

Weekly. Removed from Newborn and established at 
Edenton, without change of title or volume numbering, in 
1788. The earliest Edenton issue located is that of Sept. 

8, 1788, vol. 3, no. 140, published by Hodge & Wills 
(Abraham Hodge and Henry Wills), with the title of "The 
State Gazette of North-Carolina. " The issue of Aug. 2G, 
1791 states that this number completes three years of pub- 
lication in this town. In 1793, Hodge's name was omitted 
from the imprint and the paper was published by Henry 
Wills, although the earliest issue located with his imprint 
is that of May 11, 1793, which issue was entitled "State 
Gazette of North-Carolina." With the issue of Nov. 2, 
1797, Henry Wills retired and his brother, James Wills, 
became publisher. The last issue located is that of Feb. 
6, 1799, vol. 14, no. 674. Before Mar. 27, 1799, the title 
was changed to "The Herald of Freedom," which see. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 8, 1788 -July 23, 1790. Univ. 

. of N. C. has May 28, 1790 -Apr. 22, 1791. Harvard has 

June 10-24, July 8, Aug. 26 -Sept. 23, Nov. 11, 1791; 

Feb. 19, 26, Apr. 30, May 14 -June 11, July 23, Sept. 10, 

Dec. 17, 24, 1795; Mar. 17-31, Apr. 21, 28, May 19, June 

9, 16, 30-Nov. 17, Dec. 1, 22, 29, 1796; Jan. 5-26, Feb. 
9 -Mar. 30, Apr. 13, 20, May 18, June 8, 29, Aug. 10, 31 - 
Sept. 14, 28, Oct. 5, Nov. 2, Dec. 21, 1797; Jan. 18, Feb. 1, 
Mar. 1, May 24, 31, July 4, 18, Aug. 8, 1798; Feb. 6, 1799. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 12, 1793. Dr. Richard Dillard, 

• Edenton, has Oct. 3, 1794. A. A. S. has: 

1792. Mar. 30. 

1793. May 11, 25. 
June 1. 
Aug. 17. 
Sept. 21. 

1794. Jan. 4, 31. 
Feb. 7. 

1796. Jan. 14. 
Feb. 4. 
Mar. 3. 

296 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1796. May 19. 
June 2, 10. 
July 7. 
Oct. 20, 27. 
Dec. 22, 29. 
Extra: June 2. 

1797. Jan. 5, 12, 19. 
Mar. 16. 
June 22, 29. 
July 13, 27. 
Aug. 10. 
Sept. 7. 
Nov, 2. 

Dec. 21. 

Supplement: Jan. 12, June 22. 

1798. Mar. 1. 
May 10, 24. 
July 4 m . 
Aug. 29. 
Oct. 31. 
Dec. 26. 

1799. Jan. 2, 23, 30. 
Feb. 20. 

Elizabeth -City Gazette, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established July 31, 1807, by Joseph Beasley, 
with the title of "The Elizabeth-City Gazette, and Pub- 
lic Advertiser." The last issue located is that of Jan. 
14, 1808, vol. 1, no. 25. 

A. A. S. has: 

1807. July 31. 
Aug. 13, 20. 
Dec. 31. 

1808. Jan. 7, 14. 

[Fayetteville] American, 1813-1817. 

Weekly. Established in February, 1813, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 13, 1814, 
vol. 2, no. 87, published by A[ ] F. Bovvell, with the 

1918.] North Carolina. ' 297 

title of " The American. " At some time between the date 

of this issue and Apr. 20, 1816, Black was admitted 

to partnership and the paper was published by Bowel 1 & 
Black. The last issue located is that of Jan. 9, 1817, vol. 
4, no. 48. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 26, 1816. Lib. Congress has 
Oct. 10, 17, Nov. 14, 21, Dec. 5, 1816; Jan. 9, 1817. 
A. A. S. has: 

1814. Oct. 13. 
1816. Sept. 26. 

[Fayetteville] Carolina Observer, 1816. 

Weekly. Established June 20, 1816, by Francis W. 
Waldo, with the title of ''Carolina Observer." 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Aug. 22". 

1817. Jan. 30. 
Feb. 6, 27. 
Apr. 24. 

1818. Apr. 30. 

Fayetteville Gazette, 1789. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 24, 1789, by Burkloe & 

Mears ( Burkloe and Mears), with the title 

of "Fayetteville Gazette." The issues from Sept. 14 to 
Oct. 12, 1789, were published by Sibley and Howard 
(John Sibley and Caleb D. Howard). Evidently the title 
was soon changed to "The North-Carolina Chronicle; or, 
Fayetteville Gazette," which see. 

N. C. Hist. Comm., Raleigh, has Aug. 24, 1789. Univ. 
of N. C. has Sept. 14, 21, Oct. 12, 1789. 

Fayetteville Gazette, 1792-1794. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 7, 1792, with the title of 
"Fayetteville Gazette," printed by Alexander Martin, 
for John Sibley. At some time between June 1 1 and Nov. 
19, 1793, the title was altered to "The Fayetteville 
Gazette" and the paper was printed by Lancelot A. 
Mullin, for John Sibley. The issue of Nov. 19, 1793, vol. 

298 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

2, no. 65, is the last located, although an issue as late as 
Jan. 14, 1794 is quoted in C. L. Coon's "N. C. Schools 
and Academies," p. GO, but is not now to be found. 
A. A. S. has: 

1792. Aug. 7. 
Sept. 25. 

Oct. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 27. 
Dec. 11. 

1793. Jan. 2. 
Mar. 5, 12. 
May 21, 28. 
June 4. 
Nov. 19. 

Fayetteville Intelligencer, 1809-1811. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the " North-Carolina Intelligencer, and 
Fayetteville Advertiser." Although the change of title 
probably occurred in 1809, the earliest issue located with 
the new title was that of Mar. 22, 1811, vol. 5, no. 260, 

published by Ray and Black ( Ray and 

Black), with the title of " Fayetteville Intelligencer." 
This is furthermore the only issue located. 

A. A. S. has: 
1811. Mar. 22. 

[Fayetteville] North - Carolina Centinel, 1795. 

Weekly. Established May 30, 1795, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 25, 1795, no. 
9, published by Thomas Connoly & Co., with the title of 
"The North-Carolina Centinel and Fayetteville Gazette." 
With the issue of either Aug. 22 or 29, 1795, the paper was 

published by J[ ] V. Lewis and T. Connoly. The 

last issue located is that of Aug. 29, 1795, no. 14. Con- 
noly's press and types were bought by Abraham Hodge 
(see his advertisment in "The North-Carolina Journal" 
of Halifax, Jan. 11, 1796). 

Harvard has July 25, Aug. 8, 15, 29, 1795. 

1918.] North Carolina. 299 

[Fayettevflle] North - Carolina Chronicle, 1790-1791. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the " Fayetteville Gazette." The change 
probably occurred early in January, 1790, although the 
earliest issue located with the new title of "The North- 
Carolina Chronicle; or, Fayetteville Gazette" was that of 
Feb. 1, 1790, vol. 1, no. 23, published by Sibley & Howard 
(John Sibley and Caleb D. Howard). With the issue of 
Sept. 13, 1790, the paper was changed from a four-page 
folio to a quarto of eight pages, and was printed by George 
Roulstone for John Sibley & Co. With the issue of Oct. 
11, 1790, it was printed by Howard & Roulstone for John 
Sibley & Co. It was discontinued with the issue of Mar. 
7, 1791, vol. 2, no. 26. 

Univ. of N. C. has Sept. 13, 1790 -Mar. 7, 1791. Archi- 
bald Henderson, Chapel Hill, N. C. has Nov. 22, 1790. 
A. A. S. has: 

1790. Feb. 1. 

May 10, 24, 31. 
June 7. 
July 19. 

[Fayetteville] North - Carolina Intelligencer, 1805-1809. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 2, 1805, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 18, 1806, vol. 

1, no. 12, published by Ray and Black ( Ray and 

Black), with the title of "North-Carolina Intelligencer, 

and Fayetteville Advertiser." Early in 1809, judging 
from quotations in contemporaneous newspapers, the 
title was changed to "Fayetteville Intelligencer, " which 

Harvard has Jan. 18, 1806. A. A. S. has: 

1806. Aug. 16. 
Oct. 11. 

1807. Apr. 17. 
May 15. 

1808. June 17. 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Fayetteville] North -Carolina Minerva, 1790-1799. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 24, 1796, by Hodge and 
Boylan (Abraham Hodge and William Boylan), with the 
title of "The North-Carolina Minerva, and Fayetteville 
Advertiser. " It was so continued until April, 1799, when 
it was removed to Raleigh and there reestablished, May 
7, 1799, without change of volume numbering. The last 
Fayetteville issue located is that of Mar. 23, 1799, vol. 4, 
no. 157. 

Harvard has Mar. 31, Apr. 21, May 12 ; June 9 -July 9, 
23, 30, Aug. 13-Oct. 1, 15-Dec. 3, 31, 1796; Jan. 7-Apr. 
15, May 13, June 3, 10, Nov. 4, 18, 1797; Feb. 10, 17, Mar. 
3, 24, May 12, 19, June 10- July 7, Aug. 11, Nov. 3, Dec. 1, 
15, 1798; Jan. 26, Feb. 9, Mar. 16, 23, 1799. A. A. S. has: 
1798. Nov. 17. 

[Halifax] 1784. 

James Iredell, in writing to his wife, under date of Mar- 
28, 1784, says, "They have begun to print a newspaper at 
Halifax, which is to be continued weekly. The only one 
of them I have seen contains instructions from the county 
of Northampton" (McRee's " Life of Iredell, vol. 2, p. 96). 
Neither the title of this paper nor the name of the printer 
is known. It probably was printed by Thomas Davis, 
since he was printing the State laws at Halifax during this 

[Halifax] North Carolina Comp. 1819. 

In the "Columbian Museum" of Savannah, of Mar. 27; 
1819, is a quotation from the "Halifax N. C. Comp." 
The title may have been "Compendium," or "Com- 
piler." No copy located. 

[Halifax] North -Carolina Journal, 1792-1812. 

Weekly. Established July 18, 1792, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 1, 1792, no. 
3, published by Hodge & Wills (Abraham Hodge and 
Henry Wills), with the title of "The North-Carolina 
Journal." With the issue of Feb. 6, 1793, the firm dis- 
solved partnership, and Abraham Hodge became sole 

1918.] North Carolina. 301 

publisher. Hodge died Aug. 3, 1805, and in the issue of 
Aug. 5, William Boylan, his nephew, announced that the 
paper would be suspended for a few weeks until a new 
printer was secured. The next issue was that of Sept. 30, 

1805, which was printed by James L. Edwards, for the 
heirs of Abraham Hodge. With the issue of Aug. 11, 

1806, the paper was printed for the heirs of Abraham 
Hodge, without a printer's name. With the issue of Oct. 
13, 1806, it was printed by Thomas Henderson, Jun., for 
the heirs of Abraham Hodge. The issue of Mar. 2, 1807, 
no. 755, was the last printed by Henderson, and the paper 
was then sold by William Boylan, who had inherited it 
from his uncle, to William W. Seaton. Seaton's first issue 
was that of Mar. 9, 1807, published with the same title, 
but with a new volume numbering. In 1808, at some 
time before Sept. 26, Wright W. Batchelor became the 
publisher. The last-issue located is that of Dec. 17, 1810, 
vol. 3, no. 143. Wright W. Batchelor, "Editor of the 

. North Carolina Journal," died at Halifax in February, 
1812 (" Raleigh Register," Feb. 28, 1812). 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 1, 1792-May 20, 1799; May 12, 
1800; May 11, 1801; Dec. 14, 1807. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 
Jan. 12, 1795 -Dec. 10, 1798. Harvard has Apr. 27, May 
18, 25, June 15-29, July 13-27, Aug. 10-31, Nov. 16, 
Dec. 28, 1795; Jan. 4, 18, Apr. 11 -May 2, 16, 23, June 20- 
July 25, Aug. 15-29, Sept. 12-Oct. 17, Nov. 7, 14, Dec. 
26, 1796; Jan. 2, 16, 30, Apr. 17, Dec. 25, 1797; Jan. 1, 
Nov. 12, 1798; Feb. 10, Mar. 10, Apr. 7, 21, Oct. 20, 1800. 
N. C. Hist. Comm., Raleigh, has Sept. 19, 1796. Univ. 
of N. C. has May 9, 16, July 4, 11, 1796; Sept. 13, 1802; 
Jan. 7, 1805 -Mar. 2, 1807. John G. Wood, Edenton, has 
Nov. 12, 1798-Dec. 27, 1802. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 15, Mar. 19, May 21 
Missing: Jan. 1, 8. 

1795. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Sept. 21, Oct. 5. 

Mutilated: Apr. 13, 20. 

302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


Jan. 4 to Doc. 2G. 

Extra: Apr. 4. 

Missing : Dec. 20 


Jan. 29. 


Sept. 15. 

Dec. 22. 


July 13. 


Jan. 25. 


July 4. 


Mar. 9. 

June 1, 15 m . 

July 6, 13, 27. 

Aug. 3, 17. 

Sept 7, 14. 

Dec. 14. 21. 


Sept. 2G. 

Nov. 7. 

Dec. 26. 


Jan. 16. 

Oct. 16, 30. 


June 4. 

Dec. 17. 

[Hillsborough] North Carolina Gazette, 1786. 

Weekly. The only copy located is that of Feb. 16* 
1786, entitled "The North Carolina Gazette," and 
printed by Robert Ferguson for Thomas Davis, but with- 
out a volume number. 

Univ. of N. C. has Feb. 16, 1786. 

Hillsborough Recorder, 1820 -f. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 9, 1820, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 15, 1820, 
vol. 1, no. 6, published by Dennis Heartt, with the title of 
"Hillsborough Recorder." Continued until after 1820. 

Univ. of N. C. has Mar 15 -Dec. 27, 1820. 

[Lincolnton] 1802. 

F. A. Michaux, in his "Travels" (Edition of 1805, p. 
267) states "At Lincolnton they print a newspaper in folio 

1918.] North Carolina. 303 

that comes out twice a week. The price of subscription 
is two dollars per year." The time of this visit was 
October, 1802. J. M. Slump is known to have printed at 
"Lincolntown" in 1800 (see Sabin's ■'Dictionary," no. 

43097). No copy of the newspaper has been located. 

Milton Intelligencer, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in July, 1818, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of June 4, 
1819, vol. 1, no. 46, published by John H. Perkins, with the 
title of " Milton Intelligencer. " John H. Perkins, " editor 
of the Milton Intelligencer," was married July 26, 1821, 
to Susan Royal (" Raleigh Register," Aug. 17, 1821). 
A. A. S. has: 
1819. June 4. 

[Murfreesborough] Hornets' Nest, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 3, 1812, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 1, 1812, vol. 

1, no. 5, published by Dickinson & Huntington ( 

Dickinson and Minor Huntington), with the title of "The 
Hornets' Nest." The paper was edited under the 
pseudonym of "Bryant Bramble, Esq." The last issue 
located is that of Apr. 22, 1813, vol. 1, no. 34. 
A. A. S. has: 

1812. Oct. 1. 
Dec. 31. 

1813. Jan. 7. 
Mar. 18. 
Apr. 22. 

[New Bern] Carolina Centinel, 1818- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 21, 1818, by John I. 
Pasteur, with the title of " Carolina Centinel ". With the 
issue of Mar. 25, 1820, Thomas Watson was admitted to 
partnership, and the paper was published by Pasteur & 
Watson, and was so continued until after 1820. 

Lib. Congress has Mar. 21, 1818 -Dec. 30, 1820. Ncw- 
bern Lib. Assoc, and N. Y. Hist. Soc. have Mar. 28, 
1818-Dec. 30, 1820. Harvard has Dec. 4, 1819-Dec. 30, 

304 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1820. E. W. Smallwood, Newbern, has Mar. 25 -Dec. 30, 
1820. A. A. S. has: 
1819. Apr. 24. 

[Newbern] Carolina Federal Republican, 1809-1818. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 5, 1809, by John S. Pasteur, 
with the title of "The Carolina Federal Republican." 
Pasteur died Nov. 17, 1809, and the paper was published 

by Hall and Bryan (Salmon Hall and Bryan). 

With the issue of Jan. 18, 1812, S. Hall became sole pub- 
lisher and continued the paper as far as the last issue 
located, that of Apr. 25, 1818, vol. 10, no. 480. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has June 30, July 21 -Aug. 18, Sept. 1, 
1810; Feb. 25, 1811; July 6, 1816- Apr. 25, 1818. Lib. 
Congress has Jan. 4, 1812-Dec. 25, 1813. Archibald 
Henderson, Chapel Hill, N. C, has Nov. 17, 1810. A. A. 
S. has: 

1809. Jan. 12. 

Feb. 9, 10, 23. 
Mar. 30. 

1810. Feb. 12. 
Apr. 16. 
May 26. 
June 16. 

Newbern Gazette, 1798-1804. 

Weekly. Established in April, 1798, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 24, 1798, 
vol. 1, no. 34, entitled "The Newbern Gazette," printed 
for John C. Osborn & Co. At some time between 
August, 1799, and May, 1800, John S. Pasteur became the 
publisher. Late in 1800 or early in 1801, the title was 
altered to "The Newbern Gazette. And Political and 
Miscellaneous Register," but in 1803 or 1804, it reverted 
to "The Newbern Gazette." The last issue located is 
that of Mar. 9, 1804, vol. 7, no. 310. 

Lib. Congress has Nov. 24 -Dec. 29, 1798; Jan. 12, 26- 
Mar. 16, 1799; May 23, Aug. 15, 1800; Apr. 25 ; 1801. 
Harvard has July 20, 1799. A. A. S. has: 

1918.] North Carolina. 305 

1803. June 10. 

1804. Mar. 9. 

Newbern Herald, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Morning Herald." The earliest 
issue located with the new title of "Newbern Herald" is 
that of Jan. 20, 1809, vol. 2, no. 99, the change having oc- 
curred probably on Jan. 6, 1809. The publishers were 
Watson and Hall (Thomas Watson and Salmon Hall). 
With the issue of Mar. 2, 1809, the partnership was dis- 
solved and the paper was published by Thomas Watson. 
The last issue located is that of Feb. 26, 1810, vol. 3, no. 
156. In March, the title was changed to "The True 
Republican, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser," published 
by Thomas Watson, without change of volume numbering. 

Lib. Congress has Dec. 18, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Jan. 20. 

Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
Apr. 15, 22, 29. 
May 13, 20. 
June 10. 
Sept. 9, 30. 
Nov. 27. 
Dec. 4. 

1810. Jan. 8, 22, 29. 
Feb. 26. 

[New Bern] Martin's North - Carolina Gazette, see under North 
Carolina Gazette, 1786-1797. 

[Newbern] Morning Herald, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established early in March, 1807, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 17, 
1807, vol. 1, no. 29, published by Watson and Hall 
(Thomas Watson and Salmon Hall), with the title of 
"The Morning Herald." Early in January, 1809, the 
title was changed to " Newbern Herald," which see. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 17, Oct. 1, 1807. A. A. S. has: 

306 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1808. Nov. 18. 

Dec. 2, 9, 23, 30. 

[Newbern] North Carolina Circular, 1803-1805. 

Weekly. Established July 15, 1803, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 23, 1803, 

vol. 1, no. 11, published by Franklin & G arrow ( — 

Franklin and Garrow), with the title of "The 

North Carolina Circular, and Newbern Weekly Adver- 
tiser. " There were frequent minor changes in the punc- 
tuation of the title. The last issue located is that of 
July 10, 1805, vol. 3, no. 106. 

Harvard has Oct. 28 -Dec. 16, 1803; Aug. 10, 24, Sept. 
28, Oct. 5, Nov. 23, Dec. 7, 21, 1804; Feb. 15, Mar. 8, 15, 
July 10, 1805. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Sept. 23. 

1804. Feb. 24. 

[New Bern] North - Carolina Gazette, 1755-1759. 

Weekly. Established May 2, 1755, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 15, 1757, no. 
103, published by James Davis, with the title of "The 
No th . Carolina Gazette." The issue of May 2, pre- 
sumably the initial issue, is quoted in "The Pennsylvania 
Gazette" of May 29, 1755. The next and only other 
issue located is that of Oct. 18, 1759, no. 200. It was this 
issue that caused Thomas, in his "History of Printing," 
1874 ed., vol. 2, p. 166, to assume that the paper was es- 
stablished in December, 1755, whereas the volume num- 
bering of the two issues would show that there was a 
hiatus in publication of nearly seven months. Thomas 
states that the paper was continued for about six years, 
but no copy is known after 1759. 

British Public Record Office, London, has Apr. 15, 1757. 
A. A. S. has: 

1759. Oct. 18. 

[New Bern] North - Carolina Gazette, 1768-1778. 

Weekly. Established May 27, 1768, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of June 24, 1768, 

1918.] North Carolina. 307 

no. 5, published by James Davis, with the title of "The 
North-Carolina Gazette." The last issue located is that 
of Nov. 30, 1778, no. 456. Publication was occasionally 
suspended during this period. 

British Public Record Office, London, has Nov. 10, 
1769; Sept. 2, 1774; Feb. 24, Apr. 14, 1775. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has July 15, 1774; Oct. 6, Dec. 22, 1775. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 24, Apr. 7, May 5, 12, June 30, July 7, 11, 
1775. John G. Wood, Edenton, has June 16, 1775. 
Univ. of N. C. has July 4. 1777 -Nov. 30, 1778. A. A. 8. 

1768. June 24. 

[New Bern] North - Carolina Gazette, 1786-1797. 

Weekly. Established in the first part of January, 
1786, judging from the date of the earliest issue located, 
that of July. 11, 1787, vol. 2, no. 80, of quarto size, pub- 
lished by Francis X. Martin with the title of "Martin's 
. North-Carolina Gazette. " The next issue located is that 
of Dec. 19, 1787, of folio size, called " Martin's North 
Carolina Gazette," and the next, that of Apr. 1, 1790, vol. 
5, no. 221, of quarto size, is entitled "The North-Carolina 
Gazette." In 1792 or 1793, the title was shortened to 
" North-Carolina Gazette" and the size again enlarged to 
folio. Martin continued the paper to the time of the last 
issue located, that of Aug. 5, 1797, vol. 12, no. 603. 

La. State Museum has July 11, Dec. 19, 1787. Har- 
vard has June 4, July 2, 16, Sept. 24, Nov. 5, 1791; Feb. 
14, 21, May 23 -June 6, 20, July 4, 11, 1795; Mar. 5, Apr. 
30, May 14, 28, June 25 -July 16, Aug. 6, 20, Sept. 3-17, 
Oct. 1, 22-Dec. 17, 31, 1796; Jan. 7, 21 -Feb. 4, 25, Mar. 
11-25, Apr. 8, 15, 1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 12, 19, 
1793; Oct. 24 -Nov. 14, Dec. 26, 1795; Jan. 2, Feb. 13, 27, 
Apr. 2, 9, May 21 -June 18, July 2-16, 1796. Univ. of 
N. C. has June 7, 1794; Oct. 8, 1796; Aug. 5, 1797. 
A. A. S. has: 

1790. Apr. 1, 15. 

1794. Jan. 4. 

308 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[New Bern] North Carolina Magazine, 1764-1708. 

Weekly. Established June 8, 1764, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 6, 1764, 
vol. 1, no. 5, published by James Davis, with the title 
of "The North-Carolina Magazine; or, Universal Intelli- 
gencer." It was a newspaper of quarto size, with eight 
pages to the issue, but with the issue of Dec. 28, 1764 
it was decreased in size to four pages. It was continued 
probably until 1768 (Martin's "History of North Caro- 
lina," vol. 2, p. 186, and "North Carolina University 
Magazine," vol. 3, p. 40), although no copies have been 
located later than Jan. 18, 1765, vol. 2, no. 33. 
Lib. Congress has July 6, 1764- Jan. 18, 1765. 

[Newbern] State Gazette of North - Carolina, 1785 - 1788. 

Weekly. Established in November, 1785, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 4, 
1787, vol. 2, no. 99, published by Hodge & Blanchard 

(Abraham Hodge and Blanchard), with the title 

of "The State Gazette of North-Carolina." At some 
time between Nov. 15, 1787, and Mar. 27, 1788, Blanchard 
was replaced by Henry Wills, and the paper was published 
by Hodge & Wills. In the summer of 1788, the paper 
was removed to Edenton, where it was continued under 
the same title and by the same publishers. It is stated 
that the removal was induced by James Iredell (McRee's 
"Life of Iredell," vol. 2, p. 231), and judging by the vol- 
ume numbering the transfer caused a suspension of two 
months in publication. The last Newborn issue located 
is that of Mar. 27, 1788, vol. 3, no. 124. See under 

Lib. Congress has Oct, 4, 1787. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Nov. 15, 1787. N. C. Hist. Comm., Raleigh, has Mar. 
27, 1788. 
[Newbern] True Republican, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Newbern Herald." The change of 
title came in March, 1810, but the earliest issue located is 
that of Apr. 2, 1810, vol. 4, no. 161, published by Thomas 

1918.] North Carolina. 309 

Watson, with the title of " The True Republican, and New- 
bern Weekly Advertiser." The last issue located is 
that of Aug. 7, 1811, vol. 5, no. 230. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has July 25 -Aug. 15, Sept. 5, 1810. 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. Apr. 2, 16, 23. 
May 7. 

June 2, 16, 23. 
July 14. 
Aug. 1. 
Sept. 5. 

Oct. 10, 17, 24. 
Nov. 7, 21, 28. 
Dec. 5, 25. 

1811. Jan. 8, 15. 
Feb. 19. 
Mar. 26. 
June 12, 19. 
July 17. 
Aug. 7. 

[Raleigh] Minerva, 1803-1820-f . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The North-Carolina Minerva." The 
first issue with the title of "Minerva; or, Anti-Jacobin" 
was that of May 2, 1803, vol. 8, no. 369, published by 
William Boylan. Early in 1805, the title was shortened 
to "The Minerva. " With the issue of Nov. 30, 1809, the 
title was altered to "The Raleigh Minerva." On May 
24, 1810, Alexander Lucas became associated with Boylan 
as editor, although his name did not appear in the im- 
print. With the issue of Nov. 29, 1810, William Boylan 
retired and the paper was published by [Alexander] 
Lucas and A[braham] H. Boylan. At some time between 
May 1, 1812, and June 30, 1815, Alexander Lucas became 
sole publisher. At some time between Dec. 4, 1818, and 
Oct. 29, 1819, the firm name became Lucas and Harvey, 
and the paper was so continued until after 1820. 

310 American Antiquarian Socvdm. 

Harvard has May 2-Jare 13, 27-Aag. 29, Sept. 19- 
Dec 35, 1803; Jan. 9, 23. Mar. 26, Aug. 27, ISM; Jw 
3, Aug. 12, Dec 23, 1HK. IAl Con-res* has May 1*. 
1803 -Dec 31, l*Oi: Dec 24, 1807; Sept 15. 1815; Aj*. 

:•: ::.;-. .: ;^-:4 .: :_;-:-. _-__,• : _.::•__■.. 

1,1816, Mar Im.U X. G. has Jam. 5. 1887- 

Dec29, 1808. N.aHsCCoaHc 9 BalBe^kasJamL.5- 
Nov. 23 r 1809, on loan from Mrs- Jans BoyiaiL. X. C 
State lib. has Xov. 30, 1809-Hor. 22, 1810; Oct 29, 
1819-Dec 31, 1820. Mass. Hkc Soc has Dec 4, 1818. 
A- A. S has: 




Mar. 12, 19. 


Oct. 3d. 


July 14, 21. 


Sept. 21. 
Nov. 16. 


Mar. 1, 15 r 29. 
Apr. 5. 
May 10, 24. 

.1: " -: 

;„-- : : . ;. 

Sept. 13, 20. 
Oct 11. 


Mar. 14. 
Apr. 5. 
May 17. 

."-:., :: 

Oct- 11. 




June 30-. 


Dec 6, 13. 

. Raleigh j Nord 

i- Carolina Minerva 

S 1799-1803. 


Removed from I 

1918.] North Carolina. 311 

at Raleigh, without change of publisher or volume num- 
bering, on May 7, 1799. The earliest Raleigh issue 
located is that of May 28, 1799, vol. 4, no. 1G3, published 
by Hodge and Boylan (Abraham Hodge and William 
Boylan), with the title of "The North-Carolina Minerva, 
and Raleigh Advertiser. " Late in 1800, the title was 
shortened to "The North-Carolina Minerva." The last 
issue with this title was that of Apr. 25, 1803, vol. 8, no. 
368, when it was changed to "Minerva; or, Anti-Jacobin, " 
and Hodge retired from the firm. See under "Minerva." 
Harvard has May 28, July 9, Sept, 10, Oct. 8, 29, Dec. 
17, 1799; Jan. 7, 21, 28, Mar. 11 -Apr. 1, 22, Aug. 19, 20, 
Oct. 14, 1800; Jan. 6, 20, Feb. 10-24, Mar. 24 -Apr. 21, 
May 0, July 21, 28, Aug. 25, Sept, 15, 29, Oct. G, Dec. 15- 
29, 1801; Jan. 5, 19, Feb. 2, 1G, 23, Mar. 9, Apr. 26, May 
3, 17, June 1-29, July 13 -Nov. 9, 30, Dec. 7, 21, 28, 
1802; Jan. 11 -Feb. 1, 15, 22, Mar. 7 -Apr. 18, 1803. 
Univ. of N. C. has Aug. 27, 1799; Mar. 11 Extra, Aug. 12, 
1800. Lib. Congress has Dec. 23, 1800; Jan. 4 -Apr. 11, 
1803. A. A. S. has: 

1799. Nov. 26. 

1800. Mar. 20. 
1802. Feb. 23. 

Raleigh Register, 1799- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Oct. 22, 1799, by Joseph Gales, 
with the title of "Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina 
Weekly Advertiser. " With the issue of Dec. 2, 1800, the 
title was changed to "Raleigh Register, and North- 
Carolina State Gazette. " The printing-office was burned 
Jan. 29, 1804, and the issues to Mar. 26 following were 
printed on half sheets. Semi-weekly issues were published 
from Nov. 22 to Dec. 13, 1804, to cover the sessions of the 
State legislature. With the issue of Jan. 5, 1809, William 
W. Seaton, who married Gales' daughter, was admitted to 
partnership, under the firm name of Gales & Seaton. 
With the issue of Dec. 27, 1811, the title was altered to 
"Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina Gazette." With 
the issue of Oct. 23, 1812, Joseph Gales became sole pro- 

312 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

prietor, Seaton having removed to Washington to conduct 
with Joseph Gales, Jr., the "National Intelligencer." 
The paper was continued by the elder Gales until after 

N. C. State Lib. has Oct. 22, 1799 -Dec. 29, 1815; Jan. 
2, 1818-Dec. 29, 1820. Harvard has Aug. 25, 1801- 
Dec. 29, 1806, fair. Lib. Congress has Feb. 10, 1801; 
Oct. 1, 1807, Dec. 14, 1809; Jan. 9, 1818-Dec. 29, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1800. Feb. 4. 

Apr. 1, 15. 

Nov. 18'". 

Dec. 2. 
1802. Jan. 5. 

Mar. 23. 

1804. May 7, 21. 
June 11. 
Aug. 20. 
Sept. 3. 
Oct. 22, 29. 
Nov. 22, 26. 

1805. Jan. 14, 21, 28. 
Feb. 25. 
Mar. 4, 18. 
May 20. 
June 10, 24. 
Aug. 12. 
Nov. 25. 

1806. Feb. 17. 
Apr. 28. 
May 5, 12. 
June 23. 
July 7, 14, 21. 
Oct. 6. 

Nov. 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 8, 22. 

1807. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 23. 

1918.] North Carolina. 313 

1807. Mar. 2, 16, 30. 
Apr. 0, 13, 16, 23. 
May 21, 28. 
June 11, 25. 
July 9. 

Aug. 6. 
Sept. 3. 

1808. Jan. 7. 
Feb. 18. 

Mar. 3, 17, 24, 31. . 

Apr. 14. 

May 5. 

Sept. 29"\ 

Oct. 13™, 20. 

Nov. 3-, 10". 

Dec. 29. 

1809. Apr. 6. 
May 4, 25. 
Aug. 31. 
Dec. 14, 28. 

1810. Jan. 11, 25. 
Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 15, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5, 12, 19. 
May 3, 10, 24. 
June 14, 21, 28. 
July 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Aug. 9, 16, 23. 
Sept. 20. 

Oct. 4, 18**, 25. 
Nov. 1, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

1811. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 31. 
Feb. 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21. 
Apr. 12, 26. 
May 3, 10, 24. 
June 7, 14, 21, 28. 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1811. July 5. 
Aug. 2. 
Sept. 20". 
Oct. 4, 11. 
Nov. 8, 22. 
Dec. 20-, 27. 

1812. Jan. 3, 10 m , 31. 
Feb. 7. 28. 
Mar. 13. 

Apr. 10, 24. 
May 1, 8. 
June 5, 12. 
July 17, 24. 
Aug. 21, 28. 
Oct, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 13. 

1813. Jan. 1, 15, 22. 
Feb. 5, 26. 
Mar. 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 9, 16. 
June 4, 11. 
July 23. 

Aug. 6, 13. 
Oct. 8. 
Nov. 5, 27. 
Dec. 17, 31. 

1814. Apr. 22. 
May 6. 
Aug. 5. 
Sept. 30. 

1815. Aug. 25. 
Dec. 8, 22. 

1817. Jan. 3. 

[Raleigh] Star, 1808- 1820 + . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 3, 1808, by Jones & 

Henderson ( Jones and Thomas Henderson, Jun.), 

with the title of "The Star." With the issue of Apr. 20, 
1809, the paper was published by Thomas Henderson, 

1918.] North Carolina. 315 

Jun. for self & Co. With the issue of Jan. 5, 1816, the 
title was altered to ""The Star, and North-Carolina State 
Gazette." It was so continued by Henderson until after 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 10, 1808-Dec. 27, 1810; 
July 2, 1813 -Dec. 29, 1820. Trinity Coll. Hist. Soc, 
Durham, has Jan. 18 -Dec. 27, 1810. Univ. of N. C. has 
Jan. 3, 1811 -Dec. 24, 1813. N. C. State Lib. has Jan. 
19-Feb. 23, Mar. 9-May 11, June 1, 29-Aug. 3, 31-Nov. 
9, 23-Dec. 28, 1809; Jan. 4-Apr. 5, 19-May 31, 1810; 
Feb. 7, 1811 -Dec. 18, 1812; Apr. 16, 23, May 7, 21 -Aug. 
20, Sept. 3 -Nov. 26, 1813; Jan. 6 -Dec. 29, 1815; Apr. 
16-Oct. 22, 1819. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 15, 1810. 
Lib. Congress has Apr. 19, 1811; Aug. 9, 1816. A. A. S. 

1809. Oct. 19. 
Nov. 16 m . 

1810. Apr. 12, 19, 26. 
May 3™, 24 ,n . 
June 7 m , 28. 
July 19. 

Sept. 6™, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 22. 

1811. Jan. 3. 
Feb. 14, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14. 
May 3, 17. 
Oct. 4. 

1812. June 19. 
July 10™, 17. 

1813. Aug. 13. 
1817. July 18, 25. 

[Salisbury] North - Carolina Mercury, 1798-1801. 

Weekly. Established in May, 1798, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 27, 1799, 
vol. 2, no. 62, published by Francis Coupee, with the 
title of "The North-Carolina Mercury, and Salisbury 

316 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Advertiser." The last issue located is that of Aug. 13, 
1801, vol. 4, no. 108. 

Univ. of N. C. has July 27, 1799. Trinity Coll. Hist. 
Soc, Durham, has Dec. 5-20, 1799; Jan. 10, 23, Feb. 27, 
Mar. 20, Apr. 10, May 1, 8, June 12-20, July 31, Aug. 
21-Sept. 4, 23, Oct, 9, 18, 30, 1800; Apr. 23-May 7, 28- 
June 11, 25-July 9, 23, 30, Aug. 13, 1801. Lib. Con- 
gress has Jan. 29, 1801. 

[Salisbury] Western Carolinian, 1820 +. 

Weekly. Issues of the " Western Carolinian" from 
June 13, 1820 to 1823 are quoted in C. L. Coon's "N. C. 
Schools and Academies," 1915, pp. 10, 352-305, but these 
issues cannot now be located. They were published by 
Krider & Bingham ( Krider and Lemuel Bingham). 

[Warrenton] North Carolina Messenger, 1804. 

There is a reference in the "Raleigh Register" of Jan. 
30, 1804, to the printing-office of Richard Davison at 
Warrenton. In the "Raleigh Register" of Nov. 22, 1804, 
Davison advertises that his printing-office was entirely 
burned out on Nov. 10, and that he hopes to resume pub- 
lication of his paper, the North Carolina Messenger. No 
copy of this paper, however, has been located. 

[Washington] American Recorder, 1815- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 21, 1815, by I [John] 
M'Williams, with the title of "American Recorder," and 
so continued until after 1820. 

Lib. Congress has June 2, 1815; Aug. 23, Sept. 13, Dec. 
13, 1810; July 3, 10, 1818; Jan. 8 -July 30. Nov. 19, 1819. 
A. A. S. has: 

1815. Apr. 28. 
May 5. 
June 30. 
July 7, 28-. 
Aug. 25. 
Sept. 1. 

1816. Jan. 19. 
Mar. 15. 
Apr. 5, 19. 

1918.] North Carolina. 317 

Washington Gazette, 1806-1808. 

Weekly. Established in November, 1806, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 4, 1808, 
vol. 2, no. 97, published by Thomas Alderson, Jun., with 
the title of "Washington Gazette. And Weekly Adver- 
tiser." The last issue located is that of Nov. 29, 1808, 
vol. 2, no. 105. 

1808. Oct. 4, 11, 18. 
Nov. 1, 22, 29. 

(Wilmington] Cape -Fear Herald, 1802-1803. 

Weekly. In "The North-Carolina Minerva" of Nov. 
30, 1802, there is an advertisement, signed by Boylan & 
Ray, stating that "The Cape-Fear Herald" will be estab- 
lished at Wilmington about Dec. 10, 1802. In the same 
paper of Jan. 18, 1803, is a quotation from "The Cape- 
Fear Herald." No copy located. 

[Wilmington] Cape -Fear Mercury, 1769-1775. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 13, 1769, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 24, 1769, 
no. 7, published by A[dam] Boyd, with the title of "The 
Cape-Fear Mercury. " The paper was suspended in 1774, 
and the Wilmington Committee of Safety, on Jan. 30, 
1775, voted to encourage Adam Boyd in continuing his 
newspaper, "some time ago laid aside" (N. C. Colonial 
Records, vol. 9, p. 1118). Judging from the volume num- 
bering, it was suspended for about five months from the 
fall of 1774 to the spring of 1775. The last issue located 
is that of Sept. 1, 1775, no. 270. It evidently was soon 
afterward discontinued, as Boyd was commissioned in the 
Continental service in January, 1776. What purported 
to be an issue of this paper of June 3, 1775, a palpable for- 
gery, was exploited in 1905, and was exposed in the 
American Historical Review of April, 1906, vol. 11, no. 
548, where photographs of several issues arc reproduced. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 9, 1770, Supplement. Univ. 
of N. C. has Sept. 22, 1773. British Pub. Rec. Office has 
Dec. 29, 1773; July 28, Aug. 4, 11, 25, Sept. 1, 1775. 

318 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A. A. S. has: 

1769. Nov. 24. 

[Wilmington] Cape -Fear Recorder, 1816-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established May 13, 1816, by Thomas 
Loring, with the title of "The Cape-Fear Recorder." In 
1817, or early in 1818, the paper was printed by William 
Hollinshead, for Thomas Loring. At some time between 
Nov. 28, 1818, and Nov. 4, 1820, it was printed by Wm. 
Hollinshead, for David Smith, Jr. Continued until after 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 28, 1818. A. A. S. has: 
1816. May 20, 27. 

June 3, 10, 17. 
Oct. 28. 

Nov. 4, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7. 
1818. May 9. 
1820. Nov. 4 W \ 

Wilmington Centinel, 1788. 

Weekly. Established Mar.' 5, 1788, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of June 18, 
1788, vol. 1, no. 16, published by Bowen and Howard 

( Bowen and Howard), with the title of 

"The Wilmington Centinel, and General Advertiser." 

A. A. S. has: 
1788. June 18. 

Wilmington Chronicle, 1795-1796. 

Weekly. Established July 3, 1795, by James Carey, 
with the title of "The Wilmington Chronicle: and North- 
Carolina Weekly Advertiser." At some time between 
Oct. 22, 1795, and Feb. 4, 1796, Carey was succeeded as 
publisher by John Bcllew, who continued the paper to the 
time of the last issue located, that of Aug. 4, 1796, vol. 3, 
no. 4. 

Harvard has July 3, 10, 17, 31, Sept. 24, 1795; Feb. 1, 
Apr. 14, Aug. 4, 1796. A. A. S. has: 
1795. Oct. 22* 

1918.] North Carolina. 319 

Wilmington Gazette, 1799-1810. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of " Hall's Wilmington Gazette/' Although 
the change of title, judging from advertisements in previous 
issues, occurred on Jan. 3, 1799, the earliest issue located 
with the new title of "The Wilmington Gazette" is that 
of Mar. 7, 1799, vol. 3, no. 113, published by Allmand 
Hall. At some time between Aug. 14, 1800, and Feb. 4, 
1802, the title was altered to "Wilmington Gazette." 
With the issue of Jan. 3, 1804, Samuel W. Clark was ad- 
mitted to partnership, and the paper was published by 
A. Hall and S. W. Clark. In June, 1804, Allmand Hall 
again became sole publisher. In September, 1800, the 
title reverted to "The Wilmington Gazette." With the 
issue of Oct. 11, 1808, William S. Hasell purchased the 
paper and became publisher. In the early part of 1810, 

Magrath was admitted to partnership, and the 

paper was published by Hasell & Magrath, but at some 

. time between July 24, 1810, and May 12,1812, William S. 

Hasell again became sole publisher. Hasell died Oct. 

0, 1815, and was succeeded by the firm of Macalester & 

Loring ( Macalester and Thomas Loring) and the 

title was changed to "Wilmington Gazette, Commercial 
and Political." The earliest issue located bearing their 
imprint, and also the last issue located, is that of Jan. 13, 
1810, vol. 12, no. 975. 

Harvard has Mar. 7, Apr. 4, 19, June 13, Aug. 8, Sept. 
5, Oct. 3-17, 31, Dec. 12, 1799; Jan. 2 -Aug. 14, 1800, 
scattering; Feb. 4, Mar. 18 -Apr. 1, 15, May 13, 20, June 
3, Dec. 2-30, 1802; Jan. 0, 1803-Dec. 30, 1800, scattering 
file; June 28, 1808. Lib. Congress has Sept. 29, Dec. 15, 
1807. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 7, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Feb. 10". 
June 9, 30. 
July 20. 

1804. Jan. 3, 10, 17. 
Feb. 7, 21, 28. 
Mar. 0, 13. 

320 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


May 1, 15. 

July 24. 

Aug. 7, 14, 21. 

Sept. 4, 18. 

Oct. 16, 23. 

Nov. 6, 27. 

Dec. 4, 25. 


Jan. 8, 15. 

Feb. 19, 26. 

Apr. 30. 

June 4. 

Oct. 22. 

Dec. 3. 


Apr. 15, 22, 29. 

June 3. 

July 8, 15. 

Sept. 16. 

Nov. 25. 

Dec. 2, 9, 16, 30. 


Jan. 6, 20, 27. 

Feb. 3, 17. 

Mar. 3, 10, 24. 

Apr. 21, 28. 

May 12™. 

June 2, 23, 30. 

July 7, 14, 21, 28 

Aug. 11. 


July 12. 

Aug. 9, 23™. 

Oct. 11, 18, 25. 

Nov. 8, 15, 22. 


Jan. 3. 

Mar. 14. 

May 23. 


Jan. 2. 

June 19, 26. 

July 17 w , 24. 

1918.] North Carolina. 321 

North Carolina 


May 12. 

Aug. 25. 


Apr. 12. 


Jan. 13. 

[Wilmington] Hall's Wilmington Gazette, 1797-1798. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 5, 1797, by Allmand Hall, 
with the title of " Hall's Wilmington Gazette." Hall's 
name did not appear in the imprint, but in the "North- 
Carolina Gazette" of Newbern, of Jan. 21, 1797, Allmand 
Hall had an advertisement, dated Jan. 5, stating that he 
had purchased the printing-office of the late John Bellew 
and had begun the printing of a newspaper. In the first 
week of January, 1799, the title was changed to "The 
Wilmington Gazette," which see. 

Harvard has Feb. 9, 16, Mar. 2, 23 -Apr. 6, 20, June 8, 
Sept. 7 -Oct, 12, 26, Nov. 3, 1797; Feb. 8, 22, Mar. 8, 
Apr. 12, May 31, June 21, Oct. 11, Nov. 15, 1798. Univ. 
of N. C. has Aug. 24, 1797. A. A. S. has: 
1798. Mar. 29. 
Aug. 30. 
Nov. 15, 29. 

[Wilmington] North - Carolina Gazette, 1764-1766. 

Weekly. Established in October, 1761, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 20, 
1765, no. 58, published by Andrew Steuart, with the title 
of "The North-Carolina Gazette and Weekly Post-Boy." 
The last issue located is that of Feb. 26, 1766, no. 72. 

British Public Record Office, London, has Nov. 20, 27, 
1765; Feb. 12, 26, 1766. N. C. Hist. Comra, Raleigh, 
and Mass. Hist. Soc. have Nov. 20, 1765, "Continuation" 
of 7 pages. 

[Wilmington] True Republican, 1809. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 3, 1809, by Thomas Watson 
& Salmon Hall, with the title of "The True Republican, 
or American Whig." With the issue of Mar. 7, 1809, 
Hall was replaced by Ramsey, the firm name be- 

322 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

coming Watson & Ramsey. At some time between July 
4 and Nov. 7, 1809, Thomas Watson became sole pub- 
lisher. The last issue located is that of Nov. 7, 1809, vol. 
1, no. 45, and the paper was soon discontinued, as Watson 
changed the title of his paper at Newbern to "The True 
Republican" in March, 1810. 
A. A. S. has: 
1809. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Feb. 14, 21, 28. 

Mar. 7, 14, 21. 

Apr. 18. 

May 2, 9, 10, 23. 

June 6, 20. 

July 4. 

Nov. 7 m . 

Extra: Jan. 10. 






Abacroch, Indian conference, 231. 

Adams, Charles Francis, 150. 

Adams, Henry, death announced, 7; 
obituary, 13. 

Adams, John Quincy, on Calhoun, 

"Advertentie Blad, " prospectus, 
276, 279. 

Aiken, Alfred L., member, elected, 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 158; gift, 
and legacy, 162. 

Algonquins, at Fort Michillimack- 
inac, 225. 

Allen, Charles D., "American book- 
plates," A. A. S. plates listed in, 

Allen, Katharine, legacy, 164. 

Almanacs, 142; British Guiana 
issues, 286. 

American Antiquarian Society, 
meetings, and members present, 
1, 135; members elected, 2, 136; 
entertained, 6, 138; Council re- 
ports, 7, 139; by-laws, changed, 2; 
notable gifts, 7, and collections, 9; 
officers elected, 136; poster ex- 
hibit, 143; reminiscences of, by 
A. McF. Davis, 147, and librar- 
ians, 147, 150; bookplates, 171, 
172; war material, 178; list of 
donors, 180; duplicates, sold, 157. 

American imprints, notable sales, 
165, and additions, 166. 

"American Traveller," 174. 

Americans, characteristics, 219. 

Ames, Herman V. ; John C. Calhoun 
and the Secession Movement of 
1850, 3, 19. 

" Amsterdamsche Courant," 274. 

Ancestry, The Worship of Great- 
Grandfather, 199. 

Annuals, British Guiana, 286. 

"Antigua Gazette, " 175. 

Appleton, Nathan, gift, 162. 

Aulert, Adams, printer, 283, 289, 

"Aurora," 175. 


Baalbec, incident of the wall, 204. 

Baillie, William E., 170. 

Baker, William, printer, 289. 

Balch, Thomas W., gift, 163. 

Baldwin, Christopher C, social 
characteristics, 147. 

Baldwin, Luke, bookplate, 172. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., gift, 163. 

Bancroft, Hubert H., death an- 
nounced, 7; obituary, 13. 

Bangs, Edward D., legacy, 162. 

Barre, plan, 1739, 169. 

Barton, Edmund M., death an- 
nounced, and Council minute, 
139; tribute to, by A. McF. 
Davis, 144. 

Baxter, James P., Secretary for 
Foreign Correspondence, re- 
elected, 137; gilt, 163. 

Bayard, Samuel, bookplate, 172. 

Beaujon, Andries, 275, 278. 

"Beginning, progress and conclu- 
sion of the late war," 166. 

Belcher, William, bookplate, 172. 

Berbice, 274, 285. 

"Berbice Advertiser," 285. 

"Berbice Gazette, " 290, and change 
in title, 285. 

Berrien, John M., 28. 

Bible, characters delineated, 203. 

Bigclow, John P., legacy, 162. 

Blakeslee, George H., Councillor, 
elected, 137. 

Bliss, Eugene F., death announced, 
7; obituary, 14; gift, 163. 

Bollan, William, "Continued cor- 
ruption, standing armies, and 
popular discontents considered," 

Bolton, Charles K., member, elected 

Bond, Thomas, printer, 283, 284, 
288, 289. 

Bookbinding Fund, 158. 

"Bookplate Quarterly," A. A. S. 
collection described, 170. 

Bookplates, collection increased, 
142, 170, and described by II . E. 
Lombard, 170. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Books, prices, 165, and collectors, 

''Boston Investigator," file ac- 
quired, 175. 

Bowditch, Charles P., gift, 163. 

Bowen, Clarence W., appointed 
teller, 136; Councillor, re-elected, 

Brattle, William, book label, 171. 

Brewster, William, community ideal 

Bridge, John, 58. 

Brigham, Clarence S., Bibliography 
of American Newspapers, Pt. IX, 
63, and Pt. X, 291; committee on 
nominations, 136; appreciation of 
newspaper work, 150; obituary of 
C. S. Vedder, 154; Librarian's re- 
port, 165. 

British Guiana, The Press in, 274; 
mss. circulated, 274, 288; news- 
papers, 276, and bibliography, 
288; almanacs, annuals, legal, 
286; liberty of the press, 288. 

"Brooklyn Eagle," 2. 

Bruce, William, & Co., 257n. 

Bullock, A. George, gift, 163. 

Burton, Clarence M., gift, 163. 

By-laws, as amended, 2. 

Byles, Mather, 220. 


Cadot, , 244. 

Calhoun, John C, and the Secession 
Movement of 1850, 3, 19; Adams 
on, 21; on nullification, 22; de- 
nounced Wilmot proviso, 24, 26, 
46; Polk on, 25; Mann on, 27; 
Address, 26, 28, opposition to, 
30, and approval, 32; last Speech, 

California, admission of, 29, 40, 46, 
anchorage of Sir F. Drake, 189; 
origin of name, 196. 

Campbell, John A., 47. 

Cardin, Mrs. , 245, 247. 

Cass, Lewis, 40. 

Centennial Fund, 158. 

Champlin, Christopher G., legacy, 

Chandler, Gardner, bookplate, 171. 

Chandler, George, Fund, 158; gift, 

"CharlestonMercury, " quoted, 41. 

Chetko Cove, 192, 194. 

Child, Isaac, bookplate, 172. 

China, Christianity in, 199. 

Civil War, results of cotton gin in- 
vention, 3; J. C. Calhoun and 
Secession, 19; posters, 143. 

Clark University, war collections, 

Clarke, Peter, bookplate, 172. 

Clay, Henry, 21. 

Clements, William L., Rogers's 
Michillimackinac Journal, 137, 
224; purchase of duplicate news- 
papers, 140. 

Coddington, William, "Demonstra- 
tion of true love," copy sold, 166. 

Cole, George W., member, elected, 

Colegrove, Louise, in Red Cross 
work, 141. 

Collection and Research Fund, 158. 

Colquitt, Walter T ., 47. 

Colton, Reuben, appointed teller, 2. 

Comishimegan, 246. 

Community ideal, 58. 

Concord, N. II., newspapers ac- 
quired, 174. 

Constant, Lewis, 243. 

Corey, Mrs. Deloraine P., gifts, 163, 

Coste, J. C. de la, printer, 279, 288; 
established printing press, 275, 
and postal system, 277. 

Cotton, John, immigration, 57. 

Cotton, results of gin invention, 3. 

Council reports, 7, 139; special 
meeting, 139. 

"Courant von Essequebo en Dem- 
erary," 279, 288. 

Cox, , printer, 281, 288. 

Cristy, Austin P., gift, 163. 

Croghan, George, 243. 

Cunningham, Henry W., 136; com- 
mittee on nominations, 136; 
Councillor, re-elected, 136; gifts, 
157, 163. 


Davidson, George, views as to an- 
chorage, Sir F. Drake, 189, 197. 

Davis, Andrew McF., Vice-Presi- 
dent, re-elected, 136; tribute to 
E. M. Barton, 144; reminiscences 
of the Society, 147; gifts, 163. 

Davis, Charles II., gift, 163. -3 

Davis, Edward L., gifts, 162, 163. 

Davis, Horace, gift, 163, and 
legacy, 164. 

Davis, Isaac, gifts, 162. 

Davis, Isaac and Edward L., Fund, 




Davis, John and Eliza, Fund, 158. 
Davis, John C. B., gift, 163. 
Deane, Charles, 150. 
Demerara, 274, 290; printing press 

established, 275, and postal sys- 
tem, 277. 
"Demerary and Essequebo Royal 

Gazette," 285. 
Democrats, on secession, 24, 27, 30, 

36, 37, 48. 
Detroit, Indian post, 267. 
Dewey, Francis H. [l],Fund, 158; 

legacy, 163. 
Dewey, Francis H. [2], Councillor, 

re-elected, 136; gift, 163. 
Dexter, Franklin B., gift, 163. 
Dodge, Mrs. Eliza D., Fund, 158; 

legacy, 163. 
Dog Plan, Indian post, 271. 
Dolbcare, Benjamin, bookplate, 172. 
Drake, Sir Francis, Nova Albion, 

1579, 189. 
Drake's Bay, 194. 
Duane, William, "Letter to G. 

Washington, by J. D wight, " 

quoted, 167. 
Dudley, Gov. Thomas, dislike of 

Winthrop, 55. 
Diier, William A., bookplate, 172. 
Dwight, Jasper, pseud. See Duane, 

W., 167. 


Economic conditions, 3, 21. 

Edes, Henry H., 135; committee on 
nomination, 136; gift, 163. 

Edmonds, John H., member, elected 

Edwards, Jonathan, 220. 

Eliot, John, and the New England 
Company, 4. 

Ellis, ■ , printer, 281, 288. 

Ellis, George E., 150; Fund, 158; 
legacy, 163. 

Emerson, William A., gift, 169. 

Endicott, John, immigration, 57. 

England, relations with Amer. In- 
dians, (In Rogers's Michelli- 
mackinac Journal), 224. 

Engler, Edmund A., death an- 
nounced, 7; obituary, 15. 

English Board of Trade, 227, 230. 

Erie, Lake, Indian post, 268. 

Essequebo, 274. 

"Essequebo and Demerary 

Gazette," 282, 285, 288, 289. 

1 Essequebo and Demerary Royal 
Gazette," 283, 289. 

"Essequebo en Demerary Courant" 

279, 288. 
European war, 1914, influences, 

141, 165, 178; material acquired, 

Everett, Edward, gift, 162. 


"Fairfield Herald," N. C, quoted, 

Farallones, Islands, 194, 196. 

Farmer, John, Farmer genealogy, 
acquired, 169. 

Fauntleroy, brig, 189. 

Fletcher, Francis, on wind direc- 
tions, 191. 

Folsom, George, gift, 162. 

Foote, Henry S., on Southern Con- 
vention, 33, 44. 

Forbes, William T., 137. 

Ford, Worthington C, Council re- 
port, 7; Secretary for Domestic 
Correspondence, re-elected, 137. 

Fort Chartres, 268. 

Fort Pitt, 268. 

Fox, Dixon R., obituary of H. L. 
Osgood, 152. 

Fox, George, "New England fire- 
brand," copy sold, 165. 

France, relations with Amer. Inr 
dians, (In Rogers's Miehillimac- 
kinac Journal), 224. 

Franklin, Benjamin, letters on B. 
Mecom, quoted, 176. 

French, Charles E., legacy, 163. 

French, Edwin D., bookplates, 170, 

Friendship in Settlement of Massa- 
chusetts, 51. 

Fuca, Strait of, 193. 

Fur trade, 270. 


Gage, Homer, Auditor, re-elected, 

137, and report, 161. 
Gage, Thomas, 228, 231. 
Garver, Austin's., death announced, 

140; obituary of, 151; gift, 163. 
Gay, Frederick L., disposition of 

library, 167; gift, 7, 169. 
Gay, Mrs. Frederick L., gift, 167. 
Genealogy, collection acquired, 169. 
Georgetown, 288, 290. 
German periodicals, exchanged with 

Harvard College, 7. 
Germany, barbaric ideas, 216. 
Gibbs, John W., bookplate, 172. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Golden Hinde, 189, 193, 194, 195, 

Goodwin, William W., Greek learn- 
ing, 206, and anecdote of, 200. 

Greek, literature and art, 206; 
study of, 209. 

Green, Andrew H., legacy, 103. 

Green, John, gift, 102; bookplate, 

Green, Samuel A., 150; Vice-Presi- 
dent, re-elected, 130; gift, 103. 

Green, Samuel S., gift, 103. 

"Guiana Chronicle and Demerara 
Gazette," 290. 

" Guiana Chronicle and Georgetown 
Gazette," 285, 286, 290. 


Hagan, Winston II., sale of library, 

Hale, Edward E., California, origin 
of name, 190. 

Hall, G. Stanley, Councillor, re- 
elected, 130. 

Halley, Edmund, 191. 

Hammond, James H., 35. 

Hancock, John, book label, 171. 

Harrisburgh, Penn., newspapers ac- 
quired, 175. 

Hart, Albert B., The Worship of 
Great-Grandfather, 137, 199. 

Harvard College, S. American ma- 
terial exchanged, 7. 

Haven, Mrs. Frances W., Fund, 
158; legacy, 103. 

Haven, Samuel F., 144, 145; tribute 
to, 146, 148, 150; Fund, 158; 
legacy, 162. 

Hayne, Robert Y., 47. 

Haynes, George H., Publication 
Committee, re-elected, 137. 

Haynes, Henry W., 150. 

Hebrew, study of, in H. C, 205. 

Henery, Edward J., printer, 282, 
283, 285, 287, 288, 289. 

Henry, , 244. 

Higginson, Francis, immigration, 

Hill, Benjamin T., Auditor, re- 
elected, 137, and report, 101. 

Hill, Samuel, bookplate, 172. 

"Hingham Journal," file acquired, 

Hoe, Robert, book sale, 165. 

Hoffman, Samuel V., gift, 163. 

Hooker, Thomas, community ideal, 

Hosmer, James K., member, elected 

Hough, Atherton, 57. 
Hulbert, Archer 13., 137; assistance 

of, 142. 
Hunnewell, James F., Fund, 158; 

gift, 103. 
Huntington, Henry E., book sale, 

Huron, Lake, Indian posts, 259. 
Hutchinson, Anne, 54, 57. 
Huth, Henry, book sale, 105. 


Immigration, Friendship in Settle- 
ment of Massachusetts, 51. 

Indians, John Eliot and the N. E. 
Company, 4; Rogers's Michilli- 
mackinac Journal, 224. 

Jackson, Andrew', on nullification, 

Jefferson, Thomas, on Missouri 
Compromise, 19. 

Jeffry, James, bookplate, 172. 

Jenney, Charles F., committee on 
nomination, 136. 

Jennison, Samuel, 142. 

Jews, founders of Christianity, 201. 

Johnson, David, on Southern Con- 
vention, 20. 

Johnson, Sir William, 232, 234, 236, 
237, 238, 241, 248, 249, 252; dis- 
trust of R. Rogers, 227, 230, 231. 

Johnston, , bookplate, 172. 

Jones, Clara A., gift, 170. 

Jones, Nahuin, Diaries, 109. 

Juan de Fuca, See Fuca, Strait of, 


Kecowaskin, 247. 
Kegiweskow, 253. 
Kelby, Robert H., member, elected, 

Kinlock, Francis, bookplate; 172. 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln N., gift, 103. 
Knapp, Shepherd, committee on 

nomination, 130. 
"Knoxville Register," 175. 


La Force, See Sasowaket. 
Latin, study of, 213. 
Lawrence, William, gift, 163. 
Lecky, William E. 11., 53. 



y.n., 162 

rett, '\ houtm, £7 


\. ,. . 

Library <>i ' 
cancelled, 1 10 

Life Men. ... ; . .-, 

I... . B I 

Lincoln, . gift and P, 

Waldo, p: 
I'i elected, 136; eater- 

'■'/, I38j 
Council report) 139; deaths an- 

Wlder, i. 

if L. 
good, ! r , Soarez, 140; . 

. I 

( ■ . 
aid, Herbert 
. . tookplate, 

i ^ 170, and colli 
170; gift, l r ,7. 

William b »L , death an- 

>.ry, 10. 

,<.!, 171. 


. /*-AI- 
bion, 1579 137, II 

McComb, John, boe 72. 

IcD . 


L v nd I- , ■ •: 
ejected, . . . 

Mar;! hllll- 

:kina/; Journal, 224. 
Mann, II . 27. 

Ma;. . .quired, i 


..all, 11 if. \ddre*e to 

people erf Kentucky" 1 

MaK- I rifend-.r. 

Maaterton, Peter, l**>kplate, 1 7 j 
Mean, John f 1 . . 

.;n, Benjamin, printer, l i 

111: on, 175. I .' . 
IfecDB, Edward, 1 , 
Mtcom hate li 1 raaktia'a i 

to, 170. 

hnent to hy- 
la . 
Men-. 162. 


ill.: 524. 

(if, news- 


. 553 
Mmturn, William, L . . . ;7J 

10; den, 

Munson, !#,, 





. .7. 





Of, no a y - 

acquired. 7, . 

11; ft] 

or P| I 

duplicate-, d n yo o f d of, i 10 . 
ler, . . 



American Antiquarian Society. 


Nichols, Charles L., Recording- 
Secretary, report, 6, 138, re- 
elected, 137; Publication Com- 
mittee, re-elected, 137; interest 
in almanacs, 142; gift, 163. 

"Niewe Courant van Essequebo en 
Demerary, " 282, 288. 

Norcross, Grenville H., entertains 
members of Society, 6; gift, 104. 

"North American," Pa., quoted, 

North Carolina, newspapers, bibli- 
ography, 291. 

Northwest, U. S., Rogers's Mich- 
illimackinac Journal, 224. 

Norton, Charles E., 207. 

Nova Albion, 1579, 137, 189. 


"Observer," N. C, quoted, 35. 
Ohio, newspapers acquired, 175. 
Osgood, Herbert L., death an- 
nounced, 140; obituary of, 152. 
Oswego, Indian post, 207. 
Otis, James, Jr., bookplate, 172. 


Paine, Nathaniel, 150; bookplates 

bequeathed, 171. 
Paramaribo, newspaper acquired, 

Paramour Pink, 191. 
Park, Charles E., Friendship in the 

Settlement of Massachusetts, 4, 

Parkman, Francis, 229. 
Parsons, Usher D., gift, 162. 
Peabody, Andrew P., 150. 
Petowisham, 246. 
Pierpont, Charles, bookplate, 172. 
Pigeon, John, 220. 
Pilgrims, community spirit, 60. 
Plymouth Colony, community ideal 

59; sentiments differ from Puri- 
tanism, 61. 
Point Reyes, 189, 194, 195, 197. 
Polk, James K., 23; on Calhoun, 25, 

28; on secession, 29; 
Pontiac, 227. 
Portraits, Am. engraved offered, 

Posters, Civil War exhibit, 143. 
Powell, John II., bookplate, 172. 
Printing, The Press in British 

Guiana, 274. 
"Publicatie," 282. 

Publishing Fund, 156, 157, 158. 

Purchasing Fund, 157, 158; in- 
creased, 140. 

Puritanism, Eliot's efforts to con- 
vert Indians, 4; principles, 60, 62. 


Randolph, Peyton, bookplate, 172. 

Randolph, Ryland, bookplate, 172. 

"Republican Banner and Nashville 
Whig," quoted, 48. 

Revere, Paul, bookplates, engraved, 
171, 172. 

Rhett, R. Barnwell, on secession, 23, 

Rhodes, James F., on Southern con- 
vention, 49. 

Rice, Franklin P., appointed teller, 
136; Publication Committee, re- 
elected, 137; gift of newspaper 
clippings, 142. 

"Richmond Enquirer," quoted, 37. 

"Richmond Republican," quoted, 

Rodway, James, The Press in 
British Guiana, 274. 

Rogers, Ezekiel, community ideal, 

Rogers, Robert, Rogers's Michilli- 
mackinac Journal, 137, 224; 
"Concise account of N. Amer.," 
and "Journals," 225; "Pon- 
teach," 226; Commandant of 
Fort, 227; condemned, 230. 

Rome, influence of the Republic, 
211, and law, 214. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, member, 
elected, 2. 

Rough, , 286. 

Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society, 281, 288, 289, 290. 

"Royal Essequebo and Demerary 
Gazette," 281, 285,288. 

"Royal Gazette: Demerary and 
Essequebo, The," 285, 286, 289. 

Ruff, Joanna M., bookplate, 172. 

Etugg, Arthur P., Councillor, re- 
elected, .136. 


St. Ange, , 232, 246. 

St. James, Islands of, 194, 196. 
Salisbury, Stephen, 11], gifts, and 

legacy, 162. 
Salisbury,Stephen, [2] Legacy Fund, 

156, 157, 158; gifts, 162, 163, and 

legacy, 163. 




San Francisco, newspapers ac- 
quired, 175; fog conditions in 
Bay of, 195. 

Sasowaket, 240, 247, 248, 251, 253. 

"Savannah Republican," quoted, 

Schultz, William, printer, 285. 

Schuyler, Samuel, bookplate, 172. 

Seabrook, Whitemarsh 13., on 
Southern Convention, 35. 

Secession, J. C. Calhoun on, 3, 19; 
Polk on, 29; Stephens on, 36; 
Murphy on, 43; Sharkey on, 43; 
Tucker on, 45. 

Seely, , 247. 

"Sentinel," Ga, quoted, 42. 

Shakespeare, William, "Poems," 
1040, sale of, 105. 

Sharkey, William L., on secession, 
43 ; Pres. Southern convention, 40. 

Sheboigan, 247. 

Shepard, Thomas, immigration, 57, 
and reason for, 58. 

Shervington, William, "Occasional 
poems," 177. 

Silvester, Peter, bookplate, 172. 

Skelton, John, "Poems," sale of, 

Slavery, J. C. Calhoun and Seces- 
sion, 19; demand of the North, 
23, and Calhoun's resolutions, 24. 

Smith, Charles C, death an- 
nounced, 7; obituary, 17. 

Smith, Justin H., 3; gift, 103. 

Smith, Sidney L., bookplates, 170, 
171, 172. 

Smith, T., printer, 177. 

Society for Propagating Gospel 
among Indians, services of J. 
Eliot, 4, and E. Winslow, 5. 

South America, The Press in British 
Guiana, 274. 

South Carolina, in favor of seces- 
sion, 23, 20, 30, 32, 35, 41, 42. 

"South Carolinian," quoted, 44. 

Southern convention, Calhoun on, 
23, 20, 30, 32, 44; Seabrook on, 
35; urged by southern Senators, 

"Southron," Miss., quoted, 41, 43, 

Spain, exploration of Pacific coast, 
193, 190; relations with Am. In- 
dians, 235, 240. 

Special Gifts Fund, 157, 158. 

Spenceley, Joseph W., bookplates, 
170, 172. 

Spiesmacher, Frederick C, 231. 

Stabroek, 275, 277, 288, 290; print- 
ing press established, 280. 

Stephens, Alexander 11., 28; on se- 
cession, 30, 38. 

Stevenson, A., printer, 289. 

Stiles, Ezra, Hebrew student, 205. 

Su&rez, Federico G., death an- 
nounced, 140. 

Superior, Lake, Indian posts on, 


Taft, Jane A., legacy 104. 
Taft, William II., Councillor, re- 
elected, 137. 
"Talisman, The," ms., 287. 
Tapley, Collin S., 32, 35. 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr., gift of war 

material, 179. 
Taylor, Zachary, 20, 38. 
"Telegraph," S. C, quoted, 37. 
Tenney, Joseph A., Fund, 158; 

legacy, 162. 
Terry, James, book plates, 170. 
Teutons, delineated, 210. 
Texas, 23. 

Thayer, Nathaniel, gift, 162. 
Thomas, Benjamin F., Fund, 158; 

gift, and legacy, 102. 
Thomas, Isaac R., bookplate, 172. 
Thomas, Isaiah, legacy bookplates, 

171, 172; on Antigua press, 175; 

Thomas, William, gift, 162. 
Thompson, Edward, book label, 

Thompson, Samuel, book label, 171. 
Tiffany, P. Dexter, gift, 102. 

Timmerman, , 281. 

Tinne, C. T., 284. 

Toombs, Robert, against Southern 

party, 28; on Wilmot proviso, 38. 
Torrey, Ebenezer, gift, 102. 
Towns, George W., 30. 
Treasurer, report, 155. 
Trinidad, newspapers acquired, 175. 
Troup, George M., 38. 
Tucker, Beverly, on secession, 45, 

Tuttle, Julius H., committee on 

nominations, 130; Publication 

Committee, re-elected, 137; life 

membership, 157. 


United States, economic necessities, 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Utley, Samuel, obituaries of H. 
Adams, II. II. Bancroft, 13, E. F. 
Bliss, 14, E. A. Engler, 15, W. 
DeL. Love, 16, C. C. Smith,. 17, 

A. S. Carver, 151; Councillor, re- 
elected, 136; gift, 103. 


Valerianos, Apostolos, discovers 
Strait of Fuca, 193. 

Van Braam, , 284. 

Van Rensselaer, Jeremiah, book- 
plate, 172. 

Vancouver, George, 193. 

Vane, Sir Harry, unpopularity, 55. 

Vedder, Charles S., death an- 
nounced, 139; obituary of, 154. 

Vermont, newspaper files acquired, 
7, 174. 

Virginia, 24. 

" Virginia Free Press, " quoted, 41. 

Vizcaino, Sebastian, 194. 

Volkerts, Mrs. H. J., printer, 279, 
280, 281. 

Volkerts, Nicolaas, printer, 278, 
279, 282, 283, 284, 285, 288, 290. 


Washburn, Charles F., Fund, 158. 
Washburn, Charles G., on econ- 
omic necessities, 3; Councillor, 

re-elected, 136; gift, 163. 
Washington, George, ''Letter to," 

by J. Dwight, (W. Duane), 

quoted, 167. 
Waterston, Robert C, gifts, 162, 

Webster, Daniel, 3, 21; Speech on 

slavery, Mar. 7, 40. 
Webster, Pelatiah, "Sixth essay on 

free trade," 166. 

Weeden, William B., 150; gift, 163. 
West Indies, newspapers acquired. 

Wheelwright, John, 54. 
Whig party, on secession, 27, 28, 30, 

36, 37, 40, 43, 48. 
White-field, George, 220. 
Whitin, Albert IT., gift, 163. 
Whitney, James L., legacy, 156, 163; 

Fund, 157, 158. 
Wilcox, John A. J., bookplates, 172. 
"Wilmington Aurora," N. C, 

quoted, 43. 
"Wilmington Chronicle," quoted, 

Wilmot proviso, Calhoun alarmed 

by, 23, and denounced, 24, 46; 

Southern feeling on, 30, 39, 47; 

Toombs on, 38; Rhodes on, 49. 
Winship, George P., appointed tel- 
ler, 2; on John Eliot and the New 

England Company, 4; Councillor, 

re-elected, 137. 
Winslow, Gov. Edward, money 

secured for Mass. colony, 5. 
Winsor, Justin, 150. 
Winthrop, Gov. John, 57; dislike of 

Dudley, 55. 
Woodbury, John, member, elected, 

Woodward, Samuel B., Treasurer, 

re-elected, 137, and report, 155; 

gift, 163. 
Worcester Art Museum, gift, 157. 
Worship of Great-Grandfather, The, 

137, 199. 


Xaratc, Franciso, 196. 


"Yeomans Gazette," 175. 



American Antiquarian 




l. 28 

New Series 





APRIL io, 1918 









(out of print) 













































Note. — With the intention of giving a larger circulation to its pub- 
lications, the Society lias decided to place only a nominal price on its 
volumes and has accordingly issued the above revised price-list. A full 
set of the Transactions will be sold for $35.00, or, excluding volume 2, 
which will possibly be reprinted, for $25.00. 


1812-1849 (printed 1912, 582 pp.) . . . $2.50 
1850-1880 (semi-annual) .... each 0.50 
n. s. 1880-1918 (semi-annual) . . . each 1.00 

Note. — The Proceedings of 1849-1855 can be supplied only in part, 
since most of them are out of print. The new series of Proceedings began 
in October, 1880, and from 1880 to 1918 consists of 28 volumes, with 
either two or three issues in a volume. The price is $1.00 per issue, and 
$2.50 per bound volume. 

The Society also has for sale the following books 

Chandler Genealogy, by George Chandler, 1883 . $10.00 
Waldo Genealogy, by Waldo Lincoln, 2 vols. 1902 . 10.00 
Tracts relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts 

Bay, ed. by A. McF. Davis, 1902, pp. 394 . 1.50 
The Confiscation of John Chandler's Estate, by 

A. McF. Davis, 1903, pp. 296 . . . 1 ,50 

Vol. 28 

New Series 

Part 2 



Jtttttrttan Jtnftquartan $nt\tty 


OCTOBER 16, 1918 




Note. — With the intention of giving a larger circulation to its pub- 
lications, the Society has decided to place only a nominal price on its 
volumes and has accordingly issued the above revised price-list. A full 
set of the Transactions will be sold for $35.00, or, excluding volume 2, 
which. will possibly be reprinted, for $25.00. 





[out of print) 
















Volume 10 



Volume 12 


1812-1849 (printed 1912, 582 pp.) 

1856-1880 (semi-annual) . 

n. s. 1880-1918 (semi-annual) . 

' $2.50 
each 0.50 
each 1.00 

Note. — The Proceedings of 1849-1855 can be supplied only in purt, 
since most of them are out of print. The new series of Proceedings began 
in October, 1880, and from 1880 to 1918 consists of 28 volumes, with 
either two or three issues in a volume. The price is $1.00 per issue, and 
$2.50 per bound volume. 

The Society also has for sale the following books 

Chandler Genealogy, by George Chandler, 1883 . $10.00 
Waldo Genealogy, by Waldo Lincoln, 2 vols. 1902 . 10.00 
Tracts relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts 

Bay, ed. by A. McF. Davis, 1902, pp. 394 . 1.50 
The Confiscation of John Chandler's Estate, by 

A. McF. Davis, 1903, pp. 296 . . 1.50